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Western Blot no imunodiagnóstico de lentivírus de pequenos ruminantes / Western Blot in immunodiagnosis of small ruminant lentivirus

Peixoto, Renato Mesquita; Sousa, Ana Lídia Madeira de; Araújo, Juscilânia Furtado; Pinheiro, Raymundo Rizaldo.
Acta sci. vet. (Online); 49: Pub. 1781, 15 jan. 2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-29817


Background: Small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) belong to genus Lentivirus, family Retroviridae. These viruses causecaprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) and maedi visna (MV), infectious diseases that cause economic, production, and reproductive losses. There are no effective treatments or vaccines for these diseases. Thus, early detection via serology hasgreat importance for control of SRLV. Therefore, the objective of this review is to demonstrate the potential of the westernblot (WB) test as an immunodiagnostic test for SRLV.Review: In general, immunodiagnosis of SRLV is performed via agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and indirect enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which can detect antibodies in several different biological samples but is used preferably with serum and blood plasma. However, WB has demonstrated efficacy in the early diagnosis of immunoglobulinsagainst SRLV, presenting higher sensitivity and specificity than the serological tests usually used, because this techniquecan detect antibodies at a dilution as much as 256 times greater than that of AGID and 32 times greater than that of ELISA.SRLV infection and consequent immunological activation result in the induction of cellular and humoral responses. Additionally, around the third week, production of antibodies directed mainly toward viral capsid proteins (p25 and p28)occurs. After the fifth week, production of immunoglobulins directed toward other viral proteins occurs. Because of thepersistence of SRLV infection, serology is considered to be the most practical means to diagnosis. Each serological testhas a percentage specificity and distinct sensitivity, as well as advantages and disadvantages in its applicability. It shouldbe noted that there is no gold standard test for diagnosis of SRLV infection. Moreover, SRLV are characterized by escapemechanisms such as genetic diversity, mutagenic potential, viral intermittence...(AU)
Biblioteca responsável: BR68.1
Localização: BR68.1