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1.
Univ. salud ; 27(1): 1-10, enero-abril 2025.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1555921

RESUMO

Introducción: La calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS) y los estados de ánimo son indicadores cruciales del bienestar en adolescentes, pero su relación con estudiantes de Antioquia, Colombia, no ha sido ampliamente estudiada. Objetivo: Determinar la CVRS y los estados de ánimo en escolares de Antioquia-Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal con 1957 escolares de 9 a 20 años. Se aplicaron mediciones de CVRS, ansiedad, depresión, hostilidad y alegría, actividad física, comportamiento sedentario, apoyo social de padres y nivel socioeconómico. Resultados: La calidad de vida alta (CVA) es más elevada en hombres, personas con alegría, estudiantes con apoyo de padres, activos físicamente y personas de nivel socioeconómico alto y medio. AL aumentar un año de edad, disminuye en un 15 % la CVA, y al aumentar la depresión, la ansiedad y el comportamiento sedentario disminuye la CVA. Además, los niveles de depresión y ansiedad son mayores en mujeres, estudiantes mayores, sin apoyo de los padres y personas sedentarias. Conclusiones: La CVRS se asocia con estados de ánimo, actividad física, comportamiento sedentario y apoyo de los padres; mientras que los estados de ánimo se asocian con el sexo, el apoyo de los padres, la CVS y el sedentarismo.


Introduction: Even though health-related quality of life (HRQL) and mood states are key indicators of the well-being of adolescents, their relationship has not been analyzed in students from Antioquia, Colombia. Objective: To determine HRQL and mood states in schoolchildren from Antioquia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,957 schoolchildren and adolescents aged between 9 and 20 years. Measurements of HRQL, anxiety, depression, hostility and happiness, physical activity, sedentary behavior, parental social support, and socioeconomic status were applied. Results: A high quality of life (HQL) was observed more frequently in male participants, students with parental support, physically active, and those belonging to medium and high socioeconomic status. HQL decreased 15% as their age increased by one year. Also, HQL was reduced when depression, anxiety, and sedentary behavior increased. Furthermore, depression and anxiety levels were higher in women, older students, as well as in those without parental control and with sedentary behavior. Conclusions: HRQL is associated with mood states, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and parental support. In contrast, mood states are related to gender, parental support, HQL, and sedentary lifestyle.


Introdução: A qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (CVRS) e os estados de humor são indicadores cruciais de bem-estar em adolescentes, mas sua relação com estudantes de Antioquia, Colômbia, não foi amplamente estudada. Objetivo: Determinar a CVRS e os estados de humor em escolares de Antioquia-Colômbia. Materiais e métodos: Estudo transversal com 1.957 escolares de 9 a 20 anos. Foram aplicadas medidas de QVRS, ansiedade, depressão, hostilidade e felicidade, atividade física, comportamento sedentário, apoio social dos pais e nível socioeconômico. Resultados: A alta qualidade de vida (CVA) é maior em homens, pessoas com alegria, estudantes com apoio parental, fisicamente ativos e pessoas de nível socioeconômico alto e médio. À medida que a idade aumenta em um ano, diminui em 15% o CVA, e ao aumentar a depressão, a ansiedade e o comportamento sedentário aumentam, o CVA diminui. Além disso, os níveis de depressão e ansiedade são mais elevados nas mulheres, nos estudantes mais velhos, sem apoio dos pais e nas pessoas sedentárias. Conclusões: A QVRS está associada a estados de humor, atividade física, comportamento sedentário e apoio parental; enquanto os estados de humor estão associados ao sexo, apoio parental, CVS e estilo de vida sedentário.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Saúde , Emoções , Felicidade , Hostilidade
2.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553824

RESUMO

Introdução: Acidentes ofídicos são doenças negligenciadas e constituem uma parcela importante da morbidade de pessoas em idade produtiva que vivem em zonas rurais. A maior parte dos seus efeitos a curto prazo é amplamente conhecida, especialmente aqueles de natureza clínica; no entanto, ainda se observa lacuna importante do conhecimento das consequências a longo prazo de tais agravos, notadamente as de ordem psíquica. Este artigo relata um caso de adoecimento mental subsequente a um acidente crotálico e gera reflexões de âmbito cultural e fisiopatológico a respeito das sequelas de tais eventos. Apresentação do caso: Trata-se de adolescente residente no interior baiano que foi vítima de mordedura por cascavel e teve necessidade de hospitalização em unidade de terapia intensiva. Observou-se que, mesmo após melhora clínica, iniciou com sintomas psicóticos prodrômicos e progrediu para piora mental grave, que culminou em internação psiquiátrica e diagnóstico de esquizofrenia no decorrer dos meses seguintes. Conclusões: Nota-se, neste caso, correlação direta entre esses dois eventos; mas, em razão da escassez de trabalhos científicos que abordem tais questões, depreende-se que é preciso investigar e estudar com maior profundidade possíveis associações entre acidentes crotálicos e psicoses.


Introduction: Snakebites are neglected diseases and constitute an important part of the morbidity of working-age people who live in rural areas. Most of their short-term effects are widely known, especially those of a clinical nature; however, there is still an important gap in the knowledge of the long-term consequences of such injuries, notably those of a psychotic nature. This article aims to report a case of mental illness subsequent to a rattlesnake bite accident and generate cultural and pathophysiological reflections regarding the consequences of such events. Case presentation: An adolescent residing in the interior of the state of Bahia was bitten by a rattlesnake and required hospitalization in an intensive care unit. It was observed that even after clinical improvement, the case started with prodromal psychotic symptoms and progressed to severe mental deterioration that culminated in psychiatric hospitalization and diagnosis of schizophrenia over the following months. Conclusions: In this case, there was a direct correlation between these two events, but because of the scarcity of scientific works that address such issues, it is necessary to investigate and study in greater depth possible associations between snakebite accidents and psychoses.


Introducción: Las mordeduras de serpientes son enfermedades desatendidas y constituyen una parte importante de la morbilidad de las personas en edad laboral que viven en zonas rurales. La mayoría de sus efectos a corto plazo son ampliamente conocidos, especialmente los de carácter clínico; sin embargo, todavía existe un importante vacío en el conocimiento de las consecuencias a largo plazo de este tipo de lesiones, en particular las de carácter psíquico. Este artículo tiene como objetivo informar un caso de enfermedad mental posterior a un accidente crotálico y generar reflexiones culturales y fisiopatológicas sobre las consecuencias de tales eventos. Presentación del caso: Se trata de un adolescente residente en el interior de Bahía que fue mordido por una serpiente cascabel y requirió hospitalización en unidad de cuidados intensivos. Se observó que, aún después de la mejoría clínica, comenzó con síntomas psicóticos prodrómicos y progresó a un deterioro mental severo que culminó con hospitalización psiquiátrica y diagnóstico de esquizofrenia en los meses siguientes. Conclusiones: En este caso, existe una correlación directa entre estos dos eventos pero, debido a la escasez de trabajos científicos que aborden tales cuestiones, parece necesario investigar y estudiar con mayor profundidad posibles asociaciones entre accidentes crotálicos y psicosis.

3.
Univ. salud ; 26(2): A10-A18, mayo-agosto 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554429

RESUMO

Introducción: El suicidio es la tercera causa de muerte de jóvenes entre 15 y 19 años. Ante esto, los ambientes escolares pueden favorecer el fomento de la salud mental de los adolescentes, permitir la identificación temprana de factores de riesgo y aportar en la prevención de conductas suicidas. Una de las estrategias de prevención es el entrenamiento de "gatekeepers". Objetivo: Determinar el efecto del programa "Abriendo Puertas para la Vida" sobre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas en prevención de conductas suicidas en un grupo de profesores de secundaria de una institución educativa de San Juan de Pasto, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio preexperimental, con un grupo de intervención y medidas pre y pos-seguimiento. Participaron nueve docentes voluntarios durante dos jornadas de formación. Resultados: Se identificaron cambios positivos en conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de los participantes entre pretest y postest, en la mayoría de las subdimensiones evaluadas; sin embargo, tres años después, estos cambios se mantuvieron tan solo en conocimientos sobre las conductas suicidas y en actitudes hacia la prevención. Conclusión: El programa "Abriendo Puertas para la Vida" evidenció efectividad y pertinencia, sin embargo, el mantenimiento de sus efectos requiere de acciones de seguimiento y acompañamiento a los docentes formados.


Introduction: Suicide is the third cause of death in young people aged between 15 to 19 years. Thus, school environments can promote mental health of adolescents through early identification of risk factors and prevention of suicidal behaviors. One prevention strategy is the training of "gatekeepers". Objective: To determine the impact of the "Opening Doors to Life" program on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding prevention of suicidal behavior in a set of high school teachers from an educational institution in San Juan de Pasto, Colombia. Materials and methods: A pre-experimental study with an intervention group and pre- and post-follow-up measurements. Nine volunteer teachers participated during two training sessions. Results: Positive changes regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the participants during pretest and posttest were observed for the majority of evaluated sub-dimensions. However, after three years, the positive measures prevailed only for knowledge about suicidal behavior and attitudes toward prevention. Conclusion: The "Opening Doors to Life" program showed effectiveness and relevance. However, maintaining its impact requires follow-up actions and support of trained teachers.


Introdução: O suicídio é a terceira causa de morte de jovens entre 15 e 19 anos. Diante disso, os ambientes escolares podem promover a promoção da saúde mental em adolescentes, permitir a identificação precoce de fatores de risco e contribuir para a prevenção do comportamento suicida. Uma das estratégias de prevenção é a formação de "gatekeepers". Objetivo: Determinar o efeito do programa "Abrindo Portas para a Vida" nos conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas na prevenção do comportamento suicida em um grupo de professores do ensino médio de uma instituição educacional em San Juan de Pasto, Colômbia. Materiais e métodos: Estudo pré-experimental, com grupo de intervenção e medidas pré e pós-acompanhamento. Nove professores voluntários participaram durante dois dias de treinamento. Resultados: Foram identificadas mudanças positivas nos conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas dos participantes entre o pré-teste e o pós-teste, na maioria das subdimensões avaliadas; porém, três anos depois, essas mudanças se mantiveram apenas no conhecimento sobre comportamentos suicidas e atitudes frente à prevenção. Conclusão: O programa "Abrindo Portas para a Vida" mostrou efetividade e relevância, porém, a manutenção de seus efeitos requer ações de acompanhamento e apoio a professores capacitados.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Suicídio , Psicologia
4.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 82(5): 1-10, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of Hansen disease (HD) can be difficult when acid-fast bacilli are not detected in the patient's skin sample. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that detailed morphological analysis of nonspecific inflammatory and/or noninflammatory alterations in dermal nerves as well as skin adnexa in leprosy-suspected biopsy samples could improve the efficacy of histopathological diagnosis. METHODS: Patients with one to five skin lesions were enrolled in the study and classified into three groups by skin histopathology findings: Hansen disease (HD, n = 13), other diseases (OD, n = 11), and inconclusive cases (INC, n = 11). We quantified dermal nerve damage via the nerve lesion index (NLI) and PGP9.5-immunoreactive axon quantitative index in dermal nerves (AQI). We also measured inflammatory involvement of adnexa in cutaneous samples as indirect evidence of HD. RESULTS: We observed a higher median endoneurial inflammatory infiltrate NLI (HD = 0.5; INC = 0; OD = 0; p < 0.001) and more frequent inflammatory involvement of skin adnexa in samples of the HD group compared with those of the INC and OD groups (HD = 7; INC = 1; OD = 0). However, samples from the INC and OD groups also showed inflammatory and noninflammatory damage of dermal nerves, with 2 or more kinds of alterations in nerves in the same sample (respectively: INC = in 1 and 2 samples; OD = in 3 and 5 respectively). The quantification of PGP9.5-immunoreactive axons in dermal nerves revealed no difference between the groups. CONCLUSION: A detailed morphological analysis of cutaneous nerves in lesions with a suspicion of HD enabled us to select patients with nonspecific inflammatory or non-inflammatory lesions in the dermal nerves in the INC and OD groups, so they may be clinically monitored aiming at a possible future diagnosis of the disease. These INC and OD patients cannot have the HD diagnosis definitely excluded, and HD may coexist with another disease as a comorbidity.


ANTECEDENTES: A hanseníase pode ter o seu diagnóstico histopatológico dificultado quando bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes não são encontrados nas amostras de pele dos pacientes. OBJETIVO: Demonstrar que uma análise morfológica detalhada de alterações histopatológicas dos nervos dérmicos pode aumentar a eficácia diagnóstica. MéTODOS: Foram selecionadas amostras de pele de pacientes com uma a cinco lesões suspeitas de hanseníase. Os casos selecionados foram classificados conforme achados histopatológicos: hanseníase (HD, n = 13), casos inconclusivos (INC, n = 11), e outras doenças (OD, n = 11). Quantificamos as lesões dos nervos cutâneos por meio do índice de lesão de nervos (nerve lesion index, NLI, em inglês) e do índice quantitativo de axônios (axon quantitative index, AQI, em inglês) imunorreativos a PGP9.5 nos nervos cutâneos. Também medimos o envolvimento inflamatório dos anexos em amostras de pele como evidência indireta de hanseníase. RESULTADOS: Foram observadas no grupo HD medianas mais altas do NLI com relação a infiltrados inflamatórios endoneurais (HD = 0,5; INC = 0; OD = 0; p < 0,001) e mais alta frequência de acometimento inflamatório de anexos cutâneos (HD = 7; INC = 1; OD = 0). Entretanto, as amostras dos grupos INC e OD também mostraram comprometimento inflamatório e não inflamatório dos nervos cutâneos, com 2 ou mais tipos de alterações de nervos na mesma amostra (respectivamente: INC = 1 e 2; OD = 3 e 5). Não houve diferença significativa na quantidade de axônios endoneurais imunorreativos a PGP9.5 entre os grupos. CONCLUSãO: A análise morfológica detalhada dos nervos cutâneos em lesões suspeitas de hanseníase permitiu selecionar pacientes com lesões inespecíficas inflamatórias ou não inflamatórias nos nervos dérmicos nos grupos INC e OD, para que sejam monitorados clinicamente visando um possível diagnóstico futuro da doença. Esses pacientes INC e OD não podem ter o diagnóstico de HD definitivamente excluído, e a hanseníase pode coexistir com outra doença como uma comorbidade.


Assuntos
Imuno-Histoquímica , Hanseníase , Pele , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Hanseníase/patologia , Hanseníase/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Pele/inervação , Pele/patologia , Biópsia , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/análise , Adolescente , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
5.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 41(1): 2345382, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843894

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective was to describe the technique and clinical outcome of microwave thermal ablation (MWA) and perfusion combined with synthetic bone substitutes in treating unicameral bone cysts (UBCs) in adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 14 consecutive patients were enrolled by percutaneous MWA and saline irrigation combined with synthetic bone substitutes. Clinical follow-up included the assessment of pain, swelling, and functional mobility. Radiological parameters included tumor volume, physis-cyst distance, cortical thickness of the thinnest cortical bone, and the Modified Neer classification system. RESULTS: The mean follow-up was 28.9 months (26-52 months). All UBCs were primary, and all patients underwent the MWA, saline perfusion, and reconstruction combined with a synthetic bone substitute session, except for one patient (7.1%) who required a second session. All patients had good clinical results at the final follow-up. Satisfactory cyst healing was achieved in 13 cases according to radiological parameters. Tumor volume decreased from a mean of 49.7 cm3 before surgery treatment to 13.9 cm3 at the final follow-up (p < 0.01). The physis-cyst distance increased from a mean of 3.17-4.83 cm at the final follow-up (p < 0.01). Cortical thickness improved from a mean of 1.1 mm to 2.0 mm at the final follow-up (p < 0.01). According to the proposed radiological criteria, our results were considered successful (Grading I and II) in 13 patients (92.9%) at the final follow-up. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous microwave ablation combined with a bone graft substitute is a minimally invasive, effective, safe, and cost-effective approach to treating primary bone cysts in the limbs of adolescents.


Assuntos
Cistos Ósseos , Substitutos Ósseos , Micro-Ondas , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Cistos Ósseos/cirurgia , Cistos Ósseos/diagnóstico por imagem , Substitutos Ósseos/uso terapêutico , Micro-Ondas/uso terapêutico , Seguimentos , Criança , Procedimentos de Cirurgia Plástica/métodos , Adulto Jovem , Técnicas de Ablação/métodos
8.
Am J Prev Med ; 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844148

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Physical activity (PA) is a promising way to improve mental health in children and adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The current review aimed to explore the potential neurobiological, psychosocial, and behavioral mechanisms between PA interventions and mental health in children and adolescents with NDDs. METHODS: Web of Science, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and ERIC were searched from inception to June 2023. Randomized controlled trials/quasi-experimental designs applying PA interventions and reporting at least one mental health outcome and at least one potential mechanism in children and adolescents with NDDs were included. The best evidence synthesis rating system (BESRS) was adopted to determine the strength and consistency of potential mechanisms and was performed in 2024. RESULTS: In total, 45 studies were included, 29 of which were randomized controlled trials and 16 were quasi-experimental, with a total of 1,751 participants. According to the BESRS, neurobiological (theta activity and P3 amplitude), psychosocial (social skills and social participation), and behavioral (motor skills and sleep) mechanisms were the frequently examined and consistent mechanisms through which PA affected mental health in children and adolescents with NDDs. However, evidence regarding P3 latency, beta activity, and physical self-concept was insufficient. DISCUSSION: Future PA interventions could consider neurobiological (theta activity and P3 amplitude), psychosocial (social skills and social participation), and behavioral (motor skills and sleep) mechanisms. Alternatively, PA can be developed as an adjunctive approach with interventions that specifically focus on these mechanisms to enhance mental health in children and adolescents with NDDs.

9.
J Affect Disord ; 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) becomes a growing concern during the digital era, especially with the pandemic's social distancing measures. It is essential to comprehend the psychosocial predictors and impacts of IGD. METHODS: A two-wave annual panel study was conducted in Zigong, China, utilizing regional sampling through school-based surveys involving upper primary school to high school students. Data were collected in October 2020 (T1, N = 94,020) and October 2021 (T2, N = 60,551). Self-report data were collected on demographic information, internet gaming behavior, and other mental health factors. Cross-lagged panel models (CLPM) were employed to estimate the bidirectional relationships between the variables. RESULTS: At T1, 65,643 (72.6 %) participants identified as gamers; at T2, this number decreased to 42,213 (69.7 %). T1 IGD symptoms demonstrated predictability for all T2 psychological variables. Within the framework of the CLPM examining the interplay between IGD symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and hyperactivity/inattention, we uncovered significant reciprocal cross-lagged effects between these variables over time. The relationship between T1 IGD symptoms and T2 anxiety symptoms had age-specific differences, with 13-15-year-old boys displaying the highest coefficient, which decreased for the 16-18 age group. LIMITATIONS: Our study is subject to potential recall bias associated with self-reported retrospective data. Additionally, our analysis assumes temporal ordering between variables, an assumption that may not always hold in complex systems. CONCLUSIONS: There are reciprocal relationships between IGD symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and hyperactivity/inattention in adolescents, underscoring the imperative need for comprehensive strategies aimed at addressing the impact of IGD on mental health and overall well-being.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844368

RESUMO

The 2021 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System (CNS5), introduced significant changes, impacting tumors ranging from glial to ependymal neoplasms. Ependymal tumors were previously classified and graded based on histopathology, which had limited clinical and prognostic utility. The updated CNS5 classification now divides ependymomas into 10 subgroups based on anatomic location (supratentorial, posterior fossa, and spinal compartment) and genomic markers. Supratentorial tumors are defined by zinc finger translocation associated (ZFTA) (formerly v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene [RELA]), or yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) fusion; posterior fossa tumors are classified into groups A (PFA) and B (PFB), spinal ependymomas are defined by MYCN amplification. Subependymomas are present across all these anatomic compartments. The new classification kept an open category of "not elsewhere classified" or "not otherwise specified" if no pathogenic gene fusion is identified or if the molecular diagnosis is not feasible. Although there is significant overlap in the imaging findings of these tumors, a neuroradiologist needs to be familiar with updated CNS5 classification to understand tumor behavior, for example, the higher tendency for tumor recurrence along the dural flap for ZFTA fusion-positive ependymomas. On imaging, supratentorial ZFTA-fused ependymomas are preferentially located in the cerebral cortex, carrying predominant cystic components. YAP1-MAMLD1-fused ependymomas are intra- or periventricular with prominent multinodular solid components and have significantly better prognosis than ZFTA-fused counterparts. PFA ependymomas are aggressive paramedian masses with frequent calcification, seen in young children, originating from the lateral part of the fourth ventricular roof. PFB ependymomas are usually midline, noncalcified solid-cystic masses seen in adolescents and young adults arising from the fourth ventricular floor. PFA has a poorer prognosis, higher recurrence, and higher metastatic rate than PFB. Myxopapillary spinal ependymomas are now considered grade II due to high recurrence rates. Spinal-MYCN ependymomas are aggressive tumors with frequent leptomeningeal spread, relapse, and poor prognosis. Subependymomas are noninvasive, intraventricular, slow-growing benign tumors with an excellent prognosis. Currently, the molecular classification does not enhance the clinicopathologic understanding of subependymoma and myxopapillary categories. However, given the molecular advancements, this will likely change in the future. This review provides an updated molecular classification of ependymoma, discusses the individual imaging characteristics, and briefly outlines the latest targeted molecular therapies.

12.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844416

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mental health concerns among adolescents are increasingly prevalent, yet underrecognized. Adolescents with psychological distress often present to the emergency department (ED) with somatic symptoms. Due to inadequate time for rapport building and lack of familiarity of ED clinicians with psychosocial evaluation, these concerns often get missed. We describe the development and implementation of the Youth Well Being (YWB) questionnaire, a self-administered psychosocial screening tool that aims to overcome the communication barriers to psychosocial evaluation. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team used a Delphi-like approach to develop the questionnaire, using the home, education, activities/peers, drugs/alcohol, suicidality, emotions/behavior, discharge resources (HEADS-ED) questionnaire as the main reference. Modifications were made based on panel members' clinical experience and adapted to suit local sociocultural context. The YWB questionnaire is administered to adolescents aged 10 to 19 years presenting to the KK Women's and Children's Hospital ED with possible psychosomatic symptoms and behavioral or mental health issues. Positive findings prompt further targeted face-to-face interviews by the clinicians to facilitate appropriate psychosocial referral. RESULTS: The 9 domains in the YWB questionnaire explore potential psychosocial difficulties that affect the adolescent's well-being and aim to uncover potential issues that could account for the adolescent's symptoms. We discuss the rationale behind the questions and response options in the YWB questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: The YWB questionnaire is the first initiative in Singapore to enable efficient psychosocial screening of at-risk adolescents in the ED. This communication tool can potentially be used in other health care settings to enable early recognition and intervention for adolescents distressed by psychosocial problems.

13.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 316(6): 333, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stiff skin syndrome (SSS) is a rare disease characterized by thickened, indurated skin and limited joint movement. Multiple diverse phenotypes have been reported, and the correlation of severity with the clinical heterogeneity and histopathological findings of SSS needs to be refined. OBJECTIVE: To define subtypes based on clinical features and predict the prognosis of a new SSS classification. METHODS: Eighty-three patients with SSS were retrospectively reviewed for clinicopathological manifestations and routine laboratory workup, including 59 cases obtained from a PubMed search between 1971 and 2022 and 24 cases diagnosed in our department between 2003 and 2022. RESULTS: Among the 83 patients, 27.7, 41, and 31.3% had classic widespread, generalized segmental, and localized SSS, respectively. Joint immobility was present in 100, 71, and 20% of classic, generalized, and localized cases, respectively. Histopathologic findings were common among the 3 groups, and based on that, we further found a difference in the distribution of proliferative collagen. 54.5% of classic and 50% of generalized cases occurred throughout the dermis or the subcutis, whereas 76% of localized cases were mainly involved in the reticular dermis or subcutis. In patients with incipient localized SSS, 42% (21/50) developed generalized SSS, and only 6% (3/50) progressed to classic SSS, whereas more than half of the incipient generalized SSS cases (60.6%, 20/33) developed classic SSS. LIMITATIONS: This retrospective study was limited to previously published cases with limited data. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a distinct clinical classification characterized by lesion distribution, including classic widespread, generalized segmental, and localized SSS, associated with disease severity and prognosis.


Assuntos
Pele , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Pele/patologia , Adulto Jovem , Criança , Prognóstico , Dermatopatias Genéticas/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias Genéticas/classificação , Dermatopatias Genéticas/patologia , Idoso , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Pré-Escolar , Colágeno/metabolismo , Contratura
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844701

RESUMO

Adolescence is a time of increased vulnerability to mental health conditions, which may necessitate hospitalization. This study sought to identify and characterize patterns of adolescent (re-)hospitalizations. The one-year (re-)hospitalization patterns of 233 adolescents were analyzed. The sequences of hospitalization and discharge was examined using cluster analyses. Results revealed five distinct (re-)hospitalization patterns or clusters: Cluster A represented brief hospitalizations with 56 cases (24.03%) averaging 7.71 days; cluster B consisted of repetitive short hospitalizations involving 97 cases (41.63%) with an average of 19.90 days; cluster C encompassed repetitive medium hospitalizations included 66 cases (28.33%) averaging 41.33 days; cluster D included long hospitalizations with 11 cases (4.72%) and an average of 99.36 days; cluster E depicted chronic hospitalizations, accounting for 3 cases (1.29%) with an average stay of 138.67 days. Despite no age-based differences across clusters, distinctions were noted in terms of sex, diagnoses, and severity of clinical and psychosocial difficulties. The study identified characteristics of both regular and atypical adolescent hospitalization users, emphasizing the distribution of hospitalization days and their associated clinical attributes. Such insights are pivotal for enhancing the organization of child and adolescent mental health services to cater to the growing care requirements of this age group.

15.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies demonstrate that 20-50% of adolescents and young adults (AYA, age 15-39 years) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receive care at specialty cancer centers (SCC); yet a significant survival benefit has been observed for patients at these sites. Our objective was to identify patients at risk of severe geographic barriers to SCC-level care. METHODS: We used data from the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries Cancer in North America database to identify AYA ALL patients diagnosed between 2004-2016 across 43 U.S. states. We calculated driving distance and travel time from counties where participants lived to the closest SCC sites. We then used multivariable logistic regression models to examine the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics of counties where AYA ALLs resided and the need to travel >1 hour to obtain care at an SCC. RESULTS: Among 11,813 AYA ALL patients, 43.4% were 25-39 years old, 65.5% were male, 32.9% were Hispanic, and 28.7% had public insurance. We found 23.6% of AYA ALL patients from 60.8% of included U.S. counties would be required to travel >1 hour one-way to access an SCC. Multivariable models demonstrate that patients living in counties that are non-metropolitan, with lower levels of educational attainment, with higher income inequality, lower internet access, located in primary care physician shortage areas and with fewer hospitals providing chemotherapy services are more likely to travel >1 hour to access an SCC. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial travel-related barriers exist to accessing care at SCCs across the U.S, particularly for patients living in areas with greater concentrations of historically marginalized communities.

16.
J Res Adolesc ; 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845089

RESUMO

In Miller v. Alabama (2012), the Supreme Court abolished mandatory juvenile life without parole (JLWOP) sentences and subsequently decided that the ruling applied retroactively (Montgomery v. Louisiana, 2016), effectively rendering thousands of inmates eligible for resentencing and potential release from prison. In its decisions, the Court cited developmental science, noting that youth, by virtue of their transient immaturity, are less culpable and more amenable to rehabilitation relative to their adult counterparts. Specifically, the Court notes adolescents' propensity for impulsive action, sensitivity to social influence, and difficulty understanding long-term consequences. Even so, these rulings raised concerns regarding the consequences of releasing prisoners who had committed heinous crimes as juveniles. Several years after the Court's decision, preliminary data are now available to shed light on rates of recidivism among those released. The current paper comprises three goals. First, we discuss the science of adolescent development and how it intersects with legal practice, contextualizing the Court's decision. Second, we present recidivism data from a sample of individuals formerly sentenced to JLWOP in Pennsylvania who were resentenced and released under Miller and Montgomery (N = 287). Results indicate that 15 individuals received new criminal charges up to 7 years postrelease (5.2%), the majority of which were nonviolent offenses. This low rate of recidivism is consistent with the developmental science documenting compromised decision-making during the adolescent years, followed by desistance from criminal behavior in adulthood. Lastly, we discuss the importance of interdisciplinary collaborations between researchers and legal practitioners, as well as critical future avenues of research in this area.

17.
J Res Adolesc ; 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845091

RESUMO

Adolescent cognitive and behavioral regulation is influenced by multidimensional and multidirectional processes within and across biological and contextual systems that shift throughout development. Key among these influences are distal processes such as early life socioeconomic position (SEP), and proximal processes such as pubertal development, but questions remain concerning how links between SEP, pubertal development, and cognitive and behavioral regulation accumulate and unfold over adolescence. In the current study, and in line with Dr. John Schulenberg's foundational work, direct associations between SEP, puberty, and adolescent cognitive and behavioral regulation were examined; then pubertal timing and tempo were considered as moderators and mediators of links between SEP and adolescent cognitive and behavioral regulation. Data were drawn from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, a longitudinal study of 970 youth (52% male; 80% White, 13% Black, and 7% another race/ethnicity). Cognitive and behavioral regulation was measured using direct assessments of working memory, planning, risky decision-making, and impulse control at age 15. SEP included maternal education and family income-to-needs and was averaged from birth to 54 months old; estimates of pubertal timing and tempo were derived using logistic growth curve models from age 9 to age 15. SEP was directly associated with cognitive and behavioral regulation. Pubertal development tended to moderate those links, but rarely mediated them. Specifically, socioeconomic disadvantage along with earlier timing or faster tempo tended to be associated with worse cognitive and behavioral regulation. Overall, findings suggest that pubertal timing and tempo may exacerbate existing environmental constraints.

18.
J Adolesc ; 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the context of rural Bihar where few women work outside the home, what scope do adolescent girls and young women have to transition into wage work and careers? While the mobility of girls is still widely restricted to secure their marriageability, the spread of higher schooling and the internet has inflated aspirations and levelled them out across boys, girls and social classes. METHODS: The present study drew on 45 focus group discussions and 73 in-depth interviews among adolescent girls and young women and related stakeholders to develop 32 cases of transitioning girls across four districts of rural Bihar in India. The qualitative data were collected in 2022 and analysed using a combination of thematic and comparative narrative analyses. RESULTS: The analysis identified some common features of transitioning girls and their pathways. Many girls had been forced by circumstance-household shocks or chronic poverty-to earn money, thereby building their skills and self-efficacy. Others were from families where progressive values ensured their mobility and exposure. Yet others transitioned "by stealth." But all girls had the backing of at least one parent and all had to learn to navigate public space while safeguarding their reputations. By researching actual pathways (rather than distant dreams), the study identifies a variety of transition outcomes, including "good" jobs as teachers, nurses, and police officers, "low entry" jobs in factories and new services, and full-time businesses built from scratch. CONCLUSION: The paper suggests that interventions be designed separately for these distinct outcomes and that efforts are best directed towards girls already "self-transitioning" and demonstrating the requisite resolve and self-efficacy.

19.
Health Promot Pract ; : 15248399241255376, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845227

RESUMO

Active school travel (AST) is an effective approach for increasing children's physical activity and independent mobility, but policy supporting AST is lacking. This study aims to explore children's experiences of AST to inform a policy recommendation. Photovoice methodology with a qualitative approach was applied, with children taking pictures on their way to school. This was followed by focus groups where the children explored their experiences of AST based on their photos. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The results show that the children valued independent mobility and wanted to be involved in decisions about their travels; they also expressed feelings of increased responsibility and personal growth as a consequence. Although the children recognized areas of improvement regarding infrastructure, especially regarding heavy traffic that jeopardized travel safety, they continued using AST. Finally, the children talked about the value of the health and environmental benefits of AST. Opportunities for friendship, play, and making decisions about their own time were highlighted as important incentives. The benefits from AST are many for children, as well as for society. The result has informed policy recommendations for AST, and the children's input will be used to communicate the recommendations. Listening to the voices of children could be a steppingstone toward forming future healthy mobility initiatives. In that process, it is key to include children's perspectives when formulating the AST policy for successful adoption and implementation.

20.
Pediatrics ; 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845556

RESUMO

A 15-year-old patient with metastatic synovial sarcoma conveyed to his palliative care physician that his dying wish was to start gender-affirming hormone therapy. His medical team was able to identify resources to support both him and his family as they navigated the immense difficulty of a cancer diagnosis and began to understand their child's gender identity. Literature on the care of gender diverse pediatric patients with terminal illness is minimal, but applications from adult literature, and research on supporting gender diverse adolescents more broadly, provided guidance for palliative care, oncology, and gender-affirming care teams. We believe that honoring and supporting the gender identity of adolescents with terminal illness is an essential aspect of end-of-life care. This case report outlines challenges faced by multidisciplinary pediatric team members who provided gender-affirming care for a minor under hospice care and amplifies the need for future research and guidelines pertinent to this patient population.

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