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1.
Circulation ; 150(2): e51-e61, 2024 Jul 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38813685

RESUMEN

The psychological safety of health care workers is an important but often overlooked aspect of the rising rates of burnout and workforce shortages. In addition, mental health conditions are prevalent among health care workers, but the associated stigma is a significant barrier to accessing adequate care. More efforts are therefore needed to foster health care work environments that are safe and supportive of self-care. The purpose of this brief document is to promote a culture of psychological safety in health care organizations. We review ways in which organizations can create a psychologically safe workplace, the benefits of a psychologically safe workplace, and strategies to promote mental health and reduce suicide risk.


Asunto(s)
American Heart Association , Personal de Salud , Salud Mental , Humanos , Personal de Salud/psicología , Estados Unidos , Agotamiento Profesional/psicología , Agotamiento Profesional/prevención & control , Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Salud Laboral , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/psicología , Seguridad Psicológica
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(39): e2200026119, 2022 09 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122220

RESUMEN

Millions of employees are victims of violent crimes at work every year, particularly those in the retail industry, who are frequent targets of robbery. Why are some employees injured while others escape from these incidents physically unharmed? Departing from prevailing models of workplace violence, which focus on the static characteristics of perpetrators, victims, and work environments, we examine why and when injuries during robberies occur. Our multimethod investigation of convenience-store robberies sought evidence from detailed coding of surveillance videos and matched archival data, preregistered experiments with formerly incarcerated individuals and customer service personnel, and a 3-y longitudinal intervention study in the field. While standard retail-industry safety protocols encourage employees to be out from behind the cash register area to be safer, we find that robbers are significantly more likely to injure or kill employees who are located there (versus behind the cash register area) when a robbery begins. A 3-y field study demonstrates that changing the safety training protocol-through providing employees with a behavioral script to follow should a robbery begin when they are on the sales floor-was associated with a significantly lower rate of injury during these robberies. Our research establishes the importance of understanding the interactive dynamics of workplace violence, crime, and conflict.


Asunto(s)
Salud Laboral , Robo , Crimen , Humanos , Ocupaciones , Lugar de Trabajo
3.
Annu Rev Public Health ; 45(1): 315-335, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38166501

RESUMEN

Climate change poses a significant occupational health hazard. Rising temperatures and more frequent heat waves are expected to cause increasing heat-related morbidity and mortality for workers across the globe. Agricultural, construction, military, firefighting, mining, and manufacturing workers are at particularly high risk for heat-related illness (HRI). Various factors, including ambient temperatures, personal protective equipment, work arrangements, physical exertion, and work with heavy equipment may put workers at higher risk for HRI. While extreme heat will impact workers across the world, workers in low- and middle-income countries will be disproportionately affected. Tracking occupational HRI will be critical to informing prevention and mitigation strategies. Renewed investment in these strategies, including workplace heat prevention programs and regulatory standards for indoor and outdoor workers, will be needed. Additional research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in order to successfully reduce the risk of HRI in the workplace.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Estrés por Calor , Enfermedades Profesionales , Humanos , Trastornos de Estrés por Calor/prevención & control , Trastornos de Estrés por Calor/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/prevención & control , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/etiología , Calor Extremo/efectos adversos , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Salud Laboral , Cambio Climático , Factores de Riesgo
4.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 35(7): 1057-1065.e4, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599279

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To summarize dose trends from 1980 to 2020 for 19,651 U.S. Radiologic Technologists who reported assisting with fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures (FGIPs), overall and by work history characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 762,310 annual personal dose equivalents at a 10-mm reference depth (doses) during 1980-2020 for 43,823 participants of the U.S. Radiologic Technologists (USRT) cohort who responded to work history questionnaires administered during 2012-2014 were summarized. This population included 19,651 technologists who reported assisting with FGIP (≥1 time per month for ≥12 consecutive months) at any time during the study period. Doses corresponding to assistance with FGIP were estimated in terms of proximity to patients, monthly procedure frequency, and procedure type. Box plots and summary statistics (eg, medians and percentiles) were used to describe annual doses and dose trends. RESULTS: Median annual dose corresponding to assistance with FGIP was 0.65 mSv (interquartile range [IQR], 0.60-1.40 mSv; 95th percentile, 6.80). Higher occupational doses with wider variability were associated with close proximity to patients during assistance with FGIP (median, 1.20 mSv [IQR, 0.60-4.18 mSv]; 95th percentile, 12.66), performing ≥20 FGIPs per month (median, 0.75 mSv [IQR, 0.60-2.40 mSv]; 95th percentile, 9.44), and assisting with high-dose FGIP (median, 0.70 mSv [IQR, 0.60-1.90 mSv]; 95th percentile, 8.30). CONCLUSIONS: Occupational doses corresponding to assistance with FGIP were generally low but varied with exposure frequency, procedure type, and proximity to patients. These results highlight the need for vigilant dose monitoring, radiation safety training, and proper protective equipment.


Asunto(s)
Exposición Profesional , Salud Laboral , Dosis de Radiación , Exposición a la Radiación , Radiografía Intervencional , Humanos , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Fluoroscopía , Radiografía Intervencional/efectos adversos , Radiografía Intervencional/tendencias , Estados Unidos , Exposición a la Radiación/efectos adversos , Exposición a la Radiación/prevención & control , Factores de Tiempo , Masculino , Femenino , Factores de Riesgo , Medición de Riesgo , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tecnología Radiológica/tendencias , Adulto , Técnicos Medios en Salud , Monitoreo de Radiación , Protección Radiológica
5.
J Asthma ; 61(8): 767-779, 2024 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38214461

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to comprehensively investigate the prevalence of ABPA and AFRS, scrutinize existing diagnostic criteria and immunoassays, pinpoint their limitations, highlight ABPA as an occupational health implication, and identify suggestive measures to improve ABPA diagnosis in the context of Occupational Health Nursing and primary healthcare. DATA SOURCES: The data sources such as PubMed, Health and Safety Science Abstracts, OSH Update, Medline, and Google Scholar were searched. STUDY SELECTIONS: All published studies in the English language from 1990 till Oct, 2023 using Mesh terms keywords "Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis," "Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis," "Signs and Symptoms," "Rapid Diagnostic Tests," "Diagnosis," "Occupational Health," "Occupational Health Nursing," "Prevalence," "Allergens" following "Boolean operators" search strategy were selected. RESULTS: This review succinctly covered signs, symptoms, and prevalence data concerning ABPA and AFRS. It briefly discussed existing diagnostic criteria and immunoassays, highlighted factors influencing the assay's variability, and underscored the role and scope of specific allergens toward improved, simple, and early ABPA diagnosis. ABPA as a neglected occupational health concern was emphasized, and the importance of RDTs in the context of healthcare professionals and OHNs was stated. Finally, this study suggested analyzing the impact of compromised post-pandemic immune status and the use of immunosuppressive drugs on ABPA prevalence among vulnerable communities and occupations. CONCLUSION: To conclude, global and Indian ABPA and AFRS prevalence data, factors influencing existing assay variability, and the scope of improvement in RDTs for ABPA diagnosis in the background of primary healthcare professionals and OHNs were addressed.


Asunto(s)
Alérgenos , Humanos , Prevalencia , Alérgenos/inmunología , Alérgenos/efectos adversos , Diagnóstico Precoz , Rinitis Alérgica/epidemiología , Rinitis Alérgica/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/diagnóstico , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Salud Laboral
6.
Occup Environ Med ; 81(2): 109-112, 2024 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37932036

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To describe recent investigations of potential workplace cancer clusters. METHODS: We identified Health Hazard Evaluations (HHEs) of cancer concerns during 2001-2020. We described information about industry, requestors, cancer characteristics, investigative procedures, and determinations about the presence of a cluster (ie, presence of excess cases, unusual case distribution or exposure). RESULTS: Of 5754 HHEs, 174 included cancer concerns, comprising 1%-5% of HHEs per year. In 123 HHEs, the cancer cluster concerns involved different cancer primary sites. Investigation procedures varied but included record review (n=63, 36%) and site visits (n=22, 13%). Of 158 HHEs with a cluster determination by investigator(s), 151 (96%) were not considered cancer clusters. In seven HHEs, investigators found evidence of a cluster, but occupational exposure to a carcinogen was not identified. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of HHEs on workplace cancer cluster concerns remained steady over time; most did not meet the definition of a cluster or uncover an occupational cause. Public health practitioners can use this information to provide updated context when addressing workplace cancer cluster concerns and as motivation to refine investigative approaches. More broadly, this review highlights an opportunity to identify best practices on how to apply community cluster investigation methods to the workplace.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias , Exposición Profesional , Salud Laboral , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Lugar de Trabajo
7.
Occup Environ Med ; 81(6): 321-328, 2024 Jul 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969355

RESUMEN

Work-related stress complaints are a growing societal problem. Occupational health professionals often play a key role in its prevention. However, studies providing an overview of preventive interventions and their effectiveness are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to summarise the evidence on the effectiveness of interventions delivered by occupational health professionals to prevent work-related stress complaints.A systematic search in PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo and Medline was performed in May 2023 based on PICO (population, intervention, control and outcomes) elements. Inclusion criteria were: peer-reviewed papers with a randomised controlled trial design, quasi-experimental design and pre-post evaluations with a control group; working populations not on sick leave; interventions delivered by occupational health professionals; and stress outcomes. Data were extracted using a predefined extraction form, risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomised trials (RoB-2) and Risk of Bias in non-randomised Studies-of Interventions tool, and a narrative analysis was performed to summarise data.Nine studies were included in this review and encompassed a diverse range of populations, interventions and professionals involved, outcome measures, and effects observed. Five studies found either mixed effects on stress outcomes, short-term positive effects, or positive effects in a subgroup of participants demonstrating high adherence to the intervention.As the results show mixed findings, a high risk of bias, and a limited number of studies was available, more research is needed to the effectiveness of the interventions and the factors underlying this.


Asunto(s)
Estrés Laboral , Humanos , Estrés Laboral/prevención & control , Salud Laboral , Servicios de Salud del Trabajador/métodos
8.
Occup Environ Med ; 81(2): 92-100, 2024 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38191477

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors that contribute to outbreaks of COVID-19 in the workplace and quantify their effect on outbreak risk. METHODS: We identified outbreaks of COVID-19 cases in the workplace and investigated the characteristics of the individuals, the workplaces, the areas they work and the mode of commute to work, through data linkages based on Middle Layer Super Output Areas in England between 20 June 2021 and 20 February 2022. We estimated population-level associations between potential risk factors and workplace outbreaks, adjusting for plausible confounders identified using a directed acyclic graph. RESULTS: For most industries, increased physical proximity in the workplace was associated with increased risk of COVID-19 outbreaks, while increased vaccination was associated with reduced risk. Employee demographic risk factors varied across industry, but for the majority of industries, a higher proportion of black/African/Caribbean ethnicities and living in deprived areas, was associated with increased outbreak risk. A higher proportion of employees in the 60-64 age group was associated with reduced outbreak risk. There were significant associations between gender, work commute modes and staff contract type with outbreak risk, but these were highly variable across industries. CONCLUSIONS: This study has used novel national data linkages to identify potential risk factors of workplace COVID-19 outbreaks, including possible protective effects of vaccination and increased physical distance at work. The same methodological approach can be applied to wider occupational and environmental health research.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Salud Laboral , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Lugar de Trabajo , Industrias , Brotes de Enfermedades
9.
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol ; 36(4): 234-238, 2024 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837222

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Healthcare workers experience a disproportionate frequency of workplace violence. Identifying commonalities among incidents of workplace violence provides an opportunity for change to prevent and mitigate future violence. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite a continued decline in overall workplace violence, the rate of violence in the healthcare sector is steadily rising. While healthcare workers make up 13% of the workforce, they experience 60% of all workplace assaults. Environmental, structural, and staffing issues may all contribute to the increased rates of workplace violence affecting healthcare workers. SUMMARY: Comprehensive proactive workplace violence prevention programs can significantly reduce the frequency of violence and the negative impact on employees and institutions. Analyzing the factors that contribute to violence in the healthcare workplace provides the potential to mitigate these risks and reduce episodes of violence.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud , Violencia Laboral , Lugar de Trabajo , Humanos , Violencia Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia Laboral/prevención & control , Femenino , Salud Laboral
10.
Lipids Health Dis ; 23(1): 10, 2024 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38191357

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasingly recognized as a grave public health concern globally. It is associated with prevalent diseases including coronary heart disease, fatty liver, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Prior research has identified demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle, and genetic factors as contributors to obesity. Nevertheless, the influence of occupational risk factors on obesity among workers remains under-explored. Investigating risk factors specific to steelworkers is crucial for early detection, prediction, and effective intervention, thereby safeguarding their health. METHODS: This research utilized a cohort study examining health impacts on workers in an iron and steel company in Hebei Province, China. The study involved 5469 participants. By univariate analysis, multifactor analysis, and review of relevant literature, predictor variables were found. Three predictive models-XG Boost, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Random Forest (RF)-were employed. RESULTS: Univariate analysis and cox proportional hazard regression modeling identified age, gender, smoking and drinking habits, dietary score, physical activity, shift work, exposure to high temperatures, occupational stress, and carbon monoxide exposure as key factors in the development of obesity in steelworkers. Test results indicated accuracies of 0.819, 0.868, and 0.872 for XG Boost, SVM, and RF respectively. Precision rates were 0.571, 0.696, and 0.765, while recall rates were 0.333, 0.592, and 0.481. The models achieved AUCs of 0.849, 0.908, and 0.912, with Brier scores of 0.128, 0.105, and 0.104, log losses of 0.409, 0.349, and 0.345, and calibration-in-the-large of 0.058, 0.054, and 0.051, respectively. Among these, the Random Forest model demonstrated superior performance. CONCLUSIONS: The research indicates that obesity in steelworkers results from a combination of occupational and lifestyle factors. Of the models tested, the Random Forest model exhibited superior predictive ability, highlighting its significant practical application.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Salud Laboral , Humanos , Estudios de Cohortes , Factores de Riesgo , Obesidad/epidemiología , Análisis Factorial
11.
Scand J Public Health ; 52(2): 123-127, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36732911

RESUMEN

In contrast to leisure time physical activity, occupational physical activity may have adverse health effects-a phenomenon known as the "Physical activity paradox". Characteristics such as long duration, low intensity, static and restricted movement, body position and insufficient recovery are possible explanations as to why physical activity in the occupational context may "wear one out" rather than provide health benefits. We emphasise the role of low cardiorespiratory fitness as a potential contributor to the physical activity paradox, and present data suggesting that only 25% to 50% of Swedish workers in occupations with higher aerobic demands may have "sufficient" cardiorespiratory fitness to maintain good health during their employment. More research is needed to fully understand the complexity of the role of other confounding factors when examining the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and occupational workload. However, we believe that there is an increasing need for general awareness amongst Swedish authorities, employees and employers of the potential health consequences of low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, especially among workers with high occupational workloads. Importantly, when developing interventions targeting the working situation and/or cardiorespiratory fitness levels among workers, researchers should actively involve the relevant population in the design of the study in order to maximize the effect of the interventions on health outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Capacidad Cardiovascular , Salud Laboral , Humanos , Ejercicio Físico , Ocupaciones , Empleo , Aptitud Física
12.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 97(1): 9-21, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37950069

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the feasibility and effects of a simple-to-implement multicomponent intervention to reduce sedentary time of office workers. METHODS: Six groups of eight to ten office workers took part in the two-week Leicht Bewegt intervention. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline (T0, n = 52), after 2 weeks (T1, n = 46), and after 5 weeks (T2, n = 38), including subjective sedentary measures and social-cognitive variables based on the health action process approach (HAPA). Objective sedentary measures were obtained using activPAL trackers. RESULTS: The intention to reduce sedentary behavior during work increased significantly from T0 to T1. Participants' objective and subjective sitting time decreased significantly from T0 to T1, corresponding to an average decrease per 8-h-workday of 55 min (d = - .66) or 74 min (d = - 1.14), respectively. This reduction persisted (for subjective sitting time) at T2 (d = - 1.08). Participants indicated a high satisfaction with the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The Leicht Bewegt intervention offers a feasible and effective opportunity to reduce sedentary behavior at work. Randomized controlled trials including longer follow-up time periods are needed to validate its benefits in different workplaces.


Asunto(s)
Salud Laboral , Sedestación , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Factores de Tiempo , Lugar de Trabajo , Conducta Sedentaria
13.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1043, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622564

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Work-related violence committed by clients, patients, and customers represents a major occupational health risk for employees that needs to be reduced. METHODS: We tested a comprehensive violence prevention intervention involving active participation of both employees and managers in the Prison and Probation Service (PPS) and on psychiatric wards in Denmark. We used a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial design. We measured the degree of implementation of the intervention by registration of fidelity, reach, and dose and used a mixed-effects regression analysis to estimate the effects of the intervention. RESULTS: We recruited 16 work units for the intervention, but three work units dropped out. The average implementation rate was 73%. In the psychiatric wards, the intervention led to statistically significant improvements in the primary outcome (an increase in the degree to which managers and employees continuously work on violence prevention practices based on their registration and experiences), but none statistically significant improvements in any of the secondary outcomes. In the PPS units, the intervention did not lead to a statistically significant improvement in the primary outcome, but to statistically significant improvements in three secondary outcomes. CONCLUSION: Most work units were able to carry out the intervention as planned. The intervention showed mixed results regarding the primary outcome. Nevertheless, the results indicate improvements also in the sector where a change in the primary outcome was not achieved. The results point at that a participatory and comprehensive approach could be a viable way of working with violence prevention in high-risk workplaces. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN86993466: 20/12/2017.


Asunto(s)
Salud Laboral , Violencia , Humanos , Violencia/prevención & control , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Ocupaciones
14.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1560, 2024 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858699

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the field of health promotion, interorganisational networks are of growing relevance. However, systematic and target-oriented network management is of utmost importance for network development. The aim of this article is to report on the development of a cross-company network promoting physical activity, and to identify necessary activities and competencies for a systematic network management. METHODS: The network was systematically planned and implemented in a German technology park comprising different companies. To assess and describe the development of the network, quantitative social network analysis was conducted. To answer the question on the activities and competencies for systematic network development semi-structured interviews with participating stakeholders, and a focus group discussion with health promotion experts were conducted. The interviews were analysed deductively and inductively with the structuring content analysis method and the focus group discussion was analysed deductively by summarising key aspects of the discussion. RESULTS: Network metrics showed that the network became larger and denser during the planning phase, and stagnated during the implementation phase. As key facilitators for network development, participation of all stakeholders, a kick-off event, and the driving role of a network manager were identified. Necessary activities of the network manager were related to structural organisation, workplace health promotion offers, and cross-sectional tasks. The results suggested that not only professional and methodological competencies, but also social and self-competencies were required by the manager. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides initial guidance regarding the activities and required competencies of an interorganisational network manager. The results are of particular relevance for the context of workplace health promotion, since a network manager can be considered as a driving role for planning and implementing a cross-company network. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered in the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00020956, 18/06/2020).


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Grupos Focales , Promoción de la Salud , Lugar de Trabajo , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Humanos , Alemania , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Entrevistas como Asunto , Investigación Cualitativa , Salud Laboral
15.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 97(6): 661-674, 2024 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755483

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate and explore Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) management, office ergonomics, and musculoskeletal symptoms in a group of office workers relocating from cell offices to activity-based flex offices (AFOs). METHODS: The analysis was based on qualitative interview data with 77 employees and longitudinal questionnaire data from 152 employees. RESULTS: Results indicate that there was a need to clarify roles and processes related to the management of OHS. Self-rated sit comfort, working posture, and availability of daylight deteriorated and symptoms in neck and shoulders increased after the relocation and seemed to be influenced by many factors, such as difficulties adjusting the workstations, the availability of suitable workplaces, and age, sex, and individual needs. CONCLUSION: Research on the long-term effects of physical work environments and management of (OHS) issues after implementing activity-based flex offices is sparse. This study demonstrates the importance of planning and organising OHS issue management when implementing an AFO, and to carefully implement office ergonomics among office workers.


Asunto(s)
Ergonomía , Lugar de Trabajo , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Longitudinales , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Laboral , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Postura , Enfermedades Profesionales , Diseño Interior y Mobiliario , Condiciones de Trabajo
16.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1750, 2024 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951781

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Public health and working life are closely related. Even though Norway is one of the world's most equality-oriented countries, working life is still divided by gender. Women have a lower rate of participation in working life than men, they work more part-time and they have a higher sickness absence. Research has mostly focused on structural and cultural reasons for gender differences, rather than on the fact that women and men have different biology and face different health challenges. The aim of this project was to explore experienced associations between women's health and female participation in working life. METHODS: Qualitative methods were chosen for investigating women's experiences. We carried out in-depth interviews with 11 female high school teachers and supplemented the material with a focus group with five managers from the same organisation. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. We used the six steps of reflexive thematic analysis for consistency in the analysis process. RESULTS: The teachers shared a variety of experienced health issues within the field of women's health and perceived barriers in the work environment. Four main themes were identified: (1) invisibility of women's health at work, (2) complexity and lack of recognition of women's health at work, (3) women's health in work environment and (4) women's health and role conflicts. There were few contradictions between the two informant groups. We found that health, work and total life intertwine and that complexity, lack of recognition and invisibility of women's health appear at different levels in a mutual influence: for the women themselves, in the organisation and in society. CONCLUSION: Lack of recognition and invisibility of women's health in the work environment is suggested to influence women's work participation. The complexity of female health is not captured by gender-neutral structures in the work environment meant to protect and promote employees' occupational health. Recognition of women's health in the work context can therefore contribute to a gender-equal, health-promoting and sustainable working life.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Cualitativa , Maestros , Salud de la Mujer , Humanos , Femenino , Noruega , Adulto , Maestros/psicología , Maestros/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupos Focales , Entrevistas como Asunto , Salud Laboral , Instituciones Académicas , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología
17.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1788, 2024 Jul 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38965519

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Many people experience forms of gender-based violence and harassment (GBVH) in the context of their work. This includes a wide range of experiences, from subtle expressions of hostility to physical assault, that can also be of a sexual nature (e.g., sexual harassment or assault). This systematic review aimed to summarize findings about the prospective associations of work-related GBVH with people's health and occupational situation. METHODS: We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Scopus, Web of Science, MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for prospective studies in English from 1990 to May 24, 2023. Studies were included if they concerned a working population, exposure to any form of GBVH in the work context, and a health outcome or manifest occupational outcome. Quality was assessed with a modified version of the Cochrane 'Tool to Assess Risk of Bias in Cohort Studies', and studies assessed as low quality were excluded from the narrative synthesis. For the narrative synthesis, we grouped the results by similar exposures and outcomes and reported the strength and statistical significance of the associations. RESULTS: Of the 1 937 screened records, 29 studies were included in the narrative synthesis. Studies were mainly conducted in the USA and northern Europe and investigated exposure to sexual violence or harassment (SVH). Only two included studies investigated non-sexual kinds of GBVH. Consistently, studies showed associations of work-related SVH with poor mental health and there were indications of an association with hazardous substance use. There was no consistent evidence for an association of SVH with subsequent sickness absence, and there were too few studies concerning physical health and occupational outcomes to synthesize the results. CONCLUSIONS: There is consistent evidence of work-related SVH as a risk factor for subsequent poor mental health. There is no indication that the health consequences of SVH differ between women and men, although women are more often affected. There is a need for conceptual consistency, the consideration of non-sexual behaviors and prospective studies that test clear hypotheses about the temporal sequence of events.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Género , Acoso Sexual , Humanos , Violencia de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia de Género/psicología , Estudios Prospectivos , Acoso Sexual/psicología , Acoso Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Laboral , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Femenino , Masculino , Violencia Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia Laboral/psicología
18.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1099, 2024 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649890

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Self-initiated and proactive changes in working conditions through crafting are essential for shaping work and improving work-related well-being. Recently, the research stream of job crafting has been extended to other life domains. The present paper aims to study a novel crafting concept-work-nonwork balance crafting-investigating the role of its antecedents and identifying relevant outcomes. Work-nonwork balance crafting is defined as individuals' unofficial techniques and activities to shape their work-nonwork balance, here considering their life domain boundary preferences. METHODS: In the study, 1,060 employees in three European countries (Austria, Germany and Switzerland) were surveyed in a longitudinal three-wave study with three-month intervals. We explored the influences of job/home demands and resources as antecedents of work-nonwork balance crafting. Important constructs for employee health and well-being (i.e., work engagement, work-related burnout, mental well-being and detachment from work) were investigated as outcomes. RESULTS: The findings suggest that resources and demands in the context of work or home are key antecedents of work-nonwork balance crafting. Work-nonwork balance crafting was also predictive for important employee health and well-being outcomes over three months, mainly in a positive and health-promoting way. CONCLUSION: This study provides insights into the antecedents of proactive efforts to balance the complex interplay of life domains. By studying work-nonwork balance crafting, we provide a new perspective on crafting beyond job crafting, which may help maintain or improve employees' mental health and well-being.


Asunto(s)
Equilibrio entre Vida Personal y Laboral , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Alemania , Estudios Longitudinales , Suiza , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Austria , Agotamiento Profesional/psicología , Compromiso Laboral , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Salud Laboral
19.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 97(5): 485-522, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695906

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine if and which types of organisational interventions conducted in small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) in healthcare are effective on mental health and wellbeing. METHODS: Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched six scientific databases, assessed the methodological quality of eligible studies using QATQS and grouped them into six organisational intervention types for narrative synthesis. Only controlled studies with at least one follow-up were eligible. RESULTS: We identified 22 studies (23 articles) mainly conducted in hospitals with 16 studies rated of strong or moderate methodological quality. More than two thirds (68%) of the studies reported improvements in at least one primary outcome (mental wellbeing, burnout, stress, symptoms of depression or anxiety), most consistently in burnout with eleven out of thirteen studies. We found a strong level of evidence for the intervention type "Job and task modifications" and a moderate level of evidence for the types "Flexible work and scheduling" and "Changes in the physical work environment". For all other types, the level of evidence was insufficient. We found no studies conducted with an independent SME, however five studies with SMEs attached to a larger organisational structure. The effectiveness of workplace mental health interventions in these SMEs was mixed. CONCLUSION: Organisational interventions in healthcare workers can be effective in improving mental health, especially in reducing burnout. Intervention types where the change in the work environment constitutes the intervention had the highest level of evidence. More research is needed for SMEs and for healthcare workers other than hospital-based physicians and nurses.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional , Personal de Salud , Salud Mental , Lugar de Trabajo , Humanos , Ansiedad/psicología , Agotamiento Profesional/prevención & control , Depresión/psicología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Salud Laboral , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología
20.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1516, 2024 Jun 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844904

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic initiated an enduring shift in working patterns, with many employees now working at home (w@h). This shift has exacerbated existing high levels of occupational sedentary behaviour (SB) in office workers, which is a recognised risk to health and well-being. This study aimed to use the Capability-Opportunity-Motivation-Behaviour (COM-B) model to better understand both employees' SB, and line managers behaviour to assist employees to reduce SB when w@h, and identify how employees can best be supported to reduce SB. METHODS: Three online focus groups with employees aged 18-40 working in desk-based roles (e.g. administrative / sales / customer services) (n = 21), and three with line managers (n = 21) were conducted. The focus groups facilitated discussion regarding participants' current behaviour, what impacts it, and what could be done to reduce employee SB when w@h. The focus group data were thematically analysed guided by the COM-B framework to understand influences on behaviour, and to identify promising intervention strategies. RESULTS: Most participants recognised that w@h had elevated employee occupational SB, and line managers reported the importance of supporting employees to manage their workload, and encouraging and modelling taking breaks. There were multiple influences on both employee and line manager behaviour with capability, opportunity and motivation all perceived as influential, although not equally. For example, a major theme related to the reduced physical opportunities for employees to reduce their SB when w@h, including blurred work-life boundaries. Changes in physical opportunities also made supporting employees challenging for line managers. Additionally, the w@h environment included unique social opportunities that negatively impacted the behaviour of both groups, including an expectation to always be present online, and social norms. A range of strategies for reducing SB when w@h at both individual and organisational level were suggested. CONCLUSIONS: It was evident that SB when w@h is influenced by a range of factors, and therefore multi-component intervention strategies are likely to be most effective in reducing SB. Future intervention research is a priority to evaluate and refine strategies, and inform w@h guidance to protect both the short-term and long-term health consequences of elevated SB for those who continue to w@h.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Grupos Focales , Conducta Sedentaria , Humanos , Adulto , Masculino , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/epidemiología , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Motivación , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Teletrabajo , Salud Laboral
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