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1.
Mol Cell ; 81(21): 4347-4348, 2021 11 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739824

RESUMEN

Leanne Li tells us about the research in her recently established group at the Francis Crick Institute in London, her search for a multidisciplinary institute, and how her own varied background came together to study the emerging field of cancer neuroscience. She shares advice for applying, her experience of remote hiring, and how diversity, both academically and culturally, stimulates creativity.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/historia , Selección de Profesión , Liderazgo , Oncología Médica/historia , Neoplasias/historia , Neurociencias/historia , Diversidad Cultural , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Neoplasias/patología , Selección de Personal/historia , Lugar de Trabajo/historia
2.
PLoS Biol ; 21(9): e3002267, 2023 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37669250

RESUMEN

Science does not take place in a vacuum: The physical and social workplace has a profound influence on scientific discoveries. Everyone at a research institute can contribute to its scientific output and productivity, from faculty research groups to facilities and platforms staff to administration and corporate services. Although the researchers addressing exciting scientific questions are key, their efforts can be fostered and directed by the overarching strategy of the institute, interconnection with facilities and platforms, and strong and directed support of the administration and corporate services. Everybody counts and everybody should be empowered to contribute. But what are the characteristics that make scientific organizations and their people flourish? This Essay looks at the structure and culture of successful research institutes, laying out different operational strategies and highlighting points that need be taken into consideration during their implementation.


Asunto(s)
Academias e Institutos , Docentes , Humanos , Investigadores , Lugar de Trabajo
3.
Nature ; 582(7813): 557-560, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340022

RESUMEN

The ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly on a global scale. Although it is clear that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is transmitted through human respiratory droplets and direct contact, the potential for aerosol transmission is poorly understood1-3. Here we investigated the aerodynamic nature of SARS-CoV-2 by measuring viral RNA in aerosols in different areas of two Wuhan hospitals during the outbreak of COVID-19 in February and March 2020. The concentration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in aerosols that was detected in isolation wards and ventilated patient rooms was very low, but it was higher in the toilet areas used by the patients. Levels of airborne SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the most public areas was undetectable, except in two areas that were prone to crowding; this increase was possibly due to individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the crowd. We found that some medical staff areas initially had high concentrations of viral RNA with aerosol size distributions that showed peaks in the submicrometre and/or supermicrometre regions; however, these levels were reduced to undetectable levels after implementation of rigorous sanitization procedures. Although we have not established the infectivity of the virus detected in these hospital areas, we propose that SARS-CoV-2 may have the potential to be transmitted through aerosols. Our results indicate that room ventilation, open space, sanitization of protective apparel, and proper use and disinfection of toilet areas can effectively limit the concentration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in aerosols. Future work should explore the infectivity of aerosolized virus.


Asunto(s)
Aerosoles/análisis , Aerosoles/química , Aparatos Sanitarios , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Hospitales , Neumonía Viral/virología , Lugar de Trabajo , Betacoronavirus/genética , COVID-19 , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Aglomeración , Desinfección , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Máscaras , Cuerpo Médico , Pandemias/prevención & control , Pacientes/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , ARN Viral/análisis , SARS-CoV-2 , Aislamiento Social , Ventilación
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(39): e2304099120, 2023 09 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37722045

RESUMEN

The growth in remote and hybrid work catalyzed by the COVID-19 pandemic could have significant environmental implications. We assess the greenhouse gas emissions of this transition, considering factors including information and communication technology, commuting, noncommute travel, and office and residential energy use. We find that, in the United States, switching from working onsite to working from home can reduce up to 58% of work's carbon footprint, and the impacts of IT usage are negligible, while office energy use and noncommute travel impacts are important. Our study also suggests that achieving the environmental benefits of remote work requires proper setup of people's lifestyle, including their vehicle choice, travel behavior, and the configuration of home and work environment.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Teletrabajo , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Lugar de Trabajo , Estilo de Vida
5.
Circulation ; 150(2): e51-e61, 2024 Jul 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38813685

RESUMEN

The psychological safety of health care workers is an important but often overlooked aspect of the rising rates of burnout and workforce shortages. In addition, mental health conditions are prevalent among health care workers, but the associated stigma is a significant barrier to accessing adequate care. More efforts are therefore needed to foster health care work environments that are safe and supportive of self-care. The purpose of this brief document is to promote a culture of psychological safety in health care organizations. We review ways in which organizations can create a psychologically safe workplace, the benefits of a psychologically safe workplace, and strategies to promote mental health and reduce suicide risk.


Asunto(s)
American Heart Association , Personal de Salud , Salud Mental , Humanos , Personal de Salud/psicología , Estados Unidos , Agotamiento Profesional/psicología , Agotamiento Profesional/prevención & control , Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Salud Laboral , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/psicología , Seguridad Psicológica
6.
PLoS Biol ; 20(2): e3001531, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35143473

RESUMEN

Identifying the potential for SARS-CoV-2 reinfection is crucial for understanding possible long-term epidemic dynamics. We analysed longitudinal PCR and serological testing data from a prospective cohort of 4,411 United States employees in 4 states between April 2020 and February 2021. We conducted a multivariable logistic regression investigating the association between baseline serological status and subsequent PCR test result in order to calculate an odds ratio for reinfection. We estimated an odds ratio for reinfection ranging from 0.14 (95% CI: 0.019 to 0.63) to 0.28 (95% CI: 0.05 to 1.1), implying that the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at baseline is associated with around 72% to 86% reduced odds of a subsequent PCR positive test based on our point estimates. This suggests that primary infection with SARS-CoV-2 provides protection against reinfection in the majority of individuals, at least over a 6-month time period. We also highlight 2 major sources of bias and uncertainty to be considered when estimating the relative risk of reinfection, confounders and the choice of baseline time point, and show how to account for both in reinfection analysis.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , COVID-19/inmunología , Reinfección/inmunología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Prueba de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Prueba Serológica para COVID-19 , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Estudios Prospectivos , Reinfección/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Lugar de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(39): e2200026119, 2022 09 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122220

RESUMEN

Millions of employees are victims of violent crimes at work every year, particularly those in the retail industry, who are frequent targets of robbery. Why are some employees injured while others escape from these incidents physically unharmed? Departing from prevailing models of workplace violence, which focus on the static characteristics of perpetrators, victims, and work environments, we examine why and when injuries during robberies occur. Our multimethod investigation of convenience-store robberies sought evidence from detailed coding of surveillance videos and matched archival data, preregistered experiments with formerly incarcerated individuals and customer service personnel, and a 3-y longitudinal intervention study in the field. While standard retail-industry safety protocols encourage employees to be out from behind the cash register area to be safer, we find that robbers are significantly more likely to injure or kill employees who are located there (versus behind the cash register area) when a robbery begins. A 3-y field study demonstrates that changing the safety training protocol-through providing employees with a behavioral script to follow should a robbery begin when they are on the sales floor-was associated with a significantly lower rate of injury during these robberies. Our research establishes the importance of understanding the interactive dynamics of workplace violence, crime, and conflict.


Asunto(s)
Salud Laboral , Robo , Crimen , Humanos , Ocupaciones , Lugar de Trabajo
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(42): e2204305119, 2022 10 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191177

RESUMEN

US earnings inequality has not increased in the last decade. This marks the first sustained reversal of rising earnings inequality since 1980. We document this shift across eight data sources using worker surveys, employer-reported data, and administrative data. The reversal is due to a shrinking gap between low-wage and median-wage workers. In contrast, the gap between top and median workers has persisted. Rising pay for low-wage workers is not mainly due to the changing composition of workers or jobs, minimum wage increases, or workplace-specific sources of inequality. Instead, it is due to broadly rising pay in low-wage occupations, which has particularly benefited workers in tightening labor markets. Rebounding post-Great Recession labor demand at the bottom offset enduring drivers of inequality.


Asunto(s)
Renta , Salarios y Beneficios , Humanos , Ocupaciones , Factores Socioeconómicos , Lugar de Trabajo
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(39): e2204076119, 2022 09 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122207

RESUMEN

I study the impact of extreme heat on the incidence of harassment and discrimination using data on Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) charges brought forward by US Postal Service (USPS) workers. I analyze more than 800,000 EEO charges filed between FYs 2004 and 2019. I find that heat stress experienced on days when maximum temperatures exceed 90 °F increases EEO incidents by roughly 5% relative to days when temperatures are between 60 °F and 70 °F. The uncovered effect is widespread across the USPS and appears to be driven by changes in the number of incidents rather than in their reporting.


Asunto(s)
Calor Extremo , Discriminación Social , Lugar de Trabajo , Empleados de Gobierno/estadística & datos numéricos , Respuesta al Choque Térmico/fisiología , Humanos , Conducta Social , Discriminación Social/estadística & datos numéricos
11.
Lancet ; 402 Suppl 1: S33, 2023 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37997074

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Workplace interventions to increase the number of good quality jobs can help reduce widening health inequalities in England and are an important area for public health research. Over the past decade, workplace charters led by local and regional government authorities have become increasingly popular. Charters typically include commitments on workplace practices-such as job security, pay, wellbeing, and employee voice-and an assessment and award process. Still, there is limited knowledge on how this intervention works. We aimed to understand the views of business leaders on how workplace charters can reduce health inequalities for employees. METHODS: In this qualitative study, 12 business leaders in West Yorkshire were purposively recruited (seven [58%] female, and five [42%] male) through the West Yorkshire Combined Authority, covering different business sizes and sectors. Business leaders were recruited, as key stakeholders who decide whether to engage with charters. Semi-structured interviews were conducted between Aug 3, and Sept 7, 2022. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using reflexive thematic analysis to identify perceived charter mechanisms to reduce health inequalities, alongside emergent barriers to charter implementation. Ethics approval was granted by the University of Sheffield Research Ethics Committee. Participants gave written informed consent. FINDINGS: Business leaders perceived multiple charter mechanisms to reduce health inequalities: the charter to benchmark workplace practices, facilitate a business community, act as a credible badge for fair employers, and open a dialogue with partners. Three key emergent barriers to charter implementation were also identified, including different perceptions of fair work among business leaders, concern about significant charter demands for smaller businesses, and perceived external constraints from the political, social, and economic environment. INTERPRETATION: Business leaders' views affirmed that workplace charters are collectively perceived as a potential tool to address differential workplace practices and reduce health inequalities. However, due to substantial barriers identified, this study suggested that workplace charters could also exclude particular organisations and generate health inequalities. Charter providers must reconcile the tension between the collective aspiration, and practical reality of workplace charters. If reconciled, workplace charters could potentially be a timely and meaningful intervention to help reduce health inequalities in England. FUNDING: None.


Asunto(s)
Salud Pública , Lugar de Trabajo , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Investigación Cualitativa , Inglaterra , Inequidades en Salud
12.
Lancet ; 402 Suppl 1: S81, 2023 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37997127

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The work environment is an important determinant of health and health inequalities. Workplaces have a key role in preventing ill health. The WHO and Office for Health Improvement and Disparities encourage implementing employer-led workplace health award schemes tailored to specific contexts. Therefore, when designing and developing workplace initiatives it becomes imperative to know what works, for whom, and in what circumstances. This research aims to facilitate understanding of the various contexts and mechanisms through which workplace health initiatives are implemented while considering how these might affect employee health outcomes. METHODS: We did a rapid realist review to explore the different contexts (C) in which workplace initiatives are implemented that may fire a mechanism (M), leading to a change in employee health-related and business outcomes (O). We searched 12 databases for peer-reviewed papers published from June 1, 2019, to March 31, 2022 that referred to a workplace health and or wellbeing programme or intervention. There were no restrictions placed on study design. We recorded the impact of context and mechanisms on any health and business-related outcomes. The review was carried out in accordance with RAMESES publication standards. FINDINGS: 26 articles were included. Most studies were conducted in North America (n=13) and Europe (n=9), with four conducted in Australia and Oceania and one in Asia. We developed eight realist CMO programme theories. For example, when leaders are committed to employee health and wellbeing (C) (identified in 16 studies), demonstrated by role modelling healthy behaviours and actively promoting workers to engage in initiatives, employees feel valued and "permitted" to engage in healthy and wellbeing initiatives (M) which might lead to greater participation in health promotion activities (O). This review is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42022303262. INTERPRETATION: Findings contribute towards raising employers' awareness of what interventions might work for their employees. For instance, those interventions that encompass engagement of leadership at all levels to promote health and wellbeing are likely to leave employees feeling valued, motivated, and permitted to engage in interventions. Limitations of this study include potential biases arising from using rapid review processes and the inability to produce standardised recommendations. However, knowledge gained, which considers complexity and flexibility, might help inform, tailor, and support the implementation of future workplace health initiatives. FUNDING: National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR).


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud , Lugar de Trabajo , Humanos , Europa (Continente) , Asia , Australia
13.
Lancet ; 402 Suppl 1: S51, 2023 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37997094

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite an increased desire to improve women's experiences, the evidence base around how best to support female employees experiencing the menopause is currently lacking. NHS Wales has a workforce with a significant proportion of older female workers, many of whom will experience menopause symptoms. This work aims to explore the impact of menopause symptoms on the working lives of NHS staff in Wales. METHODS: For this service improvement study, four focus groups were held between Jan 12, and March 10, 2023. Women who experienced symptoms related to menopause were invited to participate via a local women's network. 14 women with lived experience of menopause took part, with an average of three women per group. Informed consent was given by participants for this service improvement exercise. Participants worked in both clinical and non-clinical roles in the NHS in Wales. Participants were aged between 34 and 59 years. A semi-structured facilitation approach was used, with women asked to describe their menopause experience and their role in the organisation. Transcripts were analysed using the framework approach and reported using the COREQ reporting checklist. FINDINGS: Menopause symptom experience was multifaceted and varied and dependent on factors such as medical history, social support, and personal management strategies. All women involved in the focus groups felt that their symptoms had negatively impacted their experience. Various symptom management strategies had been used with varying levels of success. Some women were reticent to ask for support at work, despite believing the workplace response would be positive. INTERPRETATION: Peer support is well received by women in the workplace, but it is crucial that opportunities for peer support in the workplace are delivered in a culture where women feel they are able to step away from their core duties to attend and engage with opportunities such as Menopause Café's and lunchtime learning sessions. Further work is needed as participants in these focus groups might not be representative of the full NHS and broader workforce. Conducting focus groups entirely online might also have influenced the group dynamics. FUNDING: None.


Asunto(s)
Menopausia , Medicina Estatal , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupos Focales , Menopausia/fisiología , Emociones , Lugar de Trabajo
14.
Lancet ; 402(10410): 1382-1392, 2023 10 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37838443

RESUMEN

The future of work is rapidly changing, with higher flexibility of the labour market and increasing informal employment in many countries worldwide. There is also an increased pressure to extend working careers until older age. We introduce the concept of working life expectancy as a useful metric, capturing the expected numer of years in paid employment across the working age individuals, in particular among different groups. We describe factors that determine working life expectancy. Macro-level factors focus on the socioeconomic and political context that influences labour force participation, primarily policies and legislation in specific countries. At the meso level, employment contracts and working conditions are important. The micro level shows that individual characteristics, such as education, gender, and age, influence working careers. There are three important groups with a disadvantaged position in the labour market-workers with chronic diseases, workers with impairing disabilities, and workers aged 50 years or more. Within each of these disadvantaged groups, macro-level, meso-level, and micro-level factors that influence entering and exiting paid employment are discussed. To assure that paid employment is available for everyone of working age and that work contributes to better health, specific challenges need to be addressed at the macro, meso, and micro levels. To reach inclusive labour force participation, national policies, company practices, and workplace improvements need to be aligned to ensure safe and healthy workplaces that contribute to the health and wellbeing of workers and their communities.


Asunto(s)
Empleo , Lugar de Trabajo , Humanos , Ocupaciones , Estado de Salud , Escolaridad
15.
Lancet ; 402(10410): 1368-1381, 2023 10 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37838442

RESUMEN

Mental health problems and disorders are common among working people and are costly for the affected individuals, employers, and whole of society. This discussion paper provides an overview of the current state of knowledge on the relationship between work and mental health to inform research, policy, and practice. We synthesise available evidence, examining both the role of working conditions in the development of mental disorders, and what can be done to protect and promote mental health in the workplace. We show that exposure to some working conditions is associated with an increased risk of the onset of depressive disorders, the most studied mental disorders. The causality of the association, however, is still debated. Causal inference should be supported by more research with stronger linkage to theory, better exposure assessment, better understanding of biopsychosocial mechanisms, use of innovative analytical methods, a life-course perspective, and better understanding of the role of context, including the role of societal structures in the development of mental disorders. There is growing evidence for the effectiveness of interventions to protect and promote mental health and wellbeing in the workplace; however, there is a disproportionate focus on interventions directed towards individual workers and illnesses, compared with interventions for improving working conditions and enhancing mental health. Moreover, research on work and mental health is mainly done in high-income countries, and often does not address workers in lower socioeconomic positions. Flexible and innovative approaches tailored to local conditions are needed in implementation research on workplace mental health to complement experimental studies. Improvements in translating workplace mental health research to policy and practice, such as through workplace-oriented concrete guidance for interventions, and by national policies and programmes focusing on the people most in need, could capitalise on the growing interest in workplace mental health, possibly yielding important mental health gains in working populations.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Salud Mental , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Causalidad , Condiciones de Trabajo
16.
Radiology ; 311(2): e232329, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742975

RESUMEN

Background High rates of provider burnout and turnover, as well as staffing shortages, are creating crises within radiology departments. Identifying ways to support health care workers, such as the Positively Energizing Leadership program, is important during these ongoing crises. Purpose To identify the relationship between leadership behaviors and workplace climate and health care worker outcomes (ie, burnout, intent to leave, and engagement) and to determine whether the positive leadership program could improve workplace climate and health care worker outcomes. Materials and Methods This prospective study involved two parts. First, a web-based survey was administered to faculty and staff in a breast imaging unit of a large academic medical center in February 2021 to identify relationships between leadership behaviors and workplace climate and health care worker outcomes. Second, a web-based survey was administered in February 2023, following the implementation of a positive leadership program, to determine improvement in engagement and reduction of burnout and intent to leave since 2021. Multiple regression, the Sobel test, Pearson correlation, and the t test were used, with a conservative significance level of P < .001. Results The sample consisted of 88 respondents (response rate, 95%) in 2021 and 85 respondents (response rate, 92%) in 2023. Leadership communication was associated with a positive workplace climate (ß = 0.76, P < .001) and a positive workplace climate was associated with improved engagement (ß = 0.53, P < .001), reduction in burnout (ß = -0.42, P < .001), and reduction in intent to leave (ß = -0.49, P < .001). Following a 2-year positive leadership program, improved perceptions were observed for leadership communication (pretest mean, 4.59 ± 1.51 [SD]; posttest mean, 5.80 ± 1.01; t = 5.97, P < .001), workplace climate (pretest mean, 5.09 ± 1.43; posttest mean, 5.77 ± 1.11; t = 3.35, P < .001), and engagement (pretest mean, 5.27 ± 1.20, posttest mean, 5.68 ± 0.96; t = 2.50, P < .01), with a reduction in burnout (pretest mean, 2.69 ± 0.94; posttest mean, 2.18 ± 0.74; t = 3.50, P < .001) and intent to leave (pretest mean, 3.12 ± 2.23; posttest mean, 2.56 ± 1.84; t = 1.78, P < .05). Conclusion After implementation of a positive leadership program in a radiology department breast imaging unit, burnout and intention to leave decreased among health care workers, while engagement increased. © RSNA, 2024 See also the editorial by Thrall in this issue.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional , Liderazgo , Humanos , Agotamiento Profesional/psicología , Femenino , Estudios Prospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Servicio de Radiología en Hospital/organización & administración , Adulto , Masculino , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Intención , Reorganización del Personal/estadística & datos numéricos , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad
17.
BMC Med ; 22(1): 72, 2024 Feb 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38418998

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Peer support for mental health is recommended across international policy guidance and provision. Our systematic umbrella review summarises evidence on the effectiveness, implementation, and experiences of paid peer support approaches for mental health. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, The Campbell Collaboration, and The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2012-2022) for reviews of paid peer support interventions for mental health. The AMSTAR2 assessed quality. Results were synthesised narratively, with implementation reported using the CFIR (Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research). The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42022362099). RESULTS: We included 35 reviews (426 primary studies, n = 95-40,927 participants): systematic reviews with (n = 13) or without (n = 13) meta-analysis, or with qualitative synthesis (n = 3), scoping reviews (n = 6). Most reviews were low or critically low (97%) quality, one review was high quality. Effectiveness was investigated in 23 reviews. Results were mixed; there was some evidence from meta-analyses that peer support may improve depression symptoms (particularly perinatal depression), self-efficacy, and recovery. Factors promoting successful implementation, investigated in 9 reviews, included adequate training and supervision, a recovery-oriented workplace, strong leadership, and a supportive and trusting workplace culture with effective collaboration. Barriers included lack of time, resources and funding, and lack of recognised peer support worker (PSW) certification. Experiences of peer support were explored in 11 reviews, with 3 overarching themes: (i) what the PSW role can bring, including recovery and improved wellbeing for service users and PSWs; (ii) confusion over the PSW role, including role ambiguity and unclear boundaries; and (iii) organisational challenges and impact, including low pay, negative non-peer staff attitudes, and lack of support and training. CONCLUSIONS: Peer support may be effective at improving some clinical outcomes, self-efficacy, and recovery. Certain populations, e.g. perinatal populations, may especially benefit from peer support. Potential strategies to successfully implement PSWs include co-production, clearly defined PSW roles, a receptive hierarchical structure and staff, appropriate PSW and staff training with clinical and/or peer supervision alongside safeguarding. Services could benefit from clear, coproduced, setting specific implementation guidelines for PSW. PSW roles tend to be poorly defined and associations between PSW intervention content and impacts need further investigation. Future research should reflect the priorities of providers/service users involved in peer support.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Lugar de Trabajo , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
18.
BMC Med ; 22(1): 149, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581003

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Various studies have demonstrated gender disparities in workplace settings and the need for further intervention. This study identifies and examines evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on interventions examining gender equity in workplace or volunteer settings. An additional aim was to determine whether interventions considered intersection of gender and other variables, including PROGRESS-Plus equity variables (e.g., race/ethnicity). METHODS: Scoping review conducted using the JBI guide. Literature was searched in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, ERIC, Index to Legal Periodicals and Books, PAIS Index, Policy Index File, and the Canadian Business & Current Affairs Database from inception to May 9, 2022, with an updated search on October 17, 2022. Results were reported using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension to scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR), Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidance, Strengthening the Integration of Intersectionality Theory in Health Inequality Analysis (SIITHIA) checklist, and Guidance for Reporting Involvement of Patients and the Public (GRIPP) version 2 checklist. All employment or volunteer sectors settings were included. Included interventions were designed to promote workplace gender equity that targeted: (a) individuals, (b) organizations, or (c) systems. Any comparator was eligible. Outcomes measures included any gender equity related outcome, whether it was measuring intervention effectiveness (as defined by included studies) or implementation. Data analyses were descriptive in nature. As recommended in the JBI guide to scoping reviews, only high-level content analysis was conducted to categorize the interventions, which were reported using a previously published framework. RESULTS: We screened 8855 citations, 803 grey literature sources, and 663 full-text articles, resulting in 24 unique RCTs and one companion report that met inclusion criteria. Most studies (91.7%) failed to report how they established sex or gender. Twenty-three of 24 (95.8%) studies reported at least one PROGRESS-Plus variable: typically sex or gender or occupation. Two RCTs (8.3%) identified a non-binary gender identity. None of the RCTs reported on relationships between gender and other characteristics (e.g., disability, age, etc.). We identified 24 gender equity promoting interventions in the workplace that were evaluated and categorized into one or more of the following themes: (i) quantifying gender impacts; (ii) behavioural or systemic changes; (iii) career flexibility; (iv) increased visibility, recognition, and representation; (v) creating opportunities for development, mentorship, and sponsorship; and (vi) financial support. Of these interventions, 20/24 (83.3%) had positive conclusion statements for their primary outcomes (e.g., improved academic productivity, increased self-esteem) across heterogeneous outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: There is a paucity of literature on interventions to promote workplace gender equity. While some interventions elicited positive conclusions across a variety of outcomes, standardized outcome measures considering specific contexts and cultures are required. Few PROGRESS-Plus items were reported. Non-binary gender identities and issues related to intersectionality were not adequately considered. Future research should provide consistent and contemporary definitions of gender and sex. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework https://osf.io/x8yae .


Asunto(s)
Equidad de Género , Lugar de Trabajo , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Canadá , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
19.
Br Med Bull ; 150(1): 23-41, 2024 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437453

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: a sizable proportion of the working population has a disability that is not visible. Many choose not to disclose this at work, particularly in educational workplaces where disability is underrepresented. A better understanding of the barriers and facilitators to disclosure is needed. SOURCES OF DATA: this scoping review is based on studies published in scientific journals. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: the reasons underpinning disclosure are complex and emotive-in-nature. Both individual and socio-environmental factors influence this decision and process. Stigma and perceived discrimination are key barriers to disclosure and, conversely, personal agency a key enabler. AREAS OF CONTROVERSY: there is a growing trend of non-visible disabilities within the workplace, largely because of the increasing prevalence of mental ill health. Understanding the barriers and facilitators to disability disclosure is key to the provision of appropriate workplace support. GROWING POINTS: our review shows that both individual and socio-environmental factors influence choice and experience of disclosure of non-visible disabilities in educational workplaces. Ongoing stigma and ableism in the workplace, in particular, strongly influence disabled employees' decision to disclose (or not), to whom, how and when. AREAS TIMELY FOR DEVELOPING RESEARCH: developing workplace interventions that can support employees with non-visible disabilities and key stakeholders during and beyond reasonable adjustments is imperative.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Estigma Social , Lugar de Trabajo , Humanos , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Personas con Discapacidad/psicología , Revelación
20.
Med Care ; 62(5): 346-351, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546387

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Workplace injuries adversely affect worker well-being and may worsen staffing shortages and turnover in nursing homes. A better understanding of the trends in injuries in nursing homes including organizational factors associated with injuries can help improve our efforts in addressing worker injuries. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the trends in injuries and organizational correlates of injuries in US nursing homes. RESEARCH DESIGN: We combine national injury tracking data from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (2016-2019) with nursing home characteristics from Nursing Home Compare. Our outcomes include the proportion of nursing homes reporting any injuries, the mean number of injuries, and the mean number of injuries or illnesses with days away from work, or job transfer or restriction, or both (DART). We descriptively summarize trends in injuries over time. We also estimate the association between nursing home characteristics and injuries using multivariable regressions. RESULTS: We find that approximately 93% of nursing homes reported at least 1 occupational injury in any given year. Injuries had a substantial impact on productivity with 4.1 DART injuries per 100 full-time employees in 2019. Higher bed size, occupancy, RN staffing, and chain ownership are associated with increased DART rates whereas higher overall nursing home star ratings and for-profit status are associated with decreased DART rates. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of nursing homes report occupational injuries that can affect staff well-being, productivity, and quality of care. Injury prevention policies should target the types of injuries occurring in nursing homes and OSHA should monitor nursing homes reporting high and repeated injuries.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos Ocupacionales , Humanos , Traumatismos Ocupacionales/epidemiología , Casas de Salud , Lugar de Trabajo , Instituciones de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermería
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