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1.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 35: 501-532, 2017 04 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28226227

RESUMEN

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an exceptional mucosal pathogen. It specializes in infection of the ciliated respiratory epithelium, causing disease of variable severity with little or no direct systemic effects. It infects virtually all children by the age of three years and then repeatedly infects throughout life; this it does despite relatively slight variations in antigenicity, apparently by inducing selective immunological amnesia. Inappropriate or dysregulated responses to RSV can be pathogenic, causing disease-enhancing inflammation that contributes to short- and long-term effects. In addition, RSV's importance as a largely unrecognized pathogen of debilitated older people is increasingly evident. Vaccines that induce nonpathogenic protective immunity may soon be available, and it is possible that different vaccines will be optimal for infants; older children; young to middle-age adults (including pregnant women); and elderly persons. At the dawn of RSV vaccination, it is timely to review what is known (and unknown) about immune responses to this fascinating virus.


Asunto(s)
Mucosa Respiratoria/inmunología , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/inmunología , Virus Sincitiales Respiratorios/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Adulto , Anciano , Animales , Niño , Humanos , Evasión Inmune , Inmunomodulación , Mucosa Respiratoria/virología
2.
Cell ; 187(12): 2969-2989.e24, 2024 Jun 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776919

RESUMEN

The gut fungal community represents an essential element of human health, yet its functional and metabolic potential remains insufficiently elucidated, largely due to the limited availability of reference genomes. To address this gap, we presented the cultivated gut fungi (CGF) catalog, encompassing 760 fungal genomes derived from the feces of healthy individuals. This catalog comprises 206 species spanning 48 families, including 69 species previously unidentified. We explored the functional and metabolic attributes of the CGF species and utilized this catalog to construct a phylogenetic representation of the gut mycobiome by analyzing over 11,000 fecal metagenomes from Chinese and non-Chinese populations. Moreover, we identified significant common disease-related variations in gut mycobiome composition and corroborated the associations between fungal signatures and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) through animal experimentation. These resources and findings substantially enrich our understanding of the biological diversity and disease relevance of the human gut mycobiome.


Asunto(s)
Hongos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Micobioma , Animales , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Heces/microbiología , Hongos/genética , Hongos/clasificación , Hongos/aislamiento & purificación , Genoma Fúngico/genética , Genómica , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/microbiología , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/genética , Metagenoma , Filogenia , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad
3.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 34: 31-64, 2016 05 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27168239

RESUMEN

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, is characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation due to a complex interaction of genetic determinants, disruption of mucosal barriers, aberrant inflammatory signals, loss of tolerance, and environmental triggers. Importantly, the incidence of pediatric IBD is rising, particularly in children younger than 10 years. In this review, we discuss the clinical presentation of these patients and highlight environmental exposures that may affect disease risk, particularly among people with a background genetic risk. With regard to both children and adults, we review advancements in understanding the intestinal epithelium, the mucosal immune system, and the resident microbiota, describing how dysfunction at any level can lead to diseases like IBD. We conclude with future directions for applying advances in IBD genetics to better understand pathogenesis and develop therapeutics targeting key pathogenic nodes.


Asunto(s)
Disbiosis/inmunología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/inmunología , Inmunidad Mucosa , Inflamación/inmunología , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/inmunología , Mucosa Intestinal/inmunología , Adulto , Animales , Niño , Preescolar , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Interacción Gen-Ambiente , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Humanos , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/genética , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/terapia , Terapia Molecular Dirigida
4.
Cell ; 186(6): 1115-1126.e8, 2023 03 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36931242

RESUMEN

Previously, two men were cured of HIV-1 through CCR5Δ32 homozygous (CCR5Δ32/Δ32) allogeneic adult stem cell transplant. We report the first remission and possible HIV-1 cure in a mixed-race woman who received a CCR5Δ32/Δ32 haplo-cord transplant (cord blood cells combined with haploidentical stem cells from an adult) to treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Peripheral blood chimerism was 100% CCR5Δ32/Δ32 cord blood by week 14 post-transplant and persisted through 4.8 years of follow-up. Immune reconstitution was associated with (1) loss of detectable replication-competent HIV-1 reservoirs, (2) loss of HIV-1-specific immune responses, (3) in vitro resistance to X4 and R5 laboratory variants, including pre-transplant autologous latent reservoir isolates, and (4) 18 months of HIV-1 control with aviremia, off antiretroviral therapy, starting at 37 months post-transplant. CCR5Δ32/Δ32 haplo-cord transplant achieved remission and a possible HIV-1 cure for a person of diverse ancestry, living with HIV-1, who required a stem cell transplant for acute leukemia.


Asunto(s)
Trasplante de Células Madre de Sangre del Cordón Umbilical , Infecciones por VIH , VIH-1 , Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Masculino , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Sangre Fetal , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia
5.
Cell ; 186(16): 3400-3413.e20, 2023 08 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37541197

RESUMEN

Approximately 15% of US adults have circulating levels of uric acid above its solubility limit, which is causally linked to the disease gout. In most mammals, uric acid elimination is facilitated by the enzyme uricase. However, human uricase is a pseudogene, having been inactivated early in hominid evolution. Though it has long been known that uric acid is eliminated in the gut, the role of the gut microbiota in hyperuricemia has not been studied. Here, we identify a widely distributed bacterial gene cluster that encodes a pathway for uric acid degradation. Stable isotope tracing demonstrates that gut bacteria metabolize uric acid to xanthine or short chain fatty acids. Ablation of the microbiota in uricase-deficient mice causes severe hyperuricemia, and anaerobe-targeted antibiotics increase the risk of gout in humans. These data reveal a role for the gut microbiota in uric acid excretion and highlight the potential for microbiome-targeted therapeutics in hyperuricemia.


Asunto(s)
Gota , Hominidae , Hiperuricemia , Adulto , Animales , Humanos , Ratones , Gota/genética , Gota/metabolismo , Hominidae/genética , Hiperuricemia/genética , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Urato Oxidasa/genética , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Evolución Molecular
6.
Cell ; 186(21): 4528-4545.e18, 2023 10 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37788669

RESUMEN

MLL/KMT2A amplifications and translocations are prevalent in infant, adult, and therapy-induced leukemia. However, the molecular contributor(s) to these alterations are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that histone H3 lysine 9 mono- and di-methylation (H3K9me1/2) balance at the MLL/KMT2A locus regulates these amplifications and rearrangements. This balance is controlled by the crosstalk between lysine demethylase KDM3B and methyltransferase G9a/EHMT2. KDM3B depletion increases H3K9me1/2 levels and reduces CTCF occupancy at the MLL/KMT2A locus, in turn promoting amplification and rearrangements. Depleting CTCF is also sufficient to generate these focal alterations. Furthermore, the chemotherapy doxorubicin (Dox), which associates with therapy-induced leukemia and promotes MLL/KMT2A amplifications and rearrangements, suppresses KDM3B and CTCF protein levels. KDM3B and CTCF overexpression rescues Dox-induced MLL/KMT2A alterations. G9a inhibition in human cells or mice also suppresses MLL/KMT2A events accompanying Dox treatment. Therefore, MLL/KMT2A amplifications and rearrangements are controlled by epigenetic regulators that are tractable drug targets, which has clinical implications.


Asunto(s)
Epigénesis Genética , Proteína de la Leucemia Mieloide-Linfoide , Adulto , Animales , Humanos , Lactante , Ratones , Doxorrubicina/farmacología , Reordenamiento Génico , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidad , N-Metiltransferasa de Histona-Lisina/genética , N-Metiltransferasa de Histona-Lisina/metabolismo , Histona Demetilasas con Dominio de Jumonji/genética , Histona Demetilasas con Dominio de Jumonji/metabolismo , Leucemia/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Proteína de la Leucemia Mieloide-Linfoide/genética , Translocación Genética
7.
Cell ; 186(21): 4632-4651.e23, 2023 10 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37776858

RESUMEN

The dynamics of immunity to infection in infants remain obscure. Here, we used a multi-omics approach to perform a longitudinal analysis of immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in infants and young children by analyzing blood samples and weekly nasal swabs collected before, during, and after infection with Omicron and non-Omicron variants. Infection stimulated robust antibody titers that, unlike in adults, showed no sign of decay for up to 300 days. Infants mounted a robust mucosal immune response characterized by inflammatory cytokines, interferon (IFN) α, and T helper (Th) 17 and neutrophil markers (interleukin [IL]-17, IL-8, and CXCL1). The immune response in blood was characterized by upregulation of activation markers on innate cells, no inflammatory cytokines, but several chemokines and IFNα. The latter correlated with viral load and expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in myeloid cells measured by single-cell multi-omics. Together, these data provide a snapshot of immunity to infection during the initial weeks and months of life.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Niño , Lactante , Humanos , Preescolar , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Multiómica , Citocinas/metabolismo , Interferón-alfa , Inmunidad Mucosa
8.
Cell ; 185(25): 4717-4736.e25, 2022 Dec 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493752

RESUMEN

Adult mammalian skin wounds heal by forming fibrotic scars. We report that full-thickness injuries of reindeer antler skin (velvet) regenerate, whereas back skin forms fibrotic scar. Single-cell multi-omics reveal that uninjured velvet fibroblasts resemble human fetal fibroblasts, whereas back skin fibroblasts express inflammatory mediators mimicking pro-fibrotic adult human and rodent fibroblasts. Consequently, injury elicits site-specific immune responses: back skin fibroblasts amplify myeloid infiltration and maturation during repair, whereas velvet fibroblasts adopt an immunosuppressive phenotype that restricts leukocyte recruitment and hastens immune resolution. Ectopic transplantation of velvet to scar-forming back skin is initially regenerative, but progressively transitions to a fibrotic phenotype akin to the scarless fetal-to-scar-forming transition reported in humans. Skin regeneration is diminished by intensifying, or enhanced by neutralizing, these pathologic fibroblast-immune interactions. Reindeer represent a powerful comparative model for interrogating divergent wound healing outcomes, and our results nominate decoupling of fibroblast-immune interactions as a promising approach to mitigate scar.


Asunto(s)
Reno , Cicatrización de Heridas , Adulto , Animales , Humanos , Cicatriz/patología , Fibroblastos/patología , Trasplante de Piel , Piel/patología , Feto/patología
9.
Cell ; 185(23): 4428-4447.e28, 2022 11 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318921

RESUMEN

Human brain development is underpinned by cellular and molecular reconfigurations continuing into the third decade of life. To reveal cell dynamics orchestrating neural maturation, we profiled human prefrontal cortex gene expression and chromatin accessibility at single-cell resolution from gestation to adulthood. Integrative analyses define the dynamic trajectories of each cell type, revealing major gene expression reconfiguration at the prenatal-to-postnatal transition in all cell types followed by continuous reconfiguration into adulthood and identifying regulatory networks guiding cellular developmental programs, states, and functions. We uncover links between expression dynamics and developmental milestones, characterize the diverse timing of when cells acquire adult-like states, and identify molecular convergence from distinct developmental origins. We further reveal cellular dynamics and their regulators implicated in neurological disorders. Finally, using this reference, we benchmark cell identities and maturation states in organoid models. Together, this captures the dynamic regulatory landscape of human cortical development.


Asunto(s)
Neurogénesis , Organoides , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto , Cromatina , Corteza Prefrontal , Análisis de la Célula Individual , Redes Reguladoras de Genes
10.
Cell ; 185(18): 3282-3284, 2022 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055195

RESUMEN

Non-nutritive sweeteners are increasingly consumed to satisfy cravings for sweet taste without the associated calories. Paradoxically, non-nutritive sweeteners have been linked to metabolic risks, but the underlying mechanisms are not understood. In this issue of Cell, Suez and colleagues pinpoint changes in the gut microbiome as a mechanism for non-nutritive sweetener-induced glycemic impairments in healthy adults.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Edulcorantes no Nutritivos , Adulto , Humanos , Edulcorantes no Nutritivos/efectos adversos , Edulcorantes/farmacología
11.
Cell ; 185(18): 3307-3328.e19, 2022 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987213

RESUMEN

Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) are commonly integrated into human diet and presumed to be inert; however, animal studies suggest that they may impact the microbiome and downstream glycemic responses. We causally assessed NNS impacts in humans and their microbiomes in a randomized-controlled trial encompassing 120 healthy adults, administered saccharin, sucralose, aspartame, and stevia sachets for 2 weeks in doses lower than the acceptable daily intake, compared with controls receiving sachet-contained vehicle glucose or no supplement. As groups, each administered NNS distinctly altered stool and oral microbiome and plasma metabolome, whereas saccharin and sucralose significantly impaired glycemic responses. Importantly, gnotobiotic mice conventionalized with microbiomes from multiple top and bottom responders of each of the four NNS-supplemented groups featured glycemic responses largely reflecting those noted in respective human donors, which were preempted by distinct microbial signals, as exemplified by sucralose. Collectively, human NNS consumption may induce person-specific, microbiome-dependent glycemic alterations, necessitating future assessment of clinical implications.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Edulcorantes no Nutritivos , Adulto , Animales , Aspartame/farmacología , Glucemia , Humanos , Ratones , Edulcorantes no Nutritivos/análisis , Edulcorantes no Nutritivos/farmacología , Sacarina/farmacología
12.
Cell ; 185(12): 2184-2199.e16, 2022 06 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35649412

RESUMEN

The factors driving therapy resistance in diffuse glioma remain poorly understood. To identify treatment-associated cellular and genetic changes, we analyzed RNA and/or DNA sequencing data from the temporally separated tumor pairs of 304 adult patients with isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wild-type and IDH-mutant glioma. Tumors recurred in distinct manners that were dependent on IDH mutation status and attributable to changes in histological feature composition, somatic alterations, and microenvironment interactions. Hypermutation and acquired CDKN2A deletions were associated with an increase in proliferating neoplastic cells at recurrence in both glioma subtypes, reflecting active tumor growth. IDH-wild-type tumors were more invasive at recurrence, and their neoplastic cells exhibited increased expression of neuronal signaling programs that reflected a possible role for neuronal interactions in promoting glioma progression. Mesenchymal transition was associated with the presence of a myeloid cell state defined by specific ligand-receptor interactions with neoplastic cells. Collectively, these recurrence-associated phenotypes represent potential targets to alter disease progression.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioma , Microambiente Tumoral , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patología , Evolución Molecular , Genes p16 , Glioma/genética , Glioma/patología , Humanos , Isocitrato Deshidrogenasa/genética , Mutación , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia
13.
Cell ; 185(1): 95-112.e18, 2022 01 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995520

RESUMEN

Fingerprints are of long-standing practical and cultural interest, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie their variation. Using genome-wide scans in Han Chinese cohorts, we identified 18 loci associated with fingerprint type across the digits, including a genetic basis for the long-recognized "pattern-block" correlations among the middle three digits. In particular, we identified a variant near EVI1 that alters regulatory activity and established a role for EVI1 in dermatoglyph patterning in mice. Dynamic EVI1 expression during human development supports its role in shaping the limbs and digits, rather than influencing skin patterning directly. Trans-ethnic meta-analysis identified 43 fingerprint-associated loci, with nearby genes being strongly enriched for general limb development pathways. We also found that fingerprint patterns were genetically correlated with hand proportions. Taken together, these findings support the key role of limb development genes in influencing the outcome of fingerprint patterning.


Asunto(s)
Dermatoglifia , Dedos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Organogénesis/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Dedos del Pie/crecimiento & desarrollo , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Pueblo Asiatico/genética , Tipificación del Cuerpo/genética , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Miembro Anterior/crecimiento & desarrollo , Sitios Genéticos , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Humanos , Proteína del Locus del Complejo MDS1 y EV11/genética , Masculino , Ratones , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
14.
Cell ; 185(4): 729-745.e20, 2022 02 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35063085

RESUMEN

Brain metastasis (BrM) is the most common form of brain cancer, characterized by neurologic disability and an abysmal prognosis. Unfortunately, our understanding of the biology underlying human BrMs remains rudimentary. Here, we present an integrative analysis of >100,000 malignant and non-malignant cells from 15 human parenchymal BrMs, generated by single-cell transcriptomics, mass cytometry, and complemented with mouse model- and in silico approaches. We interrogated the composition of BrM niches, molecularly defined the blood-tumor interface, and revealed stromal immunosuppressive states enriched with infiltrated T cells and macrophages. Specific single-cell interrogation of metastatic tumor cells provides a framework of 8 functional cell programs that coexist or anticorrelate. Collectively, these programs delineate two functional BrM archetypes, one proliferative and the other inflammatory, that are evidently shaped through tumor-immune interactions. Our resource provides a foundation to understand the molecular basis of BrM in patients with tumor cell-intrinsic and host environmental traits.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Encefálicas/patología , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundario , Adulto , Anciano , Animales , Biomarcadores de Tumor/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/sangre , Neoplasias Encefálicas/inmunología , Ciclo Celular , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proliferación Celular , Femenino , Variación Genética , Humanos , Evasión Inmune , Activación de Linfocitos/inmunología , Linfocitos Infiltrantes de Tumor/inmunología , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Ratones Desnudos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Biológicos , Células Mieloides/patología , Análisis de Componente Principal , RNA-Seq , Análisis de la Célula Individual , Linfocitos T/inmunología
15.
Cell ; 185(3): 493-512.e25, 2022 02 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35032429

RESUMEN

Severe COVID-19 is linked to both dysfunctional immune response and unrestrained immunopathology, and it remains unclear whether T cells contribute to disease pathology. Here, we combined single-cell transcriptomics and single-cell proteomics with mechanistic studies to assess pathogenic T cell functions and inducing signals. We identified highly activated CD16+ T cells with increased cytotoxic functions in severe COVID-19. CD16 expression enabled immune-complex-mediated, T cell receptor-independent degranulation and cytotoxicity not found in other diseases. CD16+ T cells from COVID-19 patients promoted microvascular endothelial cell injury and release of neutrophil and monocyte chemoattractants. CD16+ T cell clones persisted beyond acute disease maintaining their cytotoxic phenotype. Increased generation of C3a in severe COVID-19 induced activated CD16+ cytotoxic T cells. Proportions of activated CD16+ T cells and plasma levels of complement proteins upstream of C3a were associated with fatal outcome of COVID-19, supporting a pathological role of exacerbated cytotoxicity and complement activation in COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/patología , Activación de Complemento , Proteoma , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Linfocitos T Citotóxicos/inmunología , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19/virología , Factores Quimiotácticos/metabolismo , Citotoxicidad Inmunológica , Células Endoteliales/virología , Femenino , Humanos , Activación de Linfocitos , Masculino , Microvasos/virología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Monocitos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Receptores de IgG/metabolismo , Análisis de la Célula Individual , Adulto Joven
16.
Cell ; 185(5): 881-895.e20, 2022 03 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216672

RESUMEN

Post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) represent an emerging global crisis. However, quantifiable risk factors for PASC and their biological associations are poorly resolved. We executed a deep multi-omic, longitudinal investigation of 309 COVID-19 patients from initial diagnosis to convalescence (2-3 months later), integrated with clinical data and patient-reported symptoms. We resolved four PASC-anticipating risk factors at the time of initial COVID-19 diagnosis: type 2 diabetes, SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia, Epstein-Barr virus viremia, and specific auto-antibodies. In patients with gastrointestinal PASC, SARS-CoV-2-specific and CMV-specific CD8+ T cells exhibited unique dynamics during recovery from COVID-19. Analysis of symptom-associated immunological signatures revealed coordinated immunity polarization into four endotypes, exhibiting divergent acute severity and PASC. We find that immunological associations between PASC factors diminish over time, leading to distinct convalescent immune states. Detectability of most PASC factors at COVID-19 diagnosis emphasizes the importance of early disease measurements for understanding emergent chronic conditions and suggests PASC treatment strategies.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Convalecencia , Inmunidad Adaptativa/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Autoanticuerpos/sangre , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Linfocitos T CD8-positivos/inmunología , Linfocitos T CD8-positivos/metabolismo , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/patología , COVID-19/virología , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunidad Innata/genética , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Transcriptoma , Adulto Joven , Síndrome Post Agudo de COVID-19
17.
Cell ; 185(5): 916-938.e58, 2022 03 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216673

RESUMEN

Treatment of severe COVID-19 is currently limited by clinical heterogeneity and incomplete description of specific immune biomarkers. We present here a comprehensive multi-omic blood atlas for patients with varying COVID-19 severity in an integrated comparison with influenza and sepsis patients versus healthy volunteers. We identify immune signatures and correlates of host response. Hallmarks of disease severity involved cells, their inflammatory mediators and networks, including progenitor cells and specific myeloid and lymphocyte subsets, features of the immune repertoire, acute phase response, metabolism, and coagulation. Persisting immune activation involving AP-1/p38MAPK was a specific feature of COVID-19. The plasma proteome enabled sub-phenotyping into patient clusters, predictive of severity and outcome. Systems-based integrative analyses including tensor and matrix decomposition of all modalities revealed feature groupings linked with severity and specificity compared to influenza and sepsis. Our approach and blood atlas will support future drug development, clinical trial design, and personalized medicine approaches for COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores/sangre , COVID-19/patología , Proteoma/análisis , Adulto , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , COVID-19/sangre , COVID-19/virología , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Gripe Humana/sangre , Gripe Humana/patología , Linfocitos/inmunología , Linfocitos/metabolismo , Aprendizaje Automático , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proteína Quinasa 14 Activada por Mitógenos/genética , Proteína Quinasa 14 Activada por Mitógenos/metabolismo , Monocitos/inmunología , Monocitos/metabolismo , Análisis de Componente Principal , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Sepsis/sangre , Sepsis/patología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factor de Transcripción AP-1/genética , Factor de Transcripción AP-1/metabolismo
18.
Cell ; 185(4): 603-613.e15, 2022 02 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026152

RESUMEN

SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines induce robust anti-spike (S) antibody and CD4+ T cell responses. It is not yet clear whether vaccine-induced follicular helper CD4+ T (TFH) cell responses contribute to this outstanding immunogenicity. Using fine-needle aspiration of draining axillary lymph nodes from individuals who received the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, we evaluated the T cell receptor sequences and phenotype of lymph node TFH. Mining of the responding TFH T cell receptor repertoire revealed a strikingly immunodominant HLA-DPB1∗04-restricted response to S167-180 in individuals with this allele, which is among the most common HLA alleles in humans. Paired blood and lymph node specimens show that while circulating S-specific TFH cells peak one week after the second immunization, S-specific TFH persist at nearly constant frequencies for at least six months. Collectively, our results underscore the key role that robust TFH cell responses play in establishing long-term immunity by this efficacious human vaccine.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/virología , Inmunidad/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Células T Auxiliares Foliculares/inmunología , Vacunación , Vacunas Sintéticas/inmunología , Vacunas de ARNm/inmunología , Adulto , Linfocitos B/inmunología , Vacuna BNT162/inmunología , COVID-19/sangre , Células Clonales , Estudios de Cohortes , Citocinas/metabolismo , Femenino , Centro Germinal/inmunología , Cadenas beta de HLA-DP/inmunología , Humanos , Epítopos Inmunodominantes/inmunología , Células Jurkat , Ganglios Linfáticos/metabolismo , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Péptidos/química , Péptidos/metabolismo , Multimerización de Proteína , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfocitos T/metabolismo
19.
Cell ; 185(3): 485-492.e10, 2022 02 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051367

RESUMEN

An outbreak of over 1,000 COVID-19 cases in Provincetown, Massachusetts (MA), in July 2021-the first large outbreak mostly in vaccinated individuals in the US-prompted a comprehensive public health response, motivating changes to national masking recommendations and raising questions about infection and transmission among vaccinated individuals. To address these questions, we combined viral genomic and epidemiological data from 467 individuals, including 40% of outbreak-associated cases. The Delta variant accounted for 99% of cases in this dataset; it was introduced from at least 40 sources, but 83% of cases derived from a single source, likely through transmission across multiple settings over a short time rather than a single event. Genomic and epidemiological data supported multiple transmissions of Delta from and between fully vaccinated individuals. However, despite its magnitude, the outbreak had limited onward impact in MA and the US overall, likely due to high vaccination rates and a robust public health response.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/transmisión , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19/virología , Niño , Preescolar , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Epidemiología Molecular , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2/clasificación , Vacunación , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Adulto Joven
20.
Nat Immunol ; 25(5): 873-885, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553615

RESUMEN

Metabolic programming is important for B cell fate, but the bioenergetic requirement for regulatory B (Breg) cell differentiation and function is unknown. Here we show that Breg cell differentiation, unlike non-Breg cells, relies on mitochondrial electron transport and homeostatic levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis revealed that TXN, encoding the metabolic redox protein thioredoxin (Trx), is highly expressed by Breg cells, unlike Trx inhibitor TXNIP which was downregulated. Pharmacological inhibition or gene silencing of TXN resulted in mitochondrial membrane depolarization and increased ROS levels, selectively suppressing Breg cell differentiation and function while favoring pro-inflammatory B cell differentiation. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), characterized by Breg cell deficiencies, present with B cell mitochondrial membrane depolarization, elevated ROS and fewer Trx+ B cells. Exogenous Trx stimulation restored Breg cells and mitochondrial membrane polarization in SLE B cells to healthy B cell levels, indicating Trx insufficiency underlies Breg cell impairment in patients with SLE.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Portadoras , Diferenciación Celular , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico , Mitocondrias , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno , Tiorredoxinas , Tiorredoxinas/metabolismo , Tiorredoxinas/genética , Humanos , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/inmunología , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/metabolismo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Mitocondrias/metabolismo , Femenino , Animales , Ratones , Potencial de la Membrana Mitocondrial , Masculino , Adulto , Oxidación-Reducción
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