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Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and bat coronavirus HKU9 both can utilize GRP78 for attachment onto host cells.

Chu, Hin; Chan, Che-Man; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Yixin; Yuan, Shuofeng; Zhou, Jie; Au-Yeung, Rex Kwok-Him; Sze, Kong-Hung; Yang, Dong; Shuai, Huiping; Hou, Yuxin; Li, Cun; Zhao, Xiaoyu; Poon, Vincent Kwok-Man; Leung, Sze Pui; Yeung, Man-Lung; Yan, Jinghua; Lu, Guangwen; Jin, Dong-Yan; Gao, George Fu; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Yuen, Kwok-Yung.
J Biol Chem; 293(30): 11709-11726, 2018 07 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29887526
Coronavirus tropism is predominantly determined by the interaction between coronavirus spikes and the host receptors. In this regard, coronaviruses have evolved a complicated receptor-recognition system through their spike proteins. Spikes from highly related coronaviruses can recognize distinct receptors, whereas spikes of distant coronaviruses can employ the same cell-surface molecule for entry. Moreover, coronavirus spikes can recognize a broad range of cell-surface molecules in addition to the receptors and thereby can augment coronavirus attachment or entry. The receptor of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). In this study, we identified membrane-associated 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) as an additional binding target of the MERS-CoV spike. Further analyses indicated that GRP78 could not independently render nonpermissive cells susceptible to MERS-CoV infection but could facilitate MERS-CoV entry into permissive cells by augmenting virus attachment. More importantly, by exploring potential interactions between GRP78 and spikes of other coronaviruses, we discovered that the highly conserved human GRP78 could interact with the spike protein of bat coronavirus HKU9 (bCoV-HKU9) and facilitate its attachment to the host cell surface. Taken together, our study has identified GRP78 as a host factor that can interact with the spike proteins of two Betacoronaviruses, the lineage C MERS-CoV and the lineage D bCoV-HKU9. The capacity of GRP78 to facilitate surface attachment of both a human coronavirus and a phylogenetically related bat coronavirus exemplifies the need for continuous surveillance of the evolution of animal coronaviruses to monitor their potential for human adaptations.