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Sci Total Environ ; 906: 167558, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37802339


Ecosystem restoration strategies vary widely in the techniques applied and ecological contexts. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate how restoration success varies across socio-ecological contexts, taxonomic groups and biomes. Restoration success is quantified as the percentage of each ecological metric value attained in the restoration site compared to the reference systems. We show that restoration success is different for plants, animals, and soils and across ecological indicators. Abundance of individuals is easier to restore than carbon stocks, which are easier than species diversity. However, abundance may be a poor indicator of ecosystem recovery because there is no unidirectional trend over time, and abundance often fails to distinguish restored from degraded areas. We also found that carbon stocks in the soil and in the vegetation are restored at analogous paces, but the recovery of soil carbon stocks is less variable than plant stocks across sites. Our results demonstrate that different restoration techniques are effective in recovering diversity and carbon stocks, but assisted natural regeneration showed a slightly higher success compared to other strategies. However, there is a considerable difficulty in restoring converted and degraded areas to achieve conditions similar to the original ecosystems. It is critical and timely to investigate benefits and effectiveness of ecosystem restoration techniques to biodiversity and carbon recovery different ecosystem types to improve the restoration effectiveness.

Carbono , Ecossistema , Humanos , Animais , Carbono/análise , Brasil , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Biodiversidade , Plantas , Solo
Sci Total Environ ; 906: 167581, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37813262


Land clearing, low levels of protection, and high biodiversity make the Brazilian Cerrado a hotspot for biological conservation. However, one of the most active agricultural frontiers in Brazil is located in this region. We thus aimed to evaluate the current trends of deforestation and fragmentation of the Cerrado, from 1986 to 2019; and the contribution of land tenure and farm size to the Cerrado conservation. We divided the Cerrado (∼2 Mkm2) into three sub-regions and calculated the distribution and size of the fragments; core areas and edge distance; isolation and importance of the smallest fragments for reducing isolation; and connectivity for the years 1986, 1997, 2008, and 2019. We then evaluated vegetation cover and landscape metrics for public lands and private farms. Since 1986, 22 % of the Cerrado's remnant vegetation was cleared and the number of fragments increased by 20 %. Currently, 10 % of the Cerrado vegetation is under the effect of a 30 m edge. Isolation increased in all the sub-regions and smaller fragments (>100 ha) are important for landscape configuration. 10.82 % of the vegetation is preserved in public lands and 57.9 % in private farms, where 377,901.5 km2 could be legally cleared. Compared to other Brazilian regions, the northern Cerrado is relatively well connected and less fragmented but land clearing still threatens biodiversity. Public lands are important for connectivity and habitat amount but play a minor role when compared to private lands. Our results highlight that avoiding further land clearing of the Cerrado is a challenge that requires the engagement of different stakeholders at different levels.

Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade , Agricultura , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Brasil , Florestas
J Ethnopharmacol ; 318(Pt A): 116891, 2024 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37423518


ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Although the root of Cannabis sativa L. has been mentioned in some regions, such as the Vale do São Francisco, for its potential traditional medicinal use as an anti-inflammatory, anti-asthmatic, and against gastrointestinal diseases, it has received little exploration and discussion. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to perform a chemical analysis of an aqueous extract of Cannabis sativa roots (AqECsR) and evaluate its pharmacological effects against uterine disorders, in vivo and ex vivo, in rodents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The roots were provided by the Brazilian Federal Police, and the freeze-dried extract was used for the chemical analysis of the AqECsR by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The sample was subsequently used in three doses for pharmacological assays (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg), which included the spasmolytic activity test and the primary dysmenorrhea test. The primary dysmenorrhea test aimed to verify the effect of AqECsR on induced abdominal contortions in female mice in vivo and to perform a morphometric analysis of the organs. Association tests at subtherapeutic doses of AqECsR with antidysmenorrheic drugs were also performed. RESULTS: The data obtained by HPLC-MS suggested the presence of four substances: cannabisativine, anhydrocannabisativine, feruloyltyramine, and p-coumaroyltyramine. In the pharmacological assays, the AqECsR showed no spasmolytic effect. However, in the antidysmenorrheal activity test, AqECsR demonstrated a significant in vivo effect of reducing oxytocin-induced abdominal contortions. Morphometric analysis of the uterus showed no significant organ enlargement effect, and the association of AqECsR with subtherapeutic doses of three drugs used in antidysmenorrheal therapy (mefenamic acid, scopolamine, and nifedipine) showed an effect in reducing abdominal contortions. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, AqECsR contains four chemical compounds and exhibits an antidysmenorrheic effect both alone and in association with drugs, reducing abdominal contortions in female mice without generating organ enlargement in the animals. Further studies are needed to prove the mechanism of action by which AqECsR promotes its effect on primary dysmenorrhea and to explore its associations.

Cannabis , Humanos , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Cannabis/química , Dismenorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Dismenorreia/induzido quimicamente , Brasil , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Útero , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/análise
J Ethnopharmacol ; 318(Pt A): 116876, 2024 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37437795


ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sexual dysfunction is a multifactorial health condition characterized by distressing disturbances in the sexual response and libido, leading to an inability to maintain penile erection and achieve pleasure. Considering the huge Brazilian biodiversity, many plants are traditionally used for aphrodisiac purposes. However, the use of native medicinal plants as sexual boosters in Brazil has been poorly studied. AIM OF THE STUDY: This review focuses on the composition, pharmacology, and results of experimental trials of the main native plants used in Brazilian folk medicine with alleged aphrodisiac effects. We aimed to provide a state-of-the-art reference for research on herbs for the treatment of male sexual dysfunction by summarizing and discussing the main studies found. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relevant information was collected by searching keywords (aphrodisiac, sexual tonic, sexual stimulant, sexual vigor stimulant, sexual impotency, erectile dysfunction, etc.) from books containing primary surveys conducted in the original communities and bibliographic surveys prepared by authors linked to the national academic and scientific environment edited in Brazil. Preclinical and clinical studies of the compiled plant species were performed using scientific databases (Scopus, PubMed, SciELO, and SciFinder). RESULTS: Seventy-four plant species belonging to 44 families used in Brazil to treat sexual dysfunction were compiled from ethnopharmacological literature. Fourteen plants, including Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen, Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Schltdl., Anemopaegma arvense (Vell.) Stellfeld ex de Souza, Mimosa pudica L., Heteropterys tomentosa A. Juss., Trichilia catigua A. Juss., and Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult. were pharmacologically studied to confirm these therapeutic properties. Probable modes of action include antioxidant and androgenic activities, inhibition of the PDE5 enzyme, increase in NO levels, and activation of dopaminergic and noradrenergic pathways. In addition, several different species popularly known as "catuaba" were identified, leading to adulterations and controversial effects. CONCLUSION: The overall results of the present review of Brazilian folk literature reveal that Brazil has a long tradition of using plants with potential aphrodisiac effects. However, further research is required to identify, characterize, and standardize the active ingredients and herbal preparations used in aphrodisiacs.

Afrodisíacos , Disfunção Erétil , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas , Masculino , Humanos , Animais , Brasil , Afrodisíacos/farmacologia , Afrodisíacos/uso terapêutico , Medicina Tradicional , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais
J Environ Sci (China) ; 136: 498-511, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37923459


Emissions from biomass burning challenge efforts to curb air pollution in cities downwind of fire-prone regions, as they contribute large amounts of brown carbon (BrC) and black carbon (BC) particles. We investigated the patterns of BrC and BC concentrations using Aethalometer data (at λ = 370 and 880 nm, respectively) spanning four years at a site impacted by the outflow of smoke. The data required to be post processed for the shadowing effect since, without correction, concentrations would be between 29% and 35% underestimated. The BrC concentrations were consistently higher than the BC concentrations, indicating the prevalence of aerosols from biomass burning. The results were supported by the Ångström coefficient (Å370/880), with values predominantly larger than 1 (mean ± standard deviation: 1.25 ± 0.31). Å370/880 values below 1 were more prevalent during the wet season, which suggests a contribution from fossil fuel combustion. We observed sharp BrC and BC seasonal signals, with mean minimum concentrations of 0.40 µg/m3 and 0.36 µg/m3, respectively, in the wet season, and mean maximum concentrations of 2.05 µg/m3 and 1.53 µg/m3 in the dry season. The largest concentrations were observed when northerly air masses moved over regions with a high density of fire spots. Local burning of residential solid waste and industrial combustion caused extreme BrC and BC concentrations under favourable wind directions. Although neither pollutant is included in any ambient air quality standards, our results suggest that transboundary smoke may hamper efforts to meet the World Health Organization guidelines for fine particles.

Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Fumaça , Carbono/análise , Brasil , Meteorologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fuligem/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Biomassa
J Surg Res ; 293: 22-27, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37690383


INTRODUCTION: There is a gender gap in the surgical field worldwide. Brazil and low- and middle-income countries generally tend to have a more profound gap. Therefore, we aim to assess the gender distribution in Brazilian surgical residencies. METHODS: From a national residencies' database, we collected residency entering years, names, and surgical subspecialties. We classified gender from the names using Gender API software and performed linear regression, binomial, and chi-square tests. RESULTS: From 81,979 doctors (1931-2020), 36.6% were women (P < 0.001). Of 13 subspecialties, regarding the absolute numbers of women, only neurosurgery and plastic surgery did not significantly differ between gender per year. There was a statistically significant growth in the proportional rates of female representation among most of the surgical residencies analyzed. Overall, the least women's representation was in urology (3.8%). From all subspecialties analyzed, both genders had a significant linear absolute increase over the years (P < 0.05), except for obstetrics-gynecology and pediatric surgery for men. Until 1990, all surgical programs had at least one woman resident, except for colorectal surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Although there is an overall lack of women surgeons in Brazil, we observed an increase in women in surgical residencies. Therefore, the study may demonstrate a future change in the Brazilian gender equity scenario and reflect the growing representation of women in medicine in Brazil, except for some surgical specialties.

Internato e Residência , Medicina , Cirurgiões , Cirurgia Plástica , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Brasil
Sci Total Environ ; 911: 168563, 2024 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37981136


Delineating reference (i.e., baseline) riverine nutrient concentrations is essential to understand fundamental processes of biogeochemical transport from continents to the ocean, describe ecological conditions, and inform managers of best attainable conditions when attempting to control anthropogenic eutrophication. We used data from 434 Brazilian watersheds representative of major South American biomes covering over half the continental area, to estimate nutrient levels expected prior to anthropogenic development. We used a novel watershed-based approach to describe spatial patterns throughout Brazil and for the entire Amazon basin. This approach considered nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) independently and allowed removal of anthropogenic influences. The approach was useful where there were few unimpacted watersheds and low levels of urbanization had strong effects. We found reference total N concentrations were most closely related to biome, whereas total P levels related to percentage sand in soils in addition to climatic features influencing biomes. There was a wide range of N:P at this coarse level, suggesting P or co-limitation could occur in streams; many areas have intrinsically high background P and relatively low N, suggesting N-limitation of freshwaters could be widespread in South America, favoring nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterial blooms. We provide unique broad-scale analyses of spatial distribution of baseline nutrient levels for tropical and subtropical watersheds across continental scales.

Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Rios , Eutrofização , Brasil , Ecossistema , Nutrientes/análise
Appetite ; 192: 107084, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37875240


This study examined the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behaviors in university students during the COVID-19 pandemic, considering individuals with and without overweight. A national sample of 738 college students completed an online questionnaire at three time points between July 2020 and December 2021, reporting their experiences of weight stigma, perceived increase in weight stigma during the pandemic, internalized weight stigma, and disordered eating behaviors. The findings showed that the trajectories of disordered eating behaviors varied depending on participants' anthropometric status. Among those with overweight, there was a decrease over time in binge eating, food restriction, and purging. Conversely, the non-overweight group experienced a slight increase in binge eating from T2 to T3. Using the Generalized Estimating Equations model, the study revealed that weight stigma predicted disordered eating behaviors in both weight spectrums during the pandemic. Experiences of weight stigma and the perceived increase in weight stigma significantly increased the likelihood of engaging in binge eating, food restriction, and purging among individuals with overweight. Furthermore, the internalization of weight stigma was longitudinally associated with all examined eating behaviors, regardless of anthropometric status. These findings highlight the importance of addressing weight stigma to prevent disordered eating in college students.

Bulimia , COVID-19 , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Preconceito de Peso , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Brasil/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Estudantes
Appetite ; 192: 107093, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37923061


In this study, we conducted the first scientific investigation focusing on Brazilian flexitarians, aiming to characterize their socio-economic and demographic profiles, motivations for adopting flexitarianism, the frequency of animal-based meat consumption, and the primary meat substitutes they consume. To accomplish this, we distributed an online questionnaire with the assistance of university students and researchers from various regions of the country. Data were collected from 1029 individuals in Brazil who self-identified as flexitarians. Our findings reveal that the flexitarian dietary model is primarily adopted by women, constituting 76% of the sample (n = 786). Their motivations include concerns about the environmental impact of meat consumption (n = 361, 35%), personal health (n = 344, 33%), and animal welfare (n = 219, 21%). Flexitarians exhibit varying consumption patterns, which can be categorized into three groups: light flexitarians (consuming meat 36 times a week), medium flexitarians (consuming meat 7 times a week), and heavy flexitarians (consuming meat 4 times a week). The flexitarian dietary pattern is characterized by reduced beef consumption (less than 2 times per week) and higher consumption of chicken (3 times per week). It is complemented by plant-based protein sources and eggs as the primary meat substitutes. The recognition of legumes as the principal meat substitutes opens avenues for an expanded discussion on sustainable food systems and alternative meat products in Brazil. This provides opportunities to enhance the availability and accessibility of these foods and to develop nutritional interventions that prioritize plant-based proteins.

Dieta , Carne , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Feminino , Brasil , Verduras , Ovos
J Hypertens ; 42(1): 129-135, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37728130


BACKGROUND: High blood pressure (BP) increases carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). On the other hand, it is not clear whether the vascular abnormalities reflected in high CIMT may predict incident hypertension. The present study aims to investigate the association between CIMT and incident hypertension after 4 years of follow-up in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multiethnic sample of middle-aged adults from six Brazilian cities. METHODS: We analyzed data from 6682 ELSA-Brasil participants (aged 35-74) without hypertension and with complete CIMT data at baseline. After 4 years of follow-up, we describe hypertension incidence, stratifying the sample according to age, sex, and race-specific CIMT quartiles. We also built crude and adjusted Poisson regression models to analyze the association between mean and maximal CIMT values and incident hypertension. RESULTS: We found incident hypertension in 987 (14.8%) participants. According to mean CIMT quartile groups, hypertension incidence varied from 10.2% (first quartile group) to 22.4% (fourth quartile group; P for trend <0.001). In fully adjusted models, 0.1 mm increments in mean CIMT values were associated with a 16% [relative risk (RR):1.16; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.10-1.21; P  < 0.001] higher risk of incident hypertension, respectively. Results were similar when maximal CIMT values were considered instead of mean CIMT values. CONCLUSION: CIMT values at baseline strongly predicted incident hypertension after 4 years of follow-up in this large multiethnic cohort. This highlights the relationship between CIMT and BP and may provide important insights into the significance of this ultrasound measurement.

Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Hipertensão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Hipertensão/epidemiologia
Sci Total Environ ; 907: 167769, 2024 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37879477


Pollution by plastics is a worldwide problem on par with climatic change and biological invasions. In coastal sediments, plastic particles tend to accumulate and persist over the long term. We assessed the plastic pollution using a standardized surface sediment sampling protocol on 22 sandy beaches along >4600 km of the Brazilian coast. The abundance, size, color, type, and polymeric composition of all meso- and microplastic items found in the surveys were processed to disclose spatial patterns of distribution and pollution associated drivers. A General Linear Model (GLM) was run to investigate how the predictor variables influenced overall beach plastic amounts and by plastic type and size class. Overall, 3114 plastic items were found, with microplastics comprising just over half of all items (54 %). Most items were either white (60 %) or blue (13 %), while polystyrene foam (45 %) and fragments (39 %) comprised the most abundant plastic types. The principal polymers were Polyethylene (40 %) and Polypropylene (32 %). The analyses indicated that the distribution of plastic litter along beaches is determined by three predictive variables: the distance to the nearest estuary (-), tourism (+), and the number of inhabitants in the nearest urban center (+). Tourist (highly-visited) beaches and those near estuarine runoffs or urban centers presented the highest plastic pollution rates. The unveiling of plastic pollution patterns through a large-scale systematic survey is essential for future management guidance and science-based decisions for mitigating and solving the plastic pollution crisis.

Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Plásticos , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Praias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Resíduos/análise
J Affect Disord ; 346: 182-191, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37949241


BACKGROUND: Dietary fatty acids are related to the development of several inflammatory-related diseases, which may include depression. So, the association between fatty acids, culinary oils and fat intake and depression in highly educated Brazilians was evaluated. METHODS: Multicenter cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais. The diagnosis of depression was self-reported, and the daily intake of fatty acids was assessed using a 144-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). RESULTS: A total of 7157 participants (68.83 % women) with a median age of 33 years were included. The prevalence of depression was 12.60 % (N = 902). In the adjusted analyses, it was observed that individuals with the highest intake of omega-6 fatty acids (n-6) (OR: 1.36, 95 % CI 1.11-1.67) had a higher prevalence of depression. This increased n-6 intake was identified as a risk factor for depression only among male participants, while among overweight participants, higher n-6 intake was also positively associated with depression. Conversely, a higher ratio of polyunsaturated to monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids (PM/S) was also found to be positively associated with depression, but this association was observed only among non-overweight participants. No associations were found between the consumption of culinary oils or fats and depression. LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional design limits the assessment of causality. The use of the FFQ can make estimates more difficult. CONCLUSION: Higher consumption of n-6, and higher PM/S ratios were associated with depression, and individual factors can interfere. The mental health care policies should include specific nutritional strategies.

Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Ácidos Graxos , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Óleos
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249169, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345546


Abstract The American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata) lives in urban, periurban and wild environments and feeds mainly on small rodents, meaning it has great importance in the biological control of pests. The aim of this work was to describe the reproductive, parental and eating habits of a pair of American barn owls naturally living outside a residence in the urban area of the municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A wood box was installed on an outside wall of the home, monitored by a video camera. A spreadsheet was created to keep track of the observations recorded. The female laid four eggs, and after an incubation period of 30-32 days all the eggs hatched, but only two chicks survived after cannibalism among the chicks. Initially, the male provided the food to the chicks and the female remained in the nest caring for the brood. After approximately a month, the female also began to leave the nest and return with prey, which was offered to the chicks, with the male also continuing this behavior. The chicks left the nest in September, 2017. The data obtained show the existence of cooperation and division of tasks between male and female owls during the reproductive period.

Resumo A coruja-das-torres americana (Tyto furcata) vive em ambientes urbanos e se alimenta principalmente de pequenos roedores, sendo de grande importância no controle biológico de pragas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever os hábitos alimentares, parentais e reprodutivos de um casal de corujas-das-torres americanas, naturalmente vivendo fora de uma residência na zona urbana do município de Campos dos Goytacazes, estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Uma caixa de madeira foi instalada em uma parede externa da casa, monitorada por uma câmera de vídeo. Uma planilha foi criada para manter o controle das observações registradas. A fêmea pôs quatro ovos, e após período de incubação de 30-32 dias todos os ovos eclodiram, mas apenas dois filhotes sobreviveram após o canibalismo entre os filhotes. Inicialmente, o macho fornecia a comida aos filhotes e a fêmea permanecia no ninho cuidando da ninhada. Depois de cerca de um mês, a fêmea também começou a sair do ninho e voltar com a presa, que era oferecida aos filhotes, com o macho também continuando com esse comportamento. Os filhotes deixaram o ninho em setembro de 2017. Os dados obtidos mostram a existência de cooperação e divisão de tarefas entre corujas machos e fêmeas durante o período reprodutivo.

Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Estrigiformes , Reprodução , Brasil , Comportamento Alimentar
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249808, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345554


Abstract The sexing of species is an important tool for population management. In tortoises and turtles, sexing is usually done according to secondary characteristics, such as plastron morphology or phallus eversion techniques. In this paper, we present the phallus eversion method and compare its efficiency to other existing techniques. This new method aims at shortening the management time and reducing the physical aftereffects on the animals, fostering the clinical and reproductive management of Geoffroy's side-necked turtle (Phrynops geoffroanus) and related species. A sample of fifty individuals was taken in the central region of Piauí state, Northeastern Brazil. The proposed method consisted of moving the head from its resting position. The methods achieving a success rate higher than 80% were compared to each other as for the stimulation time required for phallus eversion. The method as here proposed achieved 100% efficiency in the sex determination of specimens with a linear carapace length between 10 and 34 cm. Also, when compared to the second most efficient method, it substantially reduced the time needed for managing the specimens (91%), avoiding possible sequelae in the individuals handled.

Resumo A sexagem das espécies é uma ferramenta importante para o manejo populacional. Em tartarugas, cágados e jabutis, a sexagem geralmente é feita de acordo com características secundárias, como morfologia do plastrão ou técnicas de eversão do falo. Neste artigo, apresentamos o método de eversão do falo e comparamos sua eficiência com outras técnicas existentes. Este novo método visa encurtar o tempo de manejo e reduzir os efeitos colaterais físicos nos animais, promovendo o manejo clínico e reprodutivo do cágado-de-barbicha (Phrynops geoffroanus) e espécies relacionadas. Uma amostra de cinquenta indivíduos foi coletada na região central do estado do Piauí, Nordeste do Brasil. O método proposto consiste em remover a cabeça de sua posição de repouso. Os métodos que obtiveram índice de sucesso superior a 80% foram comparados entre si quanto ao tempo de estimulação necessário para a eversão do falo. O método aqui proposto alcançou 100% de eficiência na determinação do sexo de espécimes com comprimento de carapaça linear entre 10 e 34 cm. Além disso, quando comparado ao segundo método mais eficiente, reduziu substancialmente o tempo necessário para o manejo dos espécimes (91%), evitando possíveis sequelas nos indivíduos manuseados.

Animais , Tartarugas , Brasil
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251438, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345560


Abstract The northwestern portion of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion is one of the most disturbed and fragmented areas in the Atlantic Forest, and little is known about the local avifauna. In this study, we have described the composition and diversity of the aquatic avifauna of this region and analyzed the patterns of similarity with respect to the seasonal as well as spatial distribution. We used the line transect sampling technique in six distinct humid areas (including lentic and lotic water bodies) during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 and 2013. A total of 52 species of waterfowl were recorded. The species richness of the studied areas was surprisingly distinct; only seven waterfowl species, namely Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764), were common to these six studied areas. This indicated that the other bird species that were observed might be habitat selective. Moreover, the analysis of the composition of birds in the two seasons (dry and rainy) combined with their spatial distributions showed significant dissimilarities between the areas with lotic (river and constructed wetland) and lentic (lagoons) characteristics. Nevertheless, despite the small extent and low total richness of the entire study area, it was found to be home to 1/3 of all freshwater aquatic birds documented in the state of São Paulo, with the record of 5 migratory species and 11 new species added to the northwest of the state. The heterogeneity of local aquatic environments, habitat selection combined with seasonality, and the absence of other humid locations in the surroundings can explain the diversity and distribution of these birds in the water bodies of this uninvestigated Atlantic Forest ecoregion.

Resumo A porção noroeste da ecorregião Floresta Atlântica do Alto Paraná é uma das mais alteradas e fragmentadas da Mata Atlântica, da qual pouco se sabe sobre a avifauna local. Nosso objetivo foi descrever a diversidade e composição da avifauna aquática, bem como analisar os padrões de similaridade quanto a distribuição temporal e espacial destas aves nesta ecorregião. Utilizamos a transecção linear para amostragem em seis áreas úmidas (corpos d'água lênticos e lóticos), nos períodos de seca e chuva entre 2012 e 2013. Registramos 52 espécies de aves aquáticas e as riquezas das áreas mostraram-se distintas, pois apenas Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764) foram comuns às seis áreas, o que indica seleção de habitat. Quando analisada a composição das aves nos dois períodos aliada à distribuição espacial, encontramos dissimilaridades temporais acentuadas entre os ambientes com características lóticas (rio e aterro) e lênticas (lagoas). Isto mostra que, além das diferentes épocas sazonais, é necessário analisar separadamente os diferentes tipos de áreas úmidas. Por fim, apesar da extensão pequena e baixa riqueza total, a área amostrada abrigou 1/3 das aves aquáticas de água doce para o estado de São Paulo, cinco espécies migratórias e 11 novas espécies para o noroeste do estado. A heterogeneidade de ambientes aquáticos locais, forte seleção de habitat aliada à sazonalidade e ausência de outros locais úmidos em seu entorno, explicam a diversidade e distribuição destas aves estreitamente relacionadas aos corpos d'água desta desconhecida ecorregião da Mata Atlântica.

Animais , Aves , Biodiversidade , Estações do Ano , Brasil , Florestas , Ecossistema
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253065, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350311


Abstract Routine blood culture is used for the detection of bloodstream infections by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and by common pathogenic yeasts. A retrospective study was conducted in a public hospital in Maceió-AL, by collecting data of all medical records with positive blood cultures. Out of the 2,107 blood cultures performed, 17% were positive with Staphylococcus coagulase negative (51.14%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (11.21%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.32%). Gram-positive bacteria predominated among positive blood cultures, highlighting the group of Staphylococcus coagulase-negative. While Gram-negative bacteria had a higher number of species among positive blood cultures.

Resumo A cultura sanguínea de rotina é usada para a detecção de infecções na corrente sanguínea por bactérias aeróbias e anaeróbias e por leveduras patogênicas comuns. Estudo retrospectivo realizado em hospital público de Maceió-AL, por meio da coleta de dados de todos os prontuários com culturas sanguíneas positivas. Das 2.107 culturas sanguíneas realizadas, 17% foram positivas com Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (51,14%), seguido por Staphylococcus aureus (11,21%) e Klebsiella pneumoniae (6,32%). As bactérias Gram-positiva predominaram entre as culturas de sangue positivas, destacando-se o grupo das Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo. Enquanto as bactérias Gram-negativas apresentaram um número maior de espécies entre as culturas de sangue positivas.

Humanos , Sepse , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Brasil , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hospitais
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856


Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.

Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Brasil/epidemiologia , Incidência , Modelos Estatísticos