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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e53845, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224571

RESUMO

Objetivo: avaliar o impacto de um programa psicoeducacional nos níveis de autoeficácia, autoestima e sintomas ansiosos e depressivos em estudantes no início da graduação em enfermagem. Método: pesquisa multicêntrica, quase experimental, do tipo tempo-série, desenvolvida em duas instituições de ensino superior públicas, com 82 estudantes, no período de setembro de 2018 a maio de 2019. O programa psicoeducacional foi elaborado com base no construto da autoeficácia, baseando-se nas atividades de enfermagem da intervenção "Fortalecimento da autoestima", proposta pela Nursing Interventions Classification. Os desfechos avaliados foram: autoeficácia, mensurada pela Escala de Autoeficácia Geral e Percebida; autoestima, mensurada pela Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg; sintomas ansiosos e depressivos, avaliados pela Escala Hospitalar de Ansiedade e Depressão. Resultados: a intervenção psicoeducacional teve efeito positivo na percepção de autoeficácia geral dos estudantes. A autoestima e os sintomas ansiosos e depressivos não foram influenciados. Conclusão: os níveis de autoeficácia foram positivamente impactados pelo programa implementado.


Objective: to evaluate the impact of a psychoeducational program on the levels of self-efficacy, self-esteem, and anxious and depressive symptoms in students starting their undergraduate nursing program. Method: this quasi-experimental, multicenter, time-series type study was conducted with 82 students at two public institutions of higher education, from September 2018 to May 2019. Based on the self-efficacy construct, the psychoeducational program contemplated nursing activities of the "Strengthening self-esteem" intervention proposed by the Nursing Interventions Classification. The outcomes evaluated were self-efficacy, on the General and Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale; self-esteem, on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and anxious and depressive symptoms, on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: the psychoeducational intervention had a positive effect on the students' perception of general self-efficacy. Self-esteem and anxious and depressive symptoms were not influenced. Conclusion: the program impacted levels of self-efficacy positively.


Objetivo: evaluar el impacto de un programa psicoeducativo en los niveles de autoeficacia, autoestima y síntomas ansiosos y depresivos en estudiantes al inicio de sus estudios universitarios en enfermería. Método: investigación multicéntrica, cuasi-experimental, tipo serie temporal, desarrollada en dos instituciones públicas de educación superior, con 82 estudiantes, de septiembre de 2018 a mayo de 2019. El programa psicoeducativo se desarrolló con base en el constructo de autoeficacia y las actividades de enfermería de la intervención "Fortalecimiento de la autoestima", propuesta por la Nursing Interventions Classification. Los resultados evaluados fueron: autoeficacia, medida por la Escala de Autoeficacia General y Percibida; autoestima, medida por la Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg; síntomas de ansiedad y depresión, evaluados por la Escala Hospitalaria de Ansiedad y Depresión. Resultados: la intervención psicoeducativa tuvo un efecto positivo sobre la percepción de autoeficacia general de los estudiantes. La autoestima y los síntomas de ansiedad y depresión no se vieron afectados. Conclusión: los niveles de autoeficacia fueron impactados positivamente por el programa implementado.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Percepção , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Educação em Enfermagem/métodos , Ansiedade , Autoimagem , Saúde Mental , Depressão , Promoção da Saúde
3.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(5): e20201023, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468547

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to build and validate the appearance of a digital educational technology to promote the mental health of school adolescents. METHODS: methodological study, which included the elaboration and validation of the "Conect@dos com a S@ude" online course based on the Galvis-Panqueva methodological framework. The elaboration was based on a literature review and followed the Theory of Meaningful Learning. The validation was performed by a total of 21 adolescent students, using an instrument adapted for the study. A quantitative analysis was performed from the Content Validity Index and descriptive of the suggestions pointed out by the target audience. RESULTS: the analysis of the Content Validity index ranged from 0.8 to 1 in all evaluated items. The adolescents presented some suggestions for improvement for the course, most of them were accepted. CONCLUSION: the course was validated by the target audience.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Educacional , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3599-3607, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468655

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare quality of life indicators and clinical parameters among individuals participating in a cardiovascular health promotion program in the supplementary health sector. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 251 program participants living in the regions covered by the Vale do Taquari and Vale do Rio Pardo regional development councils in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Participants were predominantly women and elderly and had high cardiovascular risk (37.8%) and good self-reported quality of life. The clinical parameter means were body mass index obesity class I, normal blood pressure and lipid profile and adequate fasting blood sugar level. The results of the reassessment after one year showed a significant reduction in mean triglycerides (p = 0.031), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.000) and systolic blood pressure (p = 0.013), and a significant increase in the mean score for the general domain of the WHOQOL-BREF (p = 0.004). It is necessary to consider and address social determinants of health and promote integrated actions across various sectors, including both the public and private spheres.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 31(3): 553-560, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483612

RESUMO

Background: Hand hygiene (HH) compliance is an effective behavior in controlling hospital-acquired infection because the hand is the main means of transmitting infections in patient-medical staff communication as well as the inanimate environment. This study aimed to explore the effect of applying Pender's Health Promotion Model on the HH compliance of intensive care unit staff. Methods: This quasi-experimental study with a single research group was conducted from January to July in 2019. The required data were collected from 90 staff of the intensive care units of Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Iran through 1796 and 2343 opportunity of monitoring before and after the intervention. The data collection instruments were a standard HH observation form and a researcher-made HH questionnaire in the light of Pender's health promotion model. The data were statistically analyzed in SPSS using Paired-samples T-test and Chi-squared test. Results: The mean age of the 90 included participants was 35.92 (± 6.5) years and the mean length of their work experience was 10 (±1.5). The hand hygiene index rose from 23% before the intervention to 41.4% after the intervention (p=0.001). Moreover, statistically significant differences were found in moments after touching surroundings (p=0.001), before and after touching a patient (p=0.001), and also in perceived barriers (p=0.015), interpersonal influences (p=0.008) and situational influences (p<0.001). Conclusion: Pender's model showed to have improved the staff's HH compliance as a professional behavior.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar , Higiene das Mãos , Adulto , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
8.
Tijdschr Gerontol Geriatr ; 52(2)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498439

RESUMO

This study evaluates a public health campaign initiated by the Alzheimer Center Limburg of Maastricht University. The aim was to increase awareness of the influence of a healthy lifestyle on lowering the risk of dementia in community-dwelling inhabitants of the Province of Limburg (aged 40 - 75 years). The campaign used mass media and public events, supported by a campaign website and mobile application (MijnBreincoach app).  An additional district-oriented approach was chosen in the municipalities of Roermond, Landgraaf and Brunssum, in which local stakeholders were involved in the design and execution of campaign-related events. Population-level difference in awareness before and after the campaign was assessed in two independent samples. No pre-post difference was observed in the level of awareness of dementia risk reduction. An additional analyses in the post-campaign sample revealed that the group that reported to have heard of the campaign, was more often aware of dementia risk reduction and reported higher motivation for behavioural change than the group that had not heard of the campaign. The district-oriented approach resulted in better recognition of campaign-material and the mobile application. With regard to the individual lifestyle factors, healthy diet and physical activity were identified more often post-campaign. Cognitive activity was identified most often at both pre- and post-assessment, but there was no increase in awareness after the campaign.


Assuntos
Demência , Promoção da Saúde , Demência/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1604, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465329

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the level of and covariates associated with ambient air pollution health literacy (AAPHL) among adult residents of Taiwan. METHODS: With a cross-sectional study design, we conducted telephone interviews using a Chinese version AAPHL scale, which consisted of 24 items assessing 12 subdomains of AAPHL formed by 4 information processing competence matrices (i.e., access, understand, appraise, and apply) and 3 health contexts (i.e., healthcare, disease prevention, and health promotion). The AAPHL was with the lowest and highest score at 1 to 4, respectively. Between September and November 2020, a sample of 1017 and 280 adults was successfully interviewed via home phones and mobile phones, respectively. We employed multiple linear regression models to identify covariates significantly associated with overall and 4 matric-specific AAPHL scores. RESULTS: The mean and standard deviation (±SD) of overall AAPHL score was considered as moderate at 2.90 (±0.56), with the highest and lowest metric-specific score for "apply" (3.07 ± 0.59) and "appraise" (2.75 ± 0.66). Lower education was significantly associated with a lower overall score; and living with children < 12 years and single were both significantly associated with higher overall scores. We also noted a significant geographic variation in overall score in which people living in the east/remote islands had highest scores. CONCLUSIONS: People in Taiwan had only moderate level of AAPHL; and covariates including education, living arrangement, marital status, and area of living were significantly associated with AAPHL. These covariates should be considered in future educational interventions aiming to improve the AAPHL in the community.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Letramento em Saúde , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1616, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes; however, this risk can be reduced by engaging in positive health behaviours e.g. healthy diet and regular physical activity. As such behaviours are difficult to obtain and maintain there is a need to develop sustainable behavioural interventions following GDM. We aimed to report the process of systematically developing a health promotion intervention to increase quality of life and reduce diabetes risk among women with prior GDM and their families. We distil general lessons about developing complex interventions through co-production and discuss our extensions to intervention development frameworks. METHODS: The development process draws on the Medical Research Council UK Development of complex interventions in primary care framework and an adaptation of a three-stage framework proposed by Hawkins et al. From May 2017 to May 2019, we iteratively developed the Face-it intervention in four stages: 1) Evidence review, qualitative research and stakeholder consultations; 2) Co-production of the intervention content; 3) Prototyping, feasibility- and pilot-testing and 4) Core outcome development. In all stages, we involved stakeholders from three study sites. RESULTS: During stage 1, we identified the target areas for health promotion in families where the mother had prior GDM, including applying a broad understanding of health and a multilevel and multi-determinant approach. We pinpointed municipal health visitors as deliverers and the potential of using digital technology. In stage 2, we tested intervention content and delivery methods. A health pedagogic dialogue tool and a digital health app were co-adapted as the main intervention components. In stage 3, the intervention content and delivery were further adapted in the local context of the three study sites. Suggestions for intervention manuals were refined to optimise flexibility, delivery, sequencing of activities and from this, specific training manuals were developed. Finally, at stage 4, all stakeholders were involved in developing realistic and relevant evaluation outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive description of the development of the Face-it intervention provides an example of how to co-produce and prototype a complex intervention balancing evidence and local conditions. The thorough, four-stage development is expected to create ownership and feasibility among intervention participants, deliverers and local stakeholders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03997773 , registered retrospectively on 25 June 2019.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Gestacional , Diabetes Gestacional/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1632, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public health campaigns aim to promote awareness, increase knowledge, and encourage a target population to adopt desirable attitudes and behaviors. Assessing their reach from a multidimensional perspective through information technology can facilitate the development of more effective campaigns in public health response. METHODS: We scrutinized seven data sources from different perspectives to assess a health campaign launched in Brazil named "Syphilis No!". This campaign is part of an Agenda for strategic actions to reduce syphilis in Brazil which includes dissemination of educommunication materials to remind people of the importance of syphilis prevention, emphasizing "test, treat and cure" concept. We developed a multidimensional analysis framework and implemented an information system to process the data from a time series perspective, and assessed the effects over time, both before and after the campaign. We descriptively analyzed data related to the campaign, including e-news, search engine activity, online courses, serological tests, medication distribution and case notification rates. FINDINGS: Regarding search engine activity, we observed the highest volume of search during the first week of campaigns in 2018 (between November 25th and December 7th). Nevertheless, analyzing this data in a trend plot revealed sustained growth until the end of 2019. From March 2018, the amount of e-news posts related to syphilis in Brazil, indexed by Google, followed an increasing slope, with a record peak in October 2019. In addition, data showed that 12 new online courses related to syphilis disease were available on the AVASUS Platform Learning Management System (LMS), to support efforts to promote lifelong learning for health professionals, teachers, and students. These courses reached more than 22,000 students between February 2019 and September 2020. Serological test data showed that the number of tests carried out in 2019 were 375·18% more than in 2015, even accounting for population growth. Finally, starting from the middle of 2018, the syphilis case notification rates followed a decreasing curve. INTERPRETATION: From this perspective, the "Syphilis No!" Project was a positive influence, inducing policy to fight syphilis in Brazil by supporting the implementation of a testing, treatment, and cure agenda (#TesteTrateCure). Certainly, this inference was made by analyzing multidimensional aspects and because, prior to 2018, the country had largely neglected this disease, with no records of communication actions during that period.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Sífilis , Brasil/epidemiologia , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/prevenção & controle
12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1622, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was done as part of a larger study that aims to identify the most impactful and cost-effective strategies for the prevention and control of overweight and obesity in Kenya. Our objective was to involve stakeholders in the identification of the strategies that would be included in our larger study. The results from the stakeholder engagement are analyzed and reported in this paper. DESIGN: This was a qualitative study. A one-day stakeholder workshop that followed a deliberative dialogue process was conducted. PARTICIPANTS: A sample of stakeholders who participate in the national level policymaking process for health in Kenya. OUTCOME MEASURE: Strategies for the prevention and control of overweight and obesity in Kenya. RESULTS: Out of the twenty-three stakeholders who confirmed attendance, fifteen participants attended the one-day workshop. The stakeholders identified a total of 24 strategies for the prevention and control of overweight and obesity in Kenya. From the ranking process carried out the top six strategies identified were: a research-based strategy for the identification of the nutritional value of indigenous foods, implementation of health promotion strategies that focus on the creation of healthy environments, physical activity behavior such as gym attendance, jogging, walking, and running at the individual level, implementation of school curricula on nutrition and health promotion, integration of physical education into the new Competency-Based Education policy, and policies that increase use of public transport. CONCLUSION: The stakeholders identified and ranked strategies for the prevention and control of overweight and obesity in Kenya. This informs future overweight and obesity prevention research and policy in Kenya and similar settings.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1630, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IMPROVE aims to conduct a hybrid type 3 evaluation design to test the effectiveness of bundled implementation strategies on intervention fidelity of the Healthy School Start (HSS) program, while simultaneously monitoring effects on health outcomes of children and parents. The HSS is a 4-component family support program for children starting school (5-7 years of age) promoting healthy dietary habits and physical activity in the home environment to prevent childhood obesity and parents' risk of developing type 2 diabetes. METHODS: IMPROVE is a cluster-randomized controlled trial with two arms to evaluate and compare the effects of two different bundles of implementation strategies on intervention fidelity expressed as adherence and responsiveness at 12 and 24 months (primary outcomes). Thirty schools in two municipalities will participate in the study reaching about 1400 families per school year. In stakeholder workshops, key implementation determinants were identified according to the domains of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Through a consensus process with stakeholders, two bundles of implementation strategies were tailored to address context-specific determinants. Schools randomly assigned to group 1 will receive bundle 1 (Basic) and group 2 will receive bundle 1 + 2 (Enhanced). Bundle 2 consists of external facilitation, fidelity monitoring and feedback strategies. Secondary outcomes will include change in acceptability, appropriateness, feasibility, and organisational readiness as perceived by school staff. In addition, child weight status and diet, and parents' feeding practices and risk of type 2 diabetes will be monitored. Linear and ordinal regression analysis will be used to test the effect on the primary and secondary outcomes, taking clustering and covariates into consideration where needed. Process evaluation will be conducted through key stakeholder interviews to investigate experiences of the program and perceptions on sustainability. DISCUSSION: This systematic approach to investigating the effectiveness of two different bundles of implementation strategies tailored to context-specific determinants on the fidelity of the HSS intervention will provide new insight into feasible implementation strategies and external support needed for the HSS to be effective and sustainable. Results will help inform how to bridge the gap between the research on school-based health programs and routine practice in schools. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered prospectively at ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT04984421 , registered July 30, 2021.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Obesidade Pediátrica , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Sobrepeso , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Instituições Acadêmicas
15.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 12(2): 223-229, set. 2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - enfermagem (Brasil) | ID: biblio-1291237

RESUMO

Introdução: o adiamento da gestação ocorre por motivos diversos e possui maior risco de desenvolver complicações maternas, fetais e neonatais. O período do pré-natal se torna um momento propício para promoção da saúde dessas gestantes. Objetivo: descrever o perfil clínico da gestante com idade igual ou superior a 35 anos em um município de tríplice fronteira. Métodos: pesquisa quantitativa, do tipo retrospectiva e descritiva. Os dados são de prontuários de mulheres com idade igual ou maior que 35 anos que passaram por parto no período de 2012 a 2016. Para análise dos dados foi realizado o teste Qui-quadrado. Resultados: no período ocorreram 2.605 partos de gestações tardias, a maioria era brasileira e multípara e o parto cirúrgico o mais realizado. Quanto ao pré-natal, a maioria realizou. As intercorrências gestacionais mais encontradas foram a hipertensão arterial, diabetes mellitus e a pré-eclâmpsia. O parto cirúrgico teve maior incidência para prematuridade, baixo peso e como desfecho neonatal, a unidade de terapia neonatal. Conclusão: o perfil clínico das gestantes estudadas corrobora com outros resultados nacionais. Diante dos resultados evidenciados, destaca-se a importância dos profissionais de saúde conheçam os fatores de risco que as gestantes tardias estão expostas, para atuarem na prevenção de tais agravos. (AU)


Objective: To describe the clinical profile of pregnant women 35 years of age or older in a triple border city. Methods: Quantitative research, retrospective and descriptive. Data are from medical records of women aged 35 years or older who underwent labor from 2012 to 2016. For data analysis, the Chi-square test was performed. Results: There were 2,605 late pregnancies during the period, most were Brazilian and multiparous and the most performed surgical delivery. Most pregnant women had prenatal care. The most common gestational complications were hypertension, diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia. Surgical delivery had a higher incidence for prematurity, low weight and as a neonatal outcome, the neonatal therapy unit. Conclusion: The clinical profile of the pregnant women studied corroborates with other national results. Given the evidenced results, it is highlighted the importance of health professionals to know the risk factors to which late pregnant women are exposed to effectively act in the prevention of such diseases. (AU)


Objetivo: Describir el perfil clínico del gerente de 35 años o más en el municipio de frontera múltiple. Métodos: Investigación cuantitativa, retrospectiva y descriptiva. Los datos están listos para mujeres de 35 años o más y que alcanzan el período de 2012 a 2016. Para el análisis de los datos realizados o la prueba de Chi-cuadrado. Resultados: En el período en que ocurrieron 2,605 partes de contribuciones tardías, la mayoría fueron brasileñas y multíparas y el procedimiento quirúrgico o más realizado. En cuanto a la atención prenatal, la mayoría se realiza. Como las complicaciones gestacionales más comunes fueron hipertensión, diabetes mellitus y preeclampsia. El parto quirúrgico tuvo una mayor incidencia de prematuridad, bajo peso y, como resultado neonatal, una unidad de terapia neonatal. Conclusión: El perfil clínico de las embarazadas estudiadas se confirma con otros resultados nacionales. En vista de los resultados evidenciados, que muestran la importancia de los profesionales de la salud, los factores de riesgo que se retrasan están expuestos para actuar en la prevención de tales lesiones. (AU)


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde , Idade Materna , Enfermagem , Promoção da Saúde
16.
Edumecentro ; 13(3): 42-63, jul.-sept. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278988

RESUMO

RESUMEN Fundamento: la promoción de salud puede ser interpretada como un nuevo camino, una estrategia, una filosofía o una forma diferente de pensar y actuar para alcanzar la salud de los pueblos. La esclerosis múltiple es una enfermedad desmielinizante neurológica que requiere seguimiento a largo plazo, carácter sistemático y mayor competitividad en la asistencia médica para lograr calidad de vida percibida en estos pacientes. Objetivo: diseñar una estrategia para el seguimiento multidisciplinario a pacientes con esclerosis múltiple dirigida a incrementar la calidad de vida percibida. Métodos: se realizó una investigación de desarrollo en el Servicio de Neurología del Hospital Provincial Universitario Clinico-Quirúrgico "Arnaldo Milián Castro" de Villa Clara entre mayo 2017 a mayo 2019. Se emplearon métodos teóricos: inductivo-deductivo, analítico-sintético e histórico-lógico; y empíricos: análisis documental, observación directa, la entrevista estructurada y el grupo focal con los miembros del equipo de trabajo y los pacientes, además de otras técnicas investigativas. Resultados: existen insuficiencias en el seguimiento multidisciplinario de los pacientes y no se aprovechan los recursos humanos capacitados para su manejo, por lo que se elaboró una estrategia que fue valorada por criterios de expertos, la cual contiene un plan de acción para garantizar el funcionamiento de la consulta multidisciplinaria con la aplicación de un programa de seguimiento. Conclusiones: la estrategia diseñada está dirigida a la formación de un paciente responsable y activo ante su autocuidado, y al fortalecimiento de las capacidades del equipo de trabajo para alcanzar este objetivo; fue valorada como Muy adecuada por criterios de expertos.


ABSTRACT Background: health promotion can be interpreted as a new path, a strategy, a philosophy or a different way of thinking and acting to achieve the health of peoples. Multiple sclerosis is a neurological demyelinating disease that requires long-term follow-up, systematic character and greater competitiveness in medical care to achieve perceived quality of life in these patients. Objective: to design a strategy for the multidisciplinary follow-up of patients with multiple sclerosis aimed at increasing the perceived quality of life. Methods: a development investigation was carried out in the Neurology Service of the "Arnaldo Milián Castro" Clinical-Surgical University Hospital of Villa Clara Province from May 2017 to May 2019. Theoretical methods were used: inductive-deductive, analytical-synthetic and historical- logical; and empirical ones: documentary analysis, direct observation, the structured interview and the focal group with the members of the work team and the patients, in addition to other investigative techniques. Results: there were shortcomings in the multidisciplinary follow-up of the patients and the human resources trained for their management were not used, so a strategy was developed that was assessed by expert criteria, which contains an action plan to guarantee the functioning of multidisciplinary consultation with the application of a follow-up program. Conclusions: the designed strategy is aimed at training a patient who is responsible and active in self-care, and at strengthening the capacities of the work team to achieve this objective; it was rated as Very adequate by expert criteria.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Estratégias de Saúde , Educação Médica , Promoção da Saúde , Esclerose Múltipla
17.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 350, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496969

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The public health message 'move for health' is relevant given the high prevalence of insufficient physical activity, particularly in African countries. The call for behaviour modification including limiting unhealthy dietary patterns in these settings is therefore critical; however, there is limited knowledge on the adoption of health promotion strategies in the workplace. This study aimed to investigate workers' perceptions of physical activity and healthy eating. RESULTS: Five focus groups were conducted with 28 participants employed in a South African pharmaceutical manufacturing company to explore perceptions of physical activity and healthy eating. Results showed that two categories emerged: physical activity and unhealthy behaviours. Participants recognised the importance of obtaining sufficient physical activity in various domains, however believed that contemporary lifestyle limited opportunities for movement. Likewise, participants viewed healthy eating as unrealistic due to financial constraints. There was however agreement that total physical activity time could be increased during recreational pursuits outside of vocational time and may include intermittent walking for travel. These findings are important for workplace interventions and provide a more robust understanding of workers' perceptions of physical activity and healthy eating.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa
18.
J UOEH ; 43(3): 341-348, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483193

RESUMO

This paper provides a picture of the observations made over three hundred years ago by Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714) in light of current topical issues ranging from health problems related to work and lifestyle habits to the current burdensome COVID-19 pandemic. The main aspects of his work consist of descriptions of disorders linked to environmental risks, suggestions for measures for risk protection, and recommendations for healthy living. This paper focuses on Ramazzini's most relevant achievements by (1) analyzing the episodes that stimulated the composition of his main work and highlighting some observations on which current epidemiological and toxicological studies are based; (2) reviewing his work showing not only the systematic descriptions of work-related illnesses caused by occupational factors but also his sound etiological and physiopathological contributions to the field of occupational lung diseases, breast cancer, and environmental disorders; and (3) remarking on his main observations in the fields of risk prevention and health promotion, also in the light of some highly topical issues related to unhealthy lifestyle habits and the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Promoção da Saúde/história , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/história , Saúde do Trabalhador/história , Medicina do Trabalho/história , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Risco
19.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 42(5): 386-394, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372964

RESUMO

Background: Vaccine hesitancy has been defined as a delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccines, despite the availability of vaccine services. In the past, despite an impressive record of vaccine effectiveness in the United States, several factors have contributed to a decreased acceptance of vaccines that has resulted in outbreaks of infectious diseases, e.g., measles. More recently, vaccine hesitancy has spread to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. There are many causes of vaccine hesitancy, such as misinformation, fallacies, and myths, that have contributed to vaccine hesitancy. Objective: The purpose of the present report is to address the many causes of vaccine hesitancy and to suggest ways that the allergist/immunologist can be involved in the promotion of vaccine acceptance. Methods: The current COVID-19 vaccines were reviewed, together with their mechanisms(s) of action and adverse reactions to them. Results: The many causes of vaccine hesitancy include many doubts and concerns related to COVID-19 vaccines as well as a diminished level of confidence and trust by segments of the public in the nation's leaders in government, medical, and business communities, that those groups once enjoyed. Conclusion: Vaccination with COVID-19 vaccines is the only way that COVID-19 will be eliminated or at least controlled today, and vaccine hesitancy is the potential nemesis. The present report describes how the allergist/immunologist not only plays a major role in the delivery of specialized therapy of COVID-19 but also in educating the public with regard to the importance of COVID-19 vaccines, in dispelling misinformation, and in promoting trust for vaccine acceptance but must be informed with the most accurate and current information to do so.


Assuntos
Alergistas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Papel do Médico , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Relações Médico-Paciente , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Confiança , Estados Unidos
20.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444976

RESUMO

Food provides humans with more than just energy and nutrients, addressing both vital needs and pleasure. Food habits are determined by a wide range of factors, from sensorial stimuli to beliefs and, once commanded by local and seasonal availability, are nowadays driven by marketing campaigns promoting unhealthy and non-sustainable foodstuffs. Top-down and bottom-up changes are transforming food systems, driven by policies on SDGs and by consumer's concerns about environmental and health impacts. Food quality, in terms of taste, safety, and nutritional value, is determined by its composition, described in food composition databases (FDBs). FDBs are then useful resources to agronomists, food and mechanical engineers, nutritionists, marketers, and others in their efforts to address at maximum human nutrient needs. In this work, we analyse some relevant food composition databases (viz., purpose, type of data, ease of access, regularity of updates), inspecting information on the health and environmental nexus, such as food origin, production mode as well as nutritional quality. The usefulness and limitations of food databases are discussed regarding what concerns sustainable diets, the food 'matrix effect', missing compounds, safe processing, and in guiding innovation in foods, as well as in shaping consumers' perceptions and food choices.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento de Dados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Dieta , Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Comportamento Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
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