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Structural basis of nectin-1 recognition by pseudorabies virus glycoprotein D.

Li, An; Lu, Guangwen; Qi, Jianxun; Wu, Lili; Tian, Kegong; Luo, Tingrong; Shi, Yi; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, George F.
PLoS Pathog; 13(5): e1006314, 2017 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28542478
An early and yet indispensable step in the alphaherpesvirus infection is the engagement of host receptors by the viral envelope glycoprotein D (gD). Of the thus-far identified gD receptors, nectin-1 is likely the most effective in terms of its wide usage by multiple alphaherpesviruses for cell entry. The molecular basis of nectin-1 recognition by the gD protein is therefore an interesting scientific question in the alphaherpesvirus field. Previous studies focused on the herpes simplex virus (HSV) of the Simplexvirus genus, for which both the free gD structure and the gD/nectin-1 complex structure were reported at high resolutions. The structural and functional features of other alphaherpesviral gDs, however, remain poorly characterized. In the current study, we systematically studied the characteristics of nectin-1 binding by the gD of a Varicellovirus genus member, the pseudorabies virus (PRV). We first showed that PRV infects host cells via both human and swine nectin-1, and that its gD exhibits similar binding affinities for nectin-1 of the two species. Furthermore, we demonstrated that removal of the PRV gD membrane-proximal residues could significantly increase its affinity for the receptor binding. The structures of PRV gD in the free and the nectin-1-bound states were then solved, revealing a similar overall 3D fold as well as a homologous nectin-1 binding mode to its HSV counterpart. However, several unique features were observed at the binding interface of PRV gD, enabling the viral ligand to utilize different gD residues (from those of HSV) for nectin-1 engagement. These observed binding characteristics were further verified by the mutagenesis study using the key-residue mutants of nectin-1. The structural and functional data obtained in this study, therefore, provide the basis of receptor recognition by PRV gD.