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1.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 2477, 2023 12 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38082284

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The consequences of cancer on working until retirement age remain unclear. This study aimed to analyse working life considering all possible labour market states in a sample of workers after sickness absence (SA) due to cancer and to compare their working life paths to those of a sample of workers without SA and with an SA due to other diseases. METHODS: This was a retrospective dynamic cohort study among social security affiliates in Catalonia from 2012-2018. Cases consisted of workers with an SA due to cancer between 2012-2015 (N = 516) and were individually age- and sex-matched with those of affiliates with an SA due to other diagnoses and workers without an SA. All workers (N = 1,548, 56% women) were followed up from entry into the cohort until the end of 2018 to characterise nine possible weekly labour states. Sequence analysis, optimal matching, and multinomial logistic regression were used to identify and assess the probability of future labour market participation patterns (LMPPs). All analyses were stratified by sex. RESULTS: Compared with workers with an SA due to cancer, male workers with no SA and SA due to other causes showed a lower probability of being in the LMPP of death (aRRR 0.02, 95% CI: 0.00‒0.16; aRRR 0.17, 95% CI: 0.06‒0.46, respectively) and, among women, a lower probability of permanent disability and death (aRRR 0.24, 95% CI: 0.10‒0.57; aRRR 0.39, 95% CI: 0.19‒0.83, respectively). Compared to workers with SA due to cancer, the risk of early retirement was lower among workers with no SA (women, aRRR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.22‒1.65; men, aRRR 0.64, 95% CI: 0.27‒1.52), although these results were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Workplaces, many of which have policies common to all diagnoses, should be modified to the needs of cancer survivors to prevent an increasing frequency of early retirement and permanent disability when possible. Future studies should assess the impact of cancer on premature exit from the labour market among survivors, depending on cancer localisation and type of treatment.


Asunto(s)
Empleo , Neoplasias , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Estudios de Cohortes , España/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Ocupaciones , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Ausencia por Enfermedad
2.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46: e75, 2022.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35747472

RESUMEN

Objective: Estimate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, through excess all-cause mortality and potential years of productive life lost (YPLL) in the working-age population, in selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Methods: Study based on data on deaths from all causes from age 15 to 69 years, mainly from national institutes of statistics. Estimates of expected deaths were based on reported deaths from 2015 to 2019. Excess mortality was estimated using the P indicator, standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and potential YPLL up to age 70 years. Results: Excess deaths in Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, and Peru totaled 426 978 (279 591 men and 147 438 women), representing a potential loss of 5 710 048 (3 738 775 in men and 1 971 273 in women) years of productive life. Observed mortality was significantly higher than expected in all countries except the Dominican Republic. Conclusions: COVID-19 in the working-age population will have a profound impact on socio-economic conditions. Timely counting of excess deaths is useful and can be used as an early warning system to monitor the magnitude of COVID-19 outbreaks. Monitoring of excess mortality in working-age people by the Ibero-American Observatory on Safety and Health at Work enables more accurate assessment of the social and economic burden of COVID-19.


Objetivo: Estimar o impacto da pandemia de COVID-19 durante o ano de 2020, por meio do excesso de mortalidade por todas as causas e dos anos produtivos de vida perdidos (APrVP) na população em idade ativa, em uma seleção de países da América Latina e do Caribe. Métodos: Estudo baseado em dados de óbitos por todas as causas entre 15 e 69 anos, principalmente dos Institutos Nacionais de Estatística. Os óbitos esperados foram estimados a partir daqueles registrados entre 2015 e 2019. O excesso de mortalidade foi estimado por meio do indicador P, da razão de mortalidade padronizada (RMP) e dos APrVP até os 70 anos. Resultados: O excesso de óbitos no Brasil, na Bolívia, no Chile, na Colômbia, na Costa Rica, em Cuba, no México, no Peru e na República Dominicana totalizou 426 978 (279 591 em homens e 147 438 em mulheres), o que representou uma perda de 5 710 048 (3 738 775 em homens e 1 971 273 em mulheres) APrVP. A mortalidade observada foi significativamente maior do que o esperado em todos os países, exceto na República Dominicana. Conclusões: O impacto da COVID-19 na população em idade ativa terá um impacto profundo na situação socioeconómica. O cálculo oportuno do excesso de mortes é útil e pode ser usado como um sistema de alerta precoce para monitorar a magnitude dos surtos de COVID-19. O monitoramento do excesso de mortalidade em pessoas em idade ativa, realizado pelo Observatório Ibero-Americano de Segurança e Saúde no Trabalho, permite avaliar com mais precisão a carga social e econômica da COVID-19.

3.
Am J Public Health ; 111(7): 1338-1347, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111935

RESUMEN

Objectives. To analyze changes in occupational health inequity between 2011 and 2018 among workers in Central America. Methods. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews at the workers' homes for the 2 Central America Working Conditions Surveys (n = 12 024 in 2011 and n = 9030 in 2018). We estimated health inequity gaps by means of absolute and relative population attributable risks and the weighted Keppel index. We stratified all analyses by gender. Results. Between 2011 and 2018, the proportion of workers reporting poor self-perceived health decreased both in women (from 32% to 29%) and men (from 33% to 30%). However, the health inequity gaps remained wide in the 4 stratifiers. Measured by the Keppel index, health inequity gaps between countries increased from 22% to 39% in women and from 20% to 29% in men. Conclusions. While health improved between 2011 and 2018, health inequity gaps remained wide. Wider health inequity gaps were observed between countries than by gender, age, occupation, or education. Public Health Implications. This first benchmark of occupational health inequities in Central America could be useful when developing and evaluating the impact of public policies on work.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Exposición Profesional , Salud Laboral , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ageísmo , América Central/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ocupaciones , Percepción , Investigación Cualitativa , Distribución por Sexo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
4.
Global Health ; 17(1): 140, 2021 12 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34865647

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: More than half of the working population in Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries is engaged in informal employment. The few previous studies indicate that this employment condition could have negative consequences for workers' health. The aim of the present study was to estimate the association between self-perceived health and informality in LAC countries according to gender and welfare state type. METHODS: The cross-sectional study based on different working conditions and health national surveys was carried out in 13 LAC countries between 2012 and 2018. A sample of 176,786 workers was selected from these surveys. The association between health and informality was estimated using Poisson regression. Finally, a random effects meta-analysis was carried out by country. All results were stratified by sex and type of welfare state (statalist or familialist). RESULTS: Informal workers reported significantly worse health than formal workers, for both women (1.28 [95% CI 1.14-1.43]) and men (1.30 [1.12-1.50]). This difference was broader and more significant in countries with statalist welfare state regimes, among both women (1.40 [1.22-1.60]) and men (1.51 [1.30-1.74]), than in familialist regime countries (1.19 [1.03-1.38] and 1.24 [1.03-1.49], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides strong evidence of the association between informal employment and worker health. Welfare states appear to have a modifying effect on this association. The transition from the informal to the formal labour market in LAC is essential to improving the health of the population.


Asunto(s)
Empleo , Estado de Salud , Región del Caribe , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino
5.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 109, 2020 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611402

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is the world's most inequitable region in terms of wealth distribution. The full scale of social inequalities in health has been hidden by the lack of reliable data. This study aimed to measure and compare health inequalities in the working population within and between 15 countries of LAC. METHODS: A sample of 180,163 workers aged 18 years and older was drawn from the most recent national surveys of working conditions or health in 15 LAC countries. Poor self-perceived health (P-SPH) was used as a health indicator, and age, education level, and occupational category as inequality stratifiers. We calculated four measures: absolute and relative population-attributable risks, the Kuznets and weighted Keppel indexes. RESULTS: P-SPH prevalence ranged from 9% in men from Uruguay to 50% in women from Nicaragua. It was higher in women than in men in most countries. A clear gradient was shown, in which young people in non-manual skilled jobs and high education had the lowest prevalence. Nearly 45% of cases that reported P-SPH among men and 35% among women could be avoided if all the groups received a higher level of education. Also, approximately 42% of P-SPH reported by men and 31% by women could be avoided if they all shared the working and employment conditions of non-manual skilled jobs. CONCLUSIONS: Wide health inequalities were found between occupational and educational groups in LAC. However, country borders appear to be an even more important stratifier in the production of health inequalities. Urgent interventions to improve worker's health are needed in countries where prevalence of poor self-perceived health is high. Strengthening occupational health surveillance system in LAC countries should become a priority, in order to track the interventions to reduce occupational health inequity.


Asunto(s)
Etnicidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Región del Caribe , Femenino , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1493, 2020 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004010

RESUMEN

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

7.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1306, 2020 Aug 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854670

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have focused on the relationship between employment pathways and health-related outcomes based on cross-sectional or longitudinal approaches. However, little is known about the cumulative effects of employment status mobility on sickness absence (SA) over time. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between prior labour market participation (LMP) patterns and SA trajectories from a life-course perspective. METHODS: This cohort study was based on a sample of 11,968 salaried workers living in Catalonia and affiliated with the Spanish Social Security system, who accumulated more than 15 days on SA in at least one quarter during 2012-2014. Individuals were grouped into three different working life stages: early (18-25 years), middle (26-35 years), and late (36-45 years). To identify LMP patterns, we applied sequence analysis and cluster analysis (2002-2011), and we used latent class growth modelling to identify SA trajectories (2012-2014). Finally, we applied multinomial logistic regression models to assess the relationship between LMP patterns and SA trajectories. RESULTS: The analyses yielded six LMP patterns: stable employment (value range: 63-81%), increasing employment (5-22%), without long-term coverage (7-8%), decreasing employment (4-10%), fluctuant employment (13-14%), and steeply decreasing employment (7-9%). We also identified four SA trajectories: low stable (83-88%), decreasing (5-9%), increasing (5-11%), and high stable (7-16%). However, the only significant association we identified for LMP patterns and SA trajectories was among young men, for whom an increasing employment pattern was significantly associated with a lower risk for increased days on SA (adjusted odds ratio: 0.21; 95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.96). CONCLUSIONS: SA trajectories are generally not related to prior 10-year LMP patterns at any stage of working life. To disentangle this relationship, future research might benefit from considering working life transitions with a quality-of-work approach framed with contextual factors closer to the SA course.


Asunto(s)
Empleo/tendencias , Ausencia por Enfermedad/tendencias , Desempleo/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Empleo/clasificación , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Seguridad Social , España/epidemiología , Desempleo/clasificación , Recursos Humanos , Adulto Joven
9.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(4): 236-242, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30674607

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between exposure to occupational risk factors during pregnancy and absence from work using two different social benefits. METHOD: Three working pregnancy trajectories (WPT) were identified in a cohort of 428 pregnant workers from a healthcare institution (period 2010-2014), based on absence days and using cluster analysis. WPT1 included absences mainly covered by sickness absence benefit (32.0% of women), WPT2 included absences covered by pregnancy occupational risk (POR) benefit (28.3%) and WPT3 were pregnant workers with few absences (39.9%). Exposure to occupational risk factors was assessed by experts and association with trajectories was analysed using logistic regression. Relative risks (RR) and their 95% CIs were adjusted for age, type of contract and shift work. RESULTS: WPT2 was associated with exposure to physical (RR=1.86, 95%CI 1.17 to 2.97), safety (RR=2.10, 95%CI 1.61 to 2.73), ergonomic (RR=2.52, 95%CI 1.89 to 3.36) and psychosocial (RR=1.79, 95%CI 1.31 to 2.46) factors, and with exposure level. For physicians, WPT1 was associated with safety risks (RR=3.13, 95%CI 1.22 to 7.99), WPT2 with chemical and ergonomic for administrative/technical support (RR=12.20, 95%CI 1.69 to 88.09; RR=14.09, 95%CI 1.34 to 148.61, respectively), with safety and ergonomic risks for nursing aides (RR=1.84, 95%CI 1.12 to 3.02; RR=3.94, 95% CI 2.38 to 6.53, respectively), and with physical (RR=1.72, 95%CI 1.04 to 2.86), safety (RR=2.21, 95%CI 1.62 to 3.03), ergonomic (RR=2.02, 95%CI 1.44 to 2.86) and psychosocial factors (RR=1.96, 95%CI 1.32 to 2.90) for nurses. CONCLUSIONS: Absences from work covered by POR benefit show a consistent relationship with exposure to occupational risks. Sickness absence is the most frequent benefit used by pregnant workers. Current social benefits are apparently used adequately for protecting women from occupational exposures. Future studies are needed to clarify this further.


Asunto(s)
Absentismo , Empleo/normas , Personal de Salud/psicología , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Empleo/métodos , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Ergonomía , Femenino , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Mujeres Trabajadoras/estadística & datos numéricos
10.
Med Lav ; 110(4): 278-284, 2019 Aug 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475689

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Under-reporting and recognition of occupational diseases is a problem in countries with workers' compensation schemes. OBJECTIVE: To describe the role of a public hospital Occupational Disease Unit (ODU) in Barcelona that resulted in improved reporting and official recognition of occupational diseases from 2010 to 2017. METHODS: Hospital physicians referred possible cases of work-related disease to the ODU, where in-depth medical evaluations were then performed, and a detailed report addressing causation was generated. Patients with confirmed cases of occupational disease were counselled and followed while pursuing official recognition and benefits claims by the Spanish Social Security System. RESULTS: Between 2010 and 2017, 149 cases were referred to the ODU for evaluation. Of these, 80 (53.7%) were confirmed to have an occupational disease, 54 (67.5%) patients pursued official recognition, and to date 26 (48.1%) have been recognized by the Social Security System. The recognition rate varied by diagnosis group (p=0.003), and was highest for skin diseases (71.4%) and cancer (66.7%), and lowest for hearing loss (29.4%) and musculoskeletal disorders (16.7%). CONCLUSIONS: A hospital ODU can improve reporting and official recognition of occupational diseases that otherwise might not have been recognized. Expanding this experience to other Spanish and European hospitals could improve the efficiency of workers' compensation schemes and better support preventive policies.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Musculoesqueléticas , Enfermedades Profesionales , Unidades Hospitalarias , Humanos , Enfermedades Musculoesqueléticas/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Profesionales/diagnóstico , Indemnización para Trabajadores
11.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 42: e125, 2018.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093153

RESUMEN

This article proposes a set of common basic indicators for occupational health surveillance in the region of Latin America and the Caribbean and identifies the sources of data that are available for their measurement. To this end, consensus was built among members of the Expert Network on Working, Employment, and Health Conditions Surveys (RED ECoTES) in two stages. In the first stage, a preliminary list of indicators was agreed upon; in the second stage, data sources and their characteristics were identified to help determine the feasibility of measuring the actual value of each indicator in 20 countries of the region. The proposed set of basic indicators, together with their definitions, is composed of 13 indicators in four areas: employment conditions (three indicators), working conditions (four indicators), resources and preventive activities (two indicators), and health (four indicators). The primary sources of data available in the region for calculating these indicators were: permanent household surveys; surveys on conditions of work, employment, and health; vital statistics; and reporting systems for occupational injuries. Data are available in the region for many of the proposed indicators, but a sizable number of those having to do with working conditions and preventive activities are not available in most countries. For effective occupational health surveillance in the region, surveys on conditions of work, employment, and health must be vigorously promoted in each country.


Neste artigo é proposto um conjunto básico de indicadores comuns para vigilância em saúde ocupacional na América Latina e Caribe, com a identificação das fontes de dados disponíveis para mensuração destes indicadores. A Rede Latino-Americana de Especialistas em Inquéritos sobre Condições de Trabalho, Emprego e Saúde (REDE ECoTES) conduziu um processo de decisão por consenso em duas etapas. A primeira etapa consistiu da seleção inicial dos indicadores e a segunda etapa compreendeu a identificação das fontes de dados e suas características, com o propósito de facilitar comprovar a viabilidade do cálculo efetivo de cada indicador em 20 países da Região. É proposto um conjunto básico de indicadores e respectivas definições contendo 13 indicadores distribuídos em quatro dimensões: condições de emprego (três indicadores), condições de trabalho (quatro indicadores) e recursos e atividades de prevenção (dois indicadores) e saúde (quatro indicadores). As principais fontes disponíveis na Região para determinar os indicadores são: as pesquisas permanentes de domicílios, as pesquisas sobre as condições de trabalho, emprego e saúde, as estatísticas vitais e os sistemas de notificação de acidentes de trabalho. Existem dados disponíveis para o cálculo de um número relevante dos indicadores propostos. Porém, a maioria dos países não dispõe de dados para calcular um número importante dos indicadores relacionados às condições de trabalho e atividades de prevenção. A vigilância efetiva em saúde ocupacional requer um firme incentivo às pesquisas sobre as condições de emprego, trabalho e saúde em cada país da Região.

12.
Eur J Popul ; 34(5): 769-791, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976261

RESUMEN

While there has been considerable debate about extending the length of working life, relatively little is known about this issue. We use data from the Spanish Continuous Working Life Sample for 2004-2013 to calculate period working life tables, which in turn allows us to assess the impact of the financial crisis on working life expectancy in Spain. Before the recession hit, working life expectancy in Spain was around 38 years for males and 33 years for females. The recession had a tremendous impact on the Spanish labor market, but the effects differed considerably by gender and occupational category. Men working in skilled non-manual jobs were less affected, while men working in unskilled manual jobs lost close to 14 years of working life expectancy. Women were less affected than men. With working life expectancy decreasing, the average proportion of lifetime spent in unemployment and outside the labor market increased markedly, whereas the average number of years spent in retirement changed only a little. When we decompose losses in working life expectancy by age group, we find that economic fluctuations affect both older and younger workers. This result suggests that policies that focus on retirement ages only are incomplete. We also compare our findings to the results obtained by Sullivans method, which is based on prevalence rates rather than the incidence-based working life table approach. We find that the use of Sullivans approach does not accurately reflect the levels of and the trends in working life expectancy.

13.
Med Lav ; 109(4): 243-252, 2018 08 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168497

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Paid maternity leave (ML) has been associated with better health outcomes in mothers and newborns. However, its protective role in mothers' employment after childbirth remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between paid ML and being employed 1-year after childbirth. METHODS: As part of the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) cohort study, 507 Spanish women employed at 12th week of pregnancy, were asked about their employment status and job characteristics at 32nd week of pregnancy. One year after childbirth, they were re-interviewed about their employment status and if they had taken paid ML. Incidence of maternal employment 1-year after childbirth was estimated. Crude and adjusted associations with paid ML were assessed by logistic regression, and characterized by odds ratios (ORs) with associated 95% CIs. RESULTS: Information was obtained from 398 women. Of those, 290 (72.9%) were employed 1-year after childbirth. Incidence of maternal employment was lower for those who: i) didn't take paid ML, ii) were younger than 27 years; iii) had temporary contract, iv) had part-time jobs, v) reported less-favoured familiar social class, and vi) left the job before 32 weeks of pregnancy. Being employed 1-year after childbirth was more common in those who took paid ML (OR 2.7, 95%CI 1.6-4.5), also after adjusting for staying at work until advanced stages of pregnancy (OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.0-3.1). CONCLUSIONS: Taking paid ML seems to be associated with higher maternal employment rates 1-year after childbirth. Therefore, our findings suggest that protection of maternity might positively influence women's labour market participation after childbirth.


Asunto(s)
Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Permiso Parental , Reinserción al Trabajo , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Factores de Tiempo
14.
Occup Environ Med ; 74(9): 645-651, 2017 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28442543

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The constant increase on the psychosocial demands experienced at work seems to contribute to the increase in health problems such as musculoskeletal pain (MSP). This association may be especially important in low-income and middle-income countries, where there is a large proportion of informal workers among whom there is little research. We analysed the association between psychosocial work risk factors and MSP among formal and informal workers using the First Central American Survey of Working Conditions and Health. METHODS: This is a representative sample (n=12 024) of the economically active population of the six Spanish-speaking countries of Central America. Prevalence ratios (PR) and corresponding 95% CIs from Poisson regression models were used to estimate the association between psychosocial work risk factors and the MSP. RESULTS: Compared with formal workers, informal workers reported higher prevalence of MPS in the body regions analysed (ie, cervicodorsal, lumbosacral, upper extremities) and higher exposure to psychosocial work risk factors. However, on the whole, the associations between the exposure to psychosocial work risk factors and the prevalence of MSP were similar for both formal and informal workers. Only the association between exposure to high demands and MSP in the upper extremities was higher (p=0.012) among formal (PR=1.69, 95% CI 1.46 to 1.96) than among informal workers (PR=1.40; 95% CI 1.30 to 1.51). CONCLUSION: Exposure to adverse levels of psychosocial work risk factors is associated with higher prevalence of MPS among both formal and informal workers. However, the role of employment informality in this association is complex and requires further examination.


Asunto(s)
Empleo/psicología , Dolor Musculoesquelético/etiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/complicaciones , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Estrés Psicológico/complicaciones , Trabajo/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , América Central/epidemiología , Países en Desarrollo , Empleo/clasificación , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dolor Musculoesquelético/epidemiología , Dolor Musculoesquelético/psicología , Poder Psicológico , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Carga de Trabajo , Lugar de Trabajo , Adulto Joven
15.
Occup Environ Med ; 74(6): 432-439, 2017 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28093503

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe working and employment conditions, and health status between non-agricultural employees with a written contract from Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Central America and Uruguay. METHODS: We compared data from the first working condition surveys (WCS) of Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Central America and Uruguay. For comparative purposes, we selected a subsample of 15 241 non-agricultural employees aged 18-64 years and working with a written contract. We calculated prevalences and 95% CIs for the selected variables on working and employment conditions, and health status, separated by sex. RESULTS: Across all countries, at least 40% of women and 58% of men worked >40 hours a week. The most prevalent exposures were repetitive movements, followed by noise and manual handling, especially among men. Psychosocial exposures were very common among both sexes. Workers in Chile (33.4% of women and 16.6% of men) and Central America (24.3% of women and 19.1% of men) were more likely to report poor self-perceived health and were least likely to do so in Colombia (5.5% of women and 4.2% of men). The percentage of workers reporting occupational injuries was <10% across all countries. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides, for the first time, a broad picture of work and health in different Latin American countries, based on the national WCSs available. This allows for a better understanding of occupational health and could serve as a baseline for future research and surveillance of work and health in the Region. However, greater efforts are needed to improve WCSs comparability.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Salud , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Traumatismos Ocupacionales/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina/epidemiología , América Central/epidemiología , Chile/epidemiología , Colombia/epidemiología , Países en Desarrollo , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , América Latina/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Exposición Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Uruguay/epidemiología , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Adulto Joven
16.
Health Expect ; 19(2): 416-26, 2016 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25846581

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to analyse how immigrant workers in Spain experienced changes in their working and employment conditions brought about Spain's economic recession and the impact of these changes on their living conditions and health status. METHOD: We conducted a grounded theory study. Data were obtained through six focus group discussions with immigrant workers (n = 44) from Colombia, Ecuador and Morocco, and two individual interviews with key informants from Romania living in Spain, selected by theoretical sample. RESULTS: Three categories related to the crisis emerged--previous labour experiences, employment consequences and individual consequences--that show how immigrant workers in Spain (i) understand the change in employment and working conditions conditioned by their experiences in the period prior to the crisis, and (ii) experienced the deterioration in their quality of life and health as consequences of the worsening of employment and working conditions during times of economic recession. CONCLUSION: The negative impact of the financial crisis on immigrant workers may increase their social vulnerability, potentially leading to the failure of their migratory project and a return to their home countries. Policy makers should take measures to minimize the negative impact of economic crisis on the occupational health of migrant workers in order to strengthen social protection and promote health and well-being.


Asunto(s)
Recesión Económica , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Empleo/economía , Adulto , Empleo/psicología , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Teoría Fundamentada , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Laboral/etnología , Investigación Cualitativa , España/etnología
17.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 89(4): 667-78, 2016 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26615549

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Multimorbidity research typically focuses on chronic and common diseases in patient and/or older populations. We propose a multidimensional multimorbidity score (MDMS) which incorporates chronic conditions, symptoms, and health behaviors for use in younger, presumably healthier, working populations. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 372,370 Spanish workers who underwent a standardized medical evaluation in 2006. We computed a MDMS (range 0-100) based on the sex-specific results of a multicorrespondence analysis (MCA). We then used Cox regression models to assess the predictive validity of this MDMS on incident sickness absence (SA) episodes. RESULTS: Two dimensions in the MCA explained about 80% of the variability in both sexes: (1) chronic cardiovascular conditions and health behaviors, and (2) pain symptoms, in addition to sleep disturbances in women. More men than women had at least one condition (40 vs 15%) and two or more (i.e., multimorbidity) (12 vs 2%). The MDMS among those with multimorbidity ranged from 16.8 (SD 2.4) to 51.7 (SD 9.9) in men and 18.5 (SD 5.8) to 43.8 (SD 7.8) in women. We found that the greater the number of health conditions, the higher the risk of SA. A higher MDMS was also a risk factor for incident SA, even after adjusting for prior SA and other covariates. In women, this trend was less evident. CONCLUSIONS: A score incorporating chronic health conditions, behaviors, and symptoms provides a more holistic approach to multimorbidity and may be useful for defining health status in working populations and for predicting key occupational outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Dolor/epidemiología , Ausencia por Enfermedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Enfermedad Crónica , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Fatiga/epidemiología , Femenino , Cefalea/epidemiología , Humanos , Dolor de la Región Lumbar/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dolor de Cuello/epidemiología , Salud Laboral , Prevalencia , Factores Sexuales , España/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
18.
Eur J Public Health ; 26(2): 306-11, 2016 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26705569

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Certifying physicians play a key role in the management of sickness absence and are often provided with guidelines. Some of these guidelines contain statements on expected sickness absence duration, according to diagnosis. We were interested in exploring the evidence base of these statements. METHODS: We identified guidelines through a survey of EUMASS members and a literature search of the Internet and PubMed. We extracted the statements and methods from the guidelines. We compared: diagnoses that were addressed, expected durations and development processes followed. Next, we presented our findings to the developers, to afford them an opportunity to comment and/or correct any misinterpretations. RESULTS: We identified 4 guidelines from social insurance institutions (France, Serbia, Spain and Sweden) and 4 guidelines from private organisations (1 Netherlands, 3 US). Guidelines addressed between 63 and some 63000 health conditions (ICD 10 codes). Health conditions overlapped among guidelines. Direct comparison is hampered by differences in coding (ICD 9 or 10) and level of aggregation (three or four digit, clustering of diseases and treatment situations). Expectations about duration are defined as minimum, maximum, and optimum or mean or median and percentile distribution, stratified to age and work requirements. In a sample of 5 diagnoses we found overlap in expected duration but also differences. Guidelines are developed differently, pragmatic expert consensus being used most, supplemented with data on sickness absence from different registers, other guidelines and non-systematic literature reviews. The effectiveness of these guidelines has not yet been formally evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: Expectations about duration of sickness absence by diagnosis are expressed in several guidelines. The expectations are difficult to compare, their evidence base is unclear and their effectiveness needs to be established.


Asunto(s)
Guías como Asunto/normas , Formulación de Políticas , Políticas , Ausencia por Enfermedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación de Capacidad de Trabajo , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Humanos , Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades , Masculino , América del Norte , Factores de Tiempo
19.
BMC Public Health ; 15: 698, 2015 Jul 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26206153

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Informal employment is assumed to be an important but seldom studied social determinant of health, affecting a large number of workers around the world. Although informal employment arrangements constitute a permanent, structural pillar of many labor markets in low- and middle-income countries, studies about its relationship with health status are still scarce. In Central America more than 60% of non-agricultural workers have informal employment. Therefore, we aimed to assess differences in self-perceived and mental health status of Central Americans with different patterns of informal and formal employment. METHODS: Employment profiles were created by combining employment relations (employees, self-employed, employers), social security coverage (yes/no) and type of contract--only for employees--(written, oral, none), in a cross-sectional study of 8,823 non-agricultural workers based on the I Central American Survey of Working Conditions and Health of 2011. Using logistic regression models, adjusted odds ratios (aOR) by country, age and occupation, of poor self-perceived and mental health were calculated by sex. Different models were first fitted separately for the three dimensions of employment conditions, then for employment profiles as independent variables. RESULTS: Poor self-perceived health was reported by 34% of women and 27% of men, and 30% of women and 26% of men reported poor mental health. Lack of social security coverage was associated with poor self-perceived health (women, aOR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.13-1.67; men, aOR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.13-1.63). Almost all employment profiles with no social security coverage were significantly associated with poor self-perceived and poor mental health in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that informal employment is a significant factor in social health inequalities among Central American workers, which could be diminished by policies aimed at increasing social security coverage.


Asunto(s)
Empleo/psicología , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Estado de Salud , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , América Central/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ocupaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Oportunidad Relativa , Autoimagen , Factores Sexuales , Seguridad Social/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
20.
Eur J Public Health ; 25(4): 673-7, 2015 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25477131

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To analyse the impact of labour market trajectory indicators on early retirement, measured by age at onset of permanent disability (PD). METHODS: Four labour market trajectory indicators were reconstructed in 14 972 new cases of PD recognized between 2004 and 2010: (1) number of employment contracts, (2) number of unemployment periods, (3) number of periods without social security affiliation and (4) percentage of time spent in inactivity. The outcome was measured as the age at onset of PD. Median differences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were compared using a median regression. Analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted for occupational category and total time elapsed between the beginning of working life and the age at onset of PD: separately for each labour market indicator, and adjusted for each other. RESULTS: In men, the age at the onset of PD for workers with 15 or more employment contracts decreased by 4.8 years; and for workers with five or more periods without affiliation it decreased by 4.6 years. In women, the corresponding decreases were 5.8 years for 15 or more contracts and 7.2 years for five or more unaffiliated periods. The results for four indicators slightly changed when they were mutually adjusted. CONCLUSIONS: Poor employment conditions, such as having a high number of periods without affiliation, a high number of contracts (in men) and a higher percentage of inactive time (in women) are associated with early retirement due to PD.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Jubilación/estadística & datos numéricos , Seguridad Social/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Edad de Inicio , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , España/epidemiología , Desempleo/estadística & datos numéricos
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