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1.
Univ. salud ; 27(1): 1-10, enero-abril 2025.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1555921

RESUMO

Introducción: La calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS) y los estados de ánimo son indicadores cruciales del bienestar en adolescentes, pero su relación con estudiantes de Antioquia, Colombia, no ha sido ampliamente estudiada. Objetivo: Determinar la CVRS y los estados de ánimo en escolares de Antioquia-Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal con 1957 escolares de 9 a 20 años. Se aplicaron mediciones de CVRS, ansiedad, depresión, hostilidad y alegría, actividad física, comportamiento sedentario, apoyo social de padres y nivel socioeconómico. Resultados: La calidad de vida alta (CVA) es más elevada en hombres, personas con alegría, estudiantes con apoyo de padres, activos físicamente y personas de nivel socioeconómico alto y medio. AL aumentar un año de edad, disminuye en un 15 % la CVA, y al aumentar la depresión, la ansiedad y el comportamiento sedentario disminuye la CVA. Además, los niveles de depresión y ansiedad son mayores en mujeres, estudiantes mayores, sin apoyo de los padres y personas sedentarias. Conclusiones: La CVRS se asocia con estados de ánimo, actividad física, comportamiento sedentario y apoyo de los padres; mientras que los estados de ánimo se asocian con el sexo, el apoyo de los padres, la CVS y el sedentarismo.


Introduction: Even though health-related quality of life (HRQL) and mood states are key indicators of the well-being of adolescents, their relationship has not been analyzed in students from Antioquia, Colombia. Objective: To determine HRQL and mood states in schoolchildren from Antioquia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,957 schoolchildren and adolescents aged between 9 and 20 years. Measurements of HRQL, anxiety, depression, hostility and happiness, physical activity, sedentary behavior, parental social support, and socioeconomic status were applied. Results: A high quality of life (HQL) was observed more frequently in male participants, students with parental support, physically active, and those belonging to medium and high socioeconomic status. HQL decreased 15% as their age increased by one year. Also, HQL was reduced when depression, anxiety, and sedentary behavior increased. Furthermore, depression and anxiety levels were higher in women, older students, as well as in those without parental control and with sedentary behavior. Conclusions: HRQL is associated with mood states, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and parental support. In contrast, mood states are related to gender, parental support, HQL, and sedentary lifestyle.


Introdução: A qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (CVRS) e os estados de humor são indicadores cruciais de bem-estar em adolescentes, mas sua relação com estudantes de Antioquia, Colômbia, não foi amplamente estudada. Objetivo: Determinar a CVRS e os estados de humor em escolares de Antioquia-Colômbia. Materiais e métodos: Estudo transversal com 1.957 escolares de 9 a 20 anos. Foram aplicadas medidas de QVRS, ansiedade, depressão, hostilidade e felicidade, atividade física, comportamento sedentário, apoio social dos pais e nível socioeconômico. Resultados: A alta qualidade de vida (CVA) é maior em homens, pessoas com alegria, estudantes com apoio parental, fisicamente ativos e pessoas de nível socioeconômico alto e médio. À medida que a idade aumenta em um ano, diminui em 15% o CVA, e ao aumentar a depressão, a ansiedade e o comportamento sedentário aumentam, o CVA diminui. Além disso, os níveis de depressão e ansiedade são mais elevados nas mulheres, nos estudantes mais velhos, sem apoio dos pais e nas pessoas sedentárias. Conclusões: A QVRS está associada a estados de humor, atividade física, comportamento sedentário e apoio parental; enquanto os estados de humor estão associados ao sexo, apoio parental, CVS e estilo de vida sedentário.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Saúde , Emoções , Felicidade , Hostilidade
2.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892592

RESUMO

This study undertakes a comprehensive examination of the intricate link between diet nutrition, age, and metabolic syndrome (MetS), utilizing advanced artificial intelligence methodologies. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) spanning from 1999 to 2018 were meticulously analyzed using machine learning (ML) techniques, specifically extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) and the proportional hazards model (COX). Using these analytic methods, we elucidated a significant correlation between age and MetS incidence and revealed the impact of age-specific dietary patterns on MetS. The study delineated how the consumption of certain dietary components, namely retinol, beta-cryptoxanthin, vitamin C, theobromine, caffeine, lycopene, and alcohol, variably affects MetS across different age demographics. Furthermore, it was revealed that identical nutritional intakes pose diverse pathogenic risks for MetS across varying age brackets, with substances such as cholesterol, caffeine, and theobromine exhibiting differential risks contingent on age. Importantly, this investigation succeeded in developing a predictive model of high accuracy, distinguishing individuals with MetS from healthy controls, thereby highlighting the potential for precision in dietary interventions and MetS management strategies tailored to specific age groups. These findings underscore the importance of age-specific nutritional guidance and lay the foundation for future research in this area.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Síndrome Metabólica , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Fatores Etários , Adolescente , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Nutrientes/análise , Criança , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Teobromina/administração & dosagem
3.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892594

RESUMO

As loneliness is a risk factor for mental and physical health problems in various age groups, this study aimed to explore the impact of the intergenerational Shokuiku (food and nutrition education) program (IGSP) on loneliness in a Japanese community. This single-arm intervention study conducted between 2022 and 2023 included children (n = 21), guardians (n = 16), university students (n = 3), and older adults (n = 6). The IGSP was a one-day program that included participants making and eating their own bread, butter, and sorbet. Loneliness was measured using the Five-item Loneliness Scale for Children (Five-LSC; Japanese) and the three-item UCLA Loneliness Scale (Japanese; for adults) with other direct questions. Social capital, including civic participation, social cohesion, and reciprocity, was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. The Five-LSC score significantly decreased post-intervention (p = 0.04). There was a significant increase in adults who reported not feeling lonely (p = 0.001). However, the UCLA Loneliness Scale scores did not show any significant changes. A positive change in social cohesion, including community contribution (p = 0.001) and attachment (p = 0.002), was observed among adults. This study suggests that IGSPs have a positive impact on loneliness in children and a partly positive one in adults. These findings emphasize the potential of intergenerational programs to reduce loneliness in communities.


Assuntos
Solidão , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Japão , Adulto , Criança , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Capital Social , Relação entre Gerações , População do Leste Asiático
4.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892597

RESUMO

The choice of a refeeding strategy is essential in the inpatient treatment of Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Oral nutrition is usually the first choice, but enteral nutrition through the use of a Nasogastric Tube (NGT) often becomes necessary in hospitalized patients. The literature provides mixed results on the efficacy of this method in weight gain, and there is a scarcity of studies researching its psychological correlates. This study aims to analyze the effectiveness of oral versus enteral refeeding strategies in inpatients with AN, focusing on Body Mass Index (BMI) increase and treatment satisfaction, alongside assessing personality traits. We analyzed data from 241 inpatients, comparing a group of treated vs. non-treated individuals, balancing confounding factors using propensity score matching, and applied regression analysis to matched groups. The findings indicate that enteral therapy significantly enhances BMI without impacting treatment satisfaction, accounting for the therapeutic alliance. Personality traits showed no significant differences between patients undergoing oral or enteral refeeding. The study highlights the clinical efficacy of enteral feeding in weight gain, supporting its use in severe AN cases when oral refeeding is inadequate without adversely affecting patient satisfaction or being influenced by personality traits.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Índice de Massa Corporal , Nutrição Enteral , Intubação Gastrointestinal , Satisfação do Paciente , Pontuação de Propensão , Humanos , Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Feminino , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Adulto , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem , Aumento de Peso , Masculino , Adolescente
5.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892593

RESUMO

Decreased sleep quality and duration is associated with an array of negative health outcomes. Evidence suggests athletes are susceptible to sleep inadequacies that may in turn affect their health and dietary behaviours. This study aimed to explore the sleep profile of both male and female Gaelic games players, at an elite and sub-elite level and compare how poor sleep relates to subjective health complaints and food cravings. One hundred and seventy Gaelic games players completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Subjective Health Complaints Inventory (SHC) and Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-Reduced (FCQ-T-r). Participants were categorised into two groups: poor sleepers (PSQI ≥ 5) and good sleepers (PSQI < 5). Outcome measures of health and food cravings were analysed across the groups, Mann-Whitney U tests were used to assess differences, and Spearman's rank-order correlations were used to determine relationships between variables. Sixty-seven % of athletes were categorised as poor sleepers. There were no significant differences in PSQI scores across genders (p = 0.088) or playing level (p = 0.072). Poor sleepers experienced significantly increased SHC (p < 0.001) and female athletes had significantly more SHC compared to males (p < 0.001). Female athletes experienced more food cravings than males (p = 0.013). However, there were no significant differences in food cravings between good and poor sleepers (p = 0.104). The findings suggest a high prevalence of poor sleepers amongst GAA athletes. Furthermore, a significant relationship exists between poor sleep and health complaints with females at a higher risk of worsened health complaints and higher food cravings. Sleep screening and education interventions to enhance sleep in GAA athletes are advocated.


Assuntos
Atletas , Comportamento Alimentar , Sono , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Sono/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Qualidade do Sono , Adolescente , Fissura , Dieta , Nível de Saúde
6.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892606

RESUMO

The prevalence of anaemia in India remains high in children, especially those in rural areas, and in women of childbearing age, and its impairment of neurological development can have serious lifelong effects. It is concerning that the most recent official data (2019-21) indicate an increased prevalence compared with 2015-16. There is also considerable variability in childhood anaemia between Indian states with socioeconomic factors, such as wealth and education contributing to the risk of anaemia among adolescent women and their children. Dietary iron deficiency is often regarded as the main contributor to anaemia but increasing evidence accumulated from the authors' ongoing literature database coupled with recent literature research suggests that it has a multifactorial aetiology, some of which is not related to nutrition. This narrative review focused on these multifactorial issues, notably the contribution of vitamin B12/folate deficiency, which also has a high prevalence in India. It was also noted that the dietary intake of bioavailable iron remains an important contributor for reducing anaemia, and the role of millets as an improved iron source compared to traditional staple cereals is briefly discussed. The overall conclusion is that anaemia has a multifactorial aetiology requiring multifactorial assessment that must include assessment of vitamin B12 status.


Assuntos
Anemia , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12 , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/epidemiologia , Feminino , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/etiologia , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/etiologia , Masculino , Ferro da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Fatores de Risco , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Vitamina B 12/sangue
7.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) intervention in the context of moderate alcohol consumption on cognitive performance in healthy young adults. METHODS: We conducted a 10-week HIIT program along with four types of beverages with/without alcohol content. A total of 75 healthy adults (18-40 years old; 46% female) were allocated to either a control Non-Training group or an HIIT program group (2 days/week). Using block randomization, participants in the HIIT group were further allocated to an HIIT-Alcohol group (alcohol beer or sparkling water with vodka added, 5.4%) or an HIIT-NonAlcohol group (sparkling water or non-alcohol beer, 0.0%). The control group was instructed to maintain an active lifestyle but did not undergo any regular training. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was used to evaluate cognitive performance (i.e., memory, working memory, processing speed, inhibitory control, and verbal fluency). Changes from baseline to week 10 were included in the main analyses. RESULTS: All groups improved in all neuropsychological measures (all p ≤ 0.001), independent of sex and alcohol consumption, with no statistical differences between groups (all p > 0.05). Furthermore, larger increases in maximal oxygen uptake were associated with greater improvements in processing speed, inhibitory control, and verbal fluency (all p < 0.050). CONCLUSIONS: Although the improvements found in cognitive performance cannot be attributed to the HIIT intervention, no significant impairments in cognitive functions were noted due to moderate alcohol intake. Furthermore, our results confirmed that exercise-induced physical fitness improvements were associated with cognitive performance enhancements in young healthy adults.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Cognição , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Adolescente , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Consumo de Oxigênio , Bebidas Alcoólicas
8.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892630

RESUMO

Proteins are macronutrients with multiple health benefits, but excessive consumption can negatively affect health. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of a sample of high-protein processed foods (HPPFs), describe how their consumption affects dietary balance, and acquire knowledge of the consumption patterns of these products in a Spanish population. A sample of HPPFs available in supermarkets and on websites was collected. The contribution to recommended protein intakes was calculated using national and international references and considering the single consumption of the HPPFs and the product plus 150 g of meat. Furthermore, an online survey was conducted among a convenience sample. A total of 36 enriched protein products were evaluated. The percentage of proteins in these products ranges from 10 to 88%. The contribution of the protein recommended intake was within a range of 87.4-306.6% and 66.4-232.8% (women and men, respectively), only considering the additional proteins from 150 g of meat. One hundred thirty-nine participants completed the survey; 67.6% affirmed that they had consumed HPPFs, and half consumed them without following any consumption control. Since these products are accessible to everyone in supermarkets and protein intake is generally higher than the recommended limits, regulating the mass sale of HPPFs is essential to ensure they do not lead to protein overconsumption.


Assuntos
Proteínas Alimentares , Estado Nutricional , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Alimentares/análise , Espanha , Adulto Jovem , Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Valor Nutritivo , Idoso , Adolescente , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Recomendações Nutricionais , Alimento Processado
9.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892641

RESUMO

Potential celiac disease (PCD) is a clinical condition characterised by the presence of a positive CD-specific serology and a normal intestinal architecture. Asymptomatic PCD patients are generally advised to continue on a gluten-containing diet (GCD), but long-term risks of this approach have never been explored. In the present study, we aimed to investigate nutritional and autoimmune complications possibly developing overtime in a cohort of asymptomatic PCD children on a GCD. We compared children's parameters of growth, nutritional status, and autoimmunity between the time of diagnosis and on the occasion of their last medical check, after a long-term gluten-containing diet. Altogether, we collected data from 171 PCD children with a mean follow-up time of 3 years (range 0.35-15.3 years). During follow-up, although patients did not reduce their amount of daily gluten intake, their anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-TG2) antibodies spontaneously and significantly decreased. Most parameters analysed had not changed during follow-up (height centile, ferritin, albumin, cholesterol, calcium, alkaline phosphatase, parathormone, and vitamin D) or even improved significantly (weight and BMI centile, haemoglobin, blood iron, HDL, glycaemia, and HbA1C, p < 0.05), always remaining within the limit of normality. Equally, autoantibodies for other concomitant autoimmune disorders did not increase overtime. Similar results were obtained excluding from analysis patients who had stopped producing anti-TG2 and those with a follow-up time < 3 years. Our pilot study has provided reassuring results regarding the maintenance of a gluten-containing diet in asymptomatic PCD children, even when long-term follow-up was considered.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos , Doença Celíaca , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Estado Nutricional , Humanos , Doença Celíaca/dietoterapia , Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Proteína 2 Glutamina gama-Glutamiltransferase , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/imunologia , Transglutaminases/imunologia , Glutens/efeitos adversos , Glutens/imunologia , Nível de Saúde , Lactente , Seguimentos , Autoimunidade
10.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892657

RESUMO

Despite evidence suggesting the importance of psychological resilience for successful aging, little is known about the relationship between diet quality and resilience at different ages. Our study aims to examine the association between diet quality and resilience across the stages of adulthood. Using Stanfords' WELL for Life (WELL) survey data, we conducted a cross-sectional study of diet quality, resilience, sociodemographic, perceived stress, lifestyle, and mental health factors among 6171 Bay Area adults. Diet quality was measured by the WELL Diet Score, which ranges from 0-120. A higher score indicates a better diet quality. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between the WELL Diet Score and overall resilience and within the following age groups: early young (18-24), late young (25-34), middle (35-49), and late adulthood (≥50). To test whether these associations varied by age groups, an age group by resilience interaction term was also examined. In the fully adjusted model, the WELL Diet Score was positively and significantly associated with overall resilience (all ages (ß = 1.2 ± sd: 0.2, p < 0.001)) and within each age group (early young (ß = 1.1 ± sd: 0.3, p < 0.001); late young (ß = 1.2 ± sd: 0.3, p < 0.001); middle (ß = 0.9 ± sd: 0.3, p < 0.001); and late adulthood (ß = 1.0 ± sd: 0.3, p < 0.001)). Young adults demonstrated the strongest associations between diet quality and resilience. However, there were no significant age-by-resilience interactions. Diet quality may be positively associated with resilience at all stages of adulthood. Further research is needed to determine whether assessing and addressing resilience could inform the development of more effective dietary interventions, particularly in young adults.


Assuntos
Dieta , Resiliência Psicológica , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Dieta/psicologia , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Estilo de Vida , Fatores Etários , Qualidade de Vida
11.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892664

RESUMO

Aging is a progressive physiological degeneration associated with a decline in chemosensory processes and cognitive abilities and a reduction in synaptic plasticity. The biological bases of ageing are still not completely understood, and many theories have been proposed. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of age-related changes affecting the chemosensory function (gustatory and olfactory) and general cognitive abilities and their potential associations in women. To this aim, 319 women (the age ranging from 18 to 92 years) were recruited and divided into four different age groups: 18-34 years, 35-49 years, 50-64 years, and ≥65 years. Our results confirmed that in women, gustatory, olfactory, and cognitive functions decline, though in a different manner during aging. Olfactory and cognitive function showed a slight decline along the first three age classes, with a dramatic decrease after age 65 years, while gustatory function decreased more gradually. Olfactory and gustatory deficits may have a high degree of predictivity for general cognitive function as well as for specific cognitive subdomains such as visuospatial/executive abilities, language, memory, and attention. Our study highlighted the importance of using chemosensory assessments for the early diagnosis of cognitive decline and for the development of appropriate personalized risk prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Cognição , Olfato , Paladar , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Cognição/fisiologia , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Paladar/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários
12.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892662

RESUMO

The prevalence of childhood obesity and its associated comorbidities is a growing global health problem that disproportionately affects populations in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and minority ethnicities in high-income countries (HICs). The increased childhood obesity disparities among populations reflect two concerns: one is HICs' ineffective intervention approaches in terms of lifestyle, nutrition and physical activity in minority populations, and the second is the virtually non-existent lifestyle obesity interventions in LMICs. This article provides guidelines on childhood obesity and its comorbidities in high-risk minority populations based on understanding the prevalence and effectiveness of preventative lifestyle interventions. First, we highlight how inadequate obesity screening by body mass index (BMI) can be resolved by using objective adiposity fat percentage measurements alongside anthropometric and physiological components, including lean tissue and bone density. National healthcare childhood obesity prevention initiatives should embed obesity cut-off points for minority ethnicities, especially Asian and South Asian ethnicities within UK and USA populations, whose obesity-related metabolic risks are often underestimated. Secondly, lifestyle interventions are underutilised in children and adolescents with obesity and its comorbidities, especially in minority ethnicity population groups. The overwhelming evidence on lifestyle interventions involving children with obesity comorbidities from ethnic minority populations shows that personalised physical activity and nutrition interventions are successful in reversing obesity and its secondary cardiometabolic disease risks, including those related to cardiorespiratory capacity, blood pressure and glucose/insulin levels. Interventions combining cultural contextualisation and better engagement with families are the most effective in high-risk paediatric minority populations but are non-uniform amongst different minority communities. A sustained preventative health impact can be achieved through the involvement of the community, with stakeholders comprising healthcare professionals, nutritionists, exercise science specialists and policy makers. Our guidelines for obesity assessment and primary and secondary prevention of childhood obesity and associated comorbidities in minority populations are fundamental to reducing global and local health disparities and improving quality of life.


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Estilo de Vida , Grupos Minoritários , Obesidade Infantil , Humanos , Obesidade Infantil/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Infantil/epidemiologia , Obesidade Infantil/etnologia , Criança , Prevalência , Adolescente , Exercício Físico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco , Feminino , Masculino
13.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The variation in body mass index (BMI) of inpatients with anorexia nervosa has not been analyzed across the age span. A positive correlation between BMI and age has been reported in adolescent inpatients aged 15 years and younger that levels off at 15 to 18 years. BMIs standardized for age and sex (standard deviation scores, SDSs) were negatively correlated with age in these inpatients aged 8 to 18 years. METHODS: The aims of the current retrospective study were threefold: first, to confirm the relationships of BMI, BMI-SDS and age in adolescent inpatients in a larger sample; second, to systematically assess the relationship of BMI, BMI-SDS, body height-SDS and age in adult inpatients at the time of referral; and third, to assess body height-SDSs and age to evaluate stunting. RESULTS: We included 1001 girls (aged 12-17.9 years) and 1371 women (aged 18-73 years) admitted to inpatient treatment between 2014 and 2021. Mean BMI at admission was 14.95 kg/m2 (SD = 1.43; range 10.67-18.47) in adolescents and 14.63 kg/m2 (SD = 2.02; range 8.28-18.47) in adults. None of the adolescent patients but 20 adults had very low BMI values below 10 kg/m2. Adolescents showed a small but significant positive correlation between age and BMI (r = 0.12; p = 2.4 × 10-4). In adults, BMI was not correlated with age (r = -0.03; p = 0.3). BMI-SDSs was negatively correlated with age in adolescents and less so in adults (r = -0.35; p < 0.001 and r = -0.09; p = 0.001). Curve fit analyses for all patients indicated that there was a quadratic (age × age) relationship between age and BMI-SDS. Height correlated positively with BMI in adult (r = 0.1; p < 0.001) and adolescent (r = 0.09 p = 0.005) patients and we detected no evidence for stunting. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the BMI of inpatients seems to be relatively stable across the age span with mean values between 14 and 15 kg/m2. BMI values initially increase with age in younger patients, drop between ages 18 and 23 and then slowly decline with age.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pacientes Internados , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Criança , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Fatores Etários , Estatura
14.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892673

RESUMO

Since the 1980s, there has been a global increase, decade by decade, in the rates of overweight and obesity among children, both in developed and developing countries [...].


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Dieta Saudável , Obesidade Infantil , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Obesidade Infantil/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Infantil/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Criança , Feminino , Masculino
15.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892679

RESUMO

(1) Background: Social distancing and closing down public spaces associated with learning, leisure and physical activity limited the spread of COVID-19. These measures had an impact not only on the economy and education but also on health behaviours and the quality of life of individuals affected by the restrictions. The aim of this study was to identify the role of health behaviours in the perception of the quality of life of students during the COVID-19 pandemic. (2) Methods: This study was conducted among 796 students of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn in the first quarter of 2022. Subgroup 1 consisted of students at the Public Health School (n = 428; 53.8%) and subgroup 2 consisted of students belonging to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (n = 368; 46.2%). The diagnostic survey method was applied, and an original survey questionnaire, the Health Behaviour Inventory and the Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQoL-Bref version) were used. (3) Results: The largest contribution to the prediction of quality of life of students in subgroup 1 was made by a positive mental attitude related to avoiding too strong emotions, which explained 19% of the result variability in the somatic domain (ßeta = 0.24; R2 = 0.21), 20% of the result variability in the psychological domain (ßeta = 0.36; R2 = 0.20), 16% of the result variability in the social domain (ßeta = 0.52; R2 = 0.17) and 17% of the result variability in the environmental domain (ßeta = 0.19; R2 = 0.19). Moreover, in subgroup 2, a predominantly positive mental attitude significantly predicted quality of life in the somatic domain, explaining 23% of the result variability (ßeta = 0.24; R2 = 0.26), while it explained 25% of the result variability in the psychological domain (ßeta = 0.47; R2 = 0.25), 16% of the result variability in the social domain (ßeta = 0.46; R2 = 0.17) and 21% of the result variability in the environmental domain (ßeta = 0.38; R2 = 0.23). (4) Conclusions: Positive correlations between health behaviours and the quality of life among the study participants were determined. Health-promoting behaviours had a beneficial impact on the respondents' quality of life during the COVID-19 pandemic. The category of health behaviours described as a positive mental attitude was an important predictor for the participants' quality of life.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Feminino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Pandemias , Adulto , Adolescente
16.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigates the efficacy of Front-of-Pack Nutrition Labels (FOPNLs) as a cost-effective tool for improving dietary choices among Greek consumers. The purpose of the study was to investigate Greek customers' preferences and comprehension of commonly used European FOPNL schemes. METHODS: The Hellenic Food Authority and the Agricultural University of Athens performed a representative online survey in March 2022, titled "The Role of Nutritional Labelling in Public Perception and Food Procurement." Consumers responded to a questionnaire separated into two parts. Part one included (i) personal, sociodemographic information, and (ii) subjective opinions on the FOPNL schemes, and part two comprised (iii) an objective understanding of NutriScore and NutrInform Battery, using 15 different foods. Participants were randomly allocated to these groups, and general mixed models were used for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1389 adults completed the first part of the survey, and 74.8% completed the second part. The Multiple Traffic Lights scheme was the preferred FOPNL, chosen by 48.4% of respondents, compared to 19.7% for NutrInform Battery and 12.3% for NutriScore. However, the mean objective assessment score was highest for NutriScore (5.8 ± 2.3) compared to NutrInform Battery (5.4 ± 1.9). CONCLUSION: The results highlight the necessity for comprehensive nutrition education programs by showing a considerable gap between subjective preferences and an objective understanding of nutrition labels.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grécia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Comportamento de Escolha , Adolescente , Valor Nutritivo , Compreensão , Idoso , Percepção
17.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892689

RESUMO

Dietary intake and alcohol consumption might be influenced by genetic variations in taste receptor genes. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between polymorphisms in the bitter taste receptor genes TAS2R13 (rs1015443) and TAS2R38 (rs1726866, rs10246939, and rs713598) as well as alcohol consumption and body fat percentage in college students. Four hundred and two students with a mean age of 20.2 years participated in this study. An NIH Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ II) was used to collect data on their dietary intake, while an AUDIT survey was used to determine their level of alcohol consumption. Bitter taste receptor gene polymorphisms were assessed by TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. Despite significant associations between TAS2R13 (rs1015443) and certain aspects of alcohol consumption, including the frequency of alcohol intake, no significant associations were found between TAS2R13 (rs1015443) and alcohol consumption after accounting for confounding variables in the regression model. Neither association was found regarding percent of body fat. In contrast, ethnicity and gender significantly influenced percent of body fat (p < 0.001), while no significant association was observed between TAS2R13 (rs1015443) and percent of body fat. Likewise, TAS2R38 (rs1726866, rs10246939, and rs713598) demonstrated no significant association with alcohol consumption and percent of body fat. These results were controlled for confounding factors, such as ethnicity and gender. Body fat percentage and alcohol consumption may be influenced by ethnicity, gender, and age rather than SNPs of TAS2R13 and TAS2R38 genes. Assessing taste genes' interactions with diet and body composition might be useful in identifying human disease risk.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G , Paladar , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Adulto Jovem , Paladar/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto
18.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term consumption of junk food products can lead to nutritional and metabolic imbalances, especially when it is associated with a lack of physical activity and the consumption of alcohol or other high-calorie products. METHODS: The evaluation of junk food consumption among teenagers and young people in Romania was carried out with the help of a cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire. RESULTS: A total number of 1017 respondents participated in this study, comprising 470 males and 547 females aged between 16 and 25 years. Although the majority of young people fell into the normal-weight category (607 of them, p < 0.0001), some aspects can be noted that in the long term can produce a series of nutritional imbalances: an increased tendency toward sedentarism, with 553 (p = 0.613) of the respondents declaring that they performed sports rarely or not at all, and a tendency toward relatively high consumption of foods high in calories (fast food products and especially fried potatoes, hamburgers, shawarma, pastries, and snacks, along with sweetened drinks and even alcoholic beverages). The respondents participating in this study even indicated a perceived addiction to the consumption of certain products: coffee (50.48%), fried potatoes (38.9%), hamburgers (37.05%), shawarma (31.65%), and snacks (30.08%). Many of these products are rich in calories, saturated fat, and even trans fat. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights a series of aspects that can have long-term negative effects related to the excess weight associated with other imbalances: consumption preferences among young people for hypercaloric fast food products, sweetened drinks associated with reduced physical activity, and even the development of some forms of food addictions for a series of hypercaloric foods.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Humanos , Romênia , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comportamento Sedentário , Exercício Físico
19.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892718

RESUMO

Recent data suggest a close association between positive body image (PBI) and eating disorder recovery. Nevertheless, the specific mechanisms through which PBI may facilitate recovery from anorexia nervosa (AN) remain unknown. To advance understanding of these mechanisms, this study examined core indices of PBI within AN, exploring its association with emotion regulation and well-being outcomes. Data were collected from 159 female participants, 64 with AN diagnosis and 95 healthy controls (HCs), who completed measures of PBI (body appreciation, functionality appreciation, and body responsiveness), emotion regulation, and psychological well-being (depression, anxiety, stress, and psychological quality of life). The AN group reported lower levels of PBI and psychological well-being, along with greater difficulties in regulating emotions, relative to HCs. PBI variables significantly predicted emotion regulation and psychological well-being in AN, accounting for 36% to 72% of the variance, with body appreciation emerging as the strongest predictor. These findings lend credence to the view that PBI can serve as a catalyst for psychological health. We hypothesize that enhancing PBI can improve interoceptive awareness, which is crucial for emotion regulation and reducing maladaptive food-related coping. Emphasizing a mind-body connection in lifestyle could be a relevant element to consider for both treating and preventing AN.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Imagem Corporal , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Feminino , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Regulação Emocional , Saúde Mental , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Emoções , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bem-Estar Psicológico
20.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rates of obesity, undernutrition, and other non-communicable diseases are on the rise among Lebanese adults. Therefore, it is crucial to evaluate the food consumption habits of this population to understand diet quality, analyze consumption trends, and compare them to healthy diets known to reduce risks of non-communicable diseases. AIM: To evaluate the food consumption patterns, energy intake, as well as macro- and micro-nutrient intake among a nationally representative sample of Lebanese adults aged 18-64 years old. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out from May to September 2022 involving 444 participants from all eight Lebanese governorates. Sociodemographic and medical information was gathered through a questionnaire, food consumption was evaluated using a validated FFQ and 24 h recall, and anthropometric measurements were recorded. RESULTS: There was a notable lack of adherence to three healthy diets (Mediterranean, EAT-Lancet, USDA) among Lebanese adults. Their dietary pattern is characterized by high energy, added sugars, sodium, and saturated fat intake while being low in healthy fats, vitamin A, D, and E. Adult women are falling short of meeting their daily calcium, vitamin D, iron, and vitamin B12 requirements, putting them at increased risk of anemia, osteoporosis, and other health issues. Grains and cereals were the most consumed food groups, and most participants were found to be overweight or obese. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the results highlight the need for public health policies and interventions aimed at encouraging Lebanese adults to make healthier food choices and transition towards diets like the Mediterranean, EAT-Lancet, or USDA diet. These diets have been shown to promote overall health and wellbeing.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Transversais , Adolescente , Ingestão de Energia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Inquéritos Nutricionais
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