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1.
Appetite ; 168: 105745, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634375

RESUMO

Food choice and its underlying processes is understudied in bulimia nervosa (BN) and anorexia nervosa (AN). Thus, we examined cognitive processes during food choice through mouse tracing in AN (n = 36) and BN (n = 27) undergoing inpatient treatment. Both patient groups and matched healthy controls (HC, n = 59) made 153 binary food choices before rating all foods on their liking and calorie density. Choice outcomes and corresponding mouse movements were modelled as a function of inpatient treatment stage in our analyses. Compared to patients with BN and HC, those with AN showed a clear calorie avoidance on most trials. Yet, mouse paths in AN patients early in treatment, revealed a late direction reversal ('change of mind', CoM) on high-calorie choices. AN patients later in treatment, by contrast, showed fewer CoM alongside more choices for - and liking of - high-calorie foods. Patients with BN showed more CoM trials during low-calorie choices and low-calorie choices were more frequent in patients later in treatment. Thus, relative to patients early in treatment, patients who are later in treatment show less of the overall group pattern of consistently choosing low-calorie food (AN) or high-calorie food (BN). Less cognitive regulation (fewer CoM trials) went along with higher liking for high-calorie foods in AN. These cross-sectional differences between AN early and late in treatment might reflect the formation of healthier habits. In addition, clear patient group differences suggest more specific treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Bulimia Nervosa , Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Bulimia Nervosa/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Pacientes Internados
2.
Appetite ; 168: 105788, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728250

RESUMO

Current treatments for binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN) only show moderate efficacy, warranting the need for novel interventions. Impairments in food-related inhibitory control contribute to BED/BN and could be targeted by food-specific inhibitory control training (ICT). The aim of this study was to establish the feasibility and acceptability of augmenting treatment for individuals with BN/BED with an ICT app (FoodT), which targets motor inhibition to food stimuli using a go/no-go paradigm. Eighty patients with BED/BN receiving psychological and/or pharmacological treatment were randomly allocated to a treatment-as-usual group (TAU; n = 40) or TAU augmented with the 5-min FoodT app daily (n = 40) for 4 weeks. This mixed-methods study assessed feasibility outcomes, effect sizes of clinical change, and acceptability using self-report measures. Pre-registered cut-offs for recruitment, retention, and adherence were met, with 100% of the targeted sample size (n = 80) recruited within 12 months, 85% of participants retained at 4 weeks, and 80% of the FoodT + TAU group completing ≤8 sessions. The reduction in binge eating did not differ between groups. However, moderate reductions in secondary outcomes (eating disorder psychopathology: SES = -0.57, 95% CI [-1.12, -0.03]; valuation of high energy-dense foods: SES = -0.61, 95% CI [-0.87, -0.05]) were found in the FoodT group compared to TAU. Furthermore, small greater reductions in food addiction (SES = -0.46, 95% CI [-1.14, 0.22]) and lack of premeditation (SES = -0.42, 95% CI [-0.77, -0.07]) were found in the FoodT group when compared to TAU. The focus groups revealed acceptability of FoodT. Participants discussed personal barriers (e.g. distractions) and suggested changes to the app (e.g. adding a meditation exercise). Augmenting treatment for BED/BN with a food-specific ICT app is feasible, acceptable, and may reduce clinical symptomatology with high reach and wide dissemination.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia Nervosa , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Aplicativos Móveis , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/terapia , Bulimia Nervosa/terapia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos
3.
Soins Psychiatr ; 42(337): 16-19, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34895689

RESUMO

An innovative structure, the referral centre for eating disorders of the Paris Psychiatry and Neurosciences Hospital Group provides initial access to care for anorexia and bulimia through a holistic and multidisciplinary assessment of the patient. The health professionals aim to accompany the patient towards the management of his disorders but also in the recognition of the latter. This is a crucial issue in compliance and acceptance of care.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Bulimia Nervosa , Bulimia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Encaminhamento e Consulta
4.
Eur Psychiatry ; 64(1): e67, 2021 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) as a complementary approach in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge eating disorder (BED), and to assess how the reduction of the cognitive load of words related to eating disorders (ED) could constitute an intermediate factor explaining its global efficacy. METHODS: Eighty-eight women and men participated in clinical assessments upon inscription, prior to and following 8-week group MBCT. Mindfulness skills were assessed using the five facet mindfulness questionnaire; eating behaviors were assessed using the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ); comorbid pathologies were assessed using the beck depression index and the state-trait anxiety inventory. The cognitive load of words associated with ED was assessed through a modified version of the Stroop color naming task. RESULTS: Mindfulness skills improved significantly (p < .05) after group MBCT. The improvement of TFEQ scores was accompanied by reduced levels of depressive mood and trait anxiety. The positive impact of MBCT on TFEQ score was directly related to an improvement of the performance in the Stroop task. CONCLUSIONS: MBCT represents an interesting complementary therapy for patients with either BN or BED, at least when cognitive and behavioral domains are concerned. Such efficacy seems to be mediated by the reduction of the cognitive load associated with ED stimuli, which offers a possible explanation of how MBCT could reduce binge-eating behaviors. Other studies are needed, in independent centers, to focus more directly on core symptoms and long-term outcome.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia Nervosa , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Atenção Plena , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/terapia , Bulimia Nervosa/terapia , Cognição , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Somatotipos
5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 501, 2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experiencing stressful life events (SLEs) can negatively impact mental health and increase risk for psychiatric disorders including eating disorders (EDs). Previous research has shown that childhood sexual abuse is associated with some EDs, but less is known about the association between other non-sexual SLEs and EDs. METHOD: A case-control study of individuals with (n = 495, age mean ± SD = 29.1 ± 9.8 years) and without (n = 395, age = 30.2 ± 11.7) self-reported lifetime history of EDs was conducted to compare history of self-reported SLEs. Participants reported history of sexual (e.g., rape, other sexual assault) and non-sexual (e.g., emotional abuse, assault, bereavement) life events using an adaptation of the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire. Individuals with EDs were divided into ED subtypes along the restricting - binge eating/purging spectrum to examine subtype differences. Logistic regressions were conducted for each SLE and ED subtype to obtain odds ratios (ORs). We report p-values corrected for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Exposure to any SLE was significantly more common in individuals with EDs than in controls (OR = 2.47, p < .001). Specifically, rape, other sexual assault, and emotional abuse were significantly more common among individuals with a history of binge-eating/purging ED subtypes (ORs = 2.15-3.58, p's < .01) compared with controls. Furthermore, history of life-threatening disease and loss of a close relative/partner/friend were associated with some ED subtypes. The association between SLEs and EDs was stronger for individuals who had experienced multiple SLEs. CONCLUSION: By investigating a range of different SLEs, we showed that both sexual and non-sexual SLEs were more common in individuals with a history of EDs (binge-eating/purging subtypes) than controls. Results highlight the importance of assessing a variety of past SLEs in risk assessment for different EDs.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia Nervosa , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Scand J Psychol ; 62(6): 775-779, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569633

RESUMO

Understanding the perspectives of health professionals remains an understudied issue, yet may help bridge research-practice gaps and pinpoint important areas for education, training, and research. This study investigated attitudes toward anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED) among Nordic health professionals specialized within the eating disorder (ED) field. Participants (n = 144) completed a modified ED-version of the Illness Perception Questionnaire which assessed attitudes and beliefs toward perceived symptom controllability, severity, treatment effectiveness, and views on the prognosis of AN, BN, and BED. Personal enjoyment and level of comfort working with AN, BN, and BED were also assessed. The majority agreed or strongly agreed that patients with AN, BN, and BED were not responsible for their illness, and viewed the illnesses as psychological rather than medical in etiology. AN was viewed as the most severe and enduring, followed by BN, then BED. Treatment for BN was viewed as being more highly effective than treatments for either AN or BED. Professionals rated significantly less enjoyment and less confidence working with BED. To conclude, both commonalities and differences in attitudes toward AN, BN and BED were found in terms of perceived symptom controllability, views on severity, treatment effectiveness, and anticipated prognosis. In particular, findings emphasized the need for additional training in the management of BED among Nordic healthcare professionals.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia Nervosa , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Atitude , Bulimia Nervosa/terapia , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Dent Clin North Am ; 65(4): 689-703, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503661

RESUMO

Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, female athlete triad, bulimia nervosa, obesity, and binge eating initially emerge during adolescence. These disorders are present primarily in females, but males may also present with these conditions. Dentistry has a pivotal role in the management of patients with such diet-related disorders. Because dentists examine their patients at frequent intervals and may be the health care professionals with whom patients feel more comfortable discussing eating disorders, dentists must have knowledge of the etiology, diagnostic criteria, systemic effects, and intraoral manifestations of eating disorders. In addition, the dental professional may be the first health care provider to identify the condition and refer the patient appropriately to medical colleagues for subsequent treatment. This chapter provides dentists with current and relevant information to recognize, diagnose, and integrate dental treatment for their adolescent patients who may exhibit manifestations of an eating disorder.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Bulimia Nervosa , Bulimia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Bulimia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Bulimia Nervosa/terapia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Int J Eat Disord ; 54(11): 1946-1955, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558725

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Emotion dysregulation is proposed as a key factor within eating disorder pathology. However, less is known about specific emotion regulation difficulties experienced by adolescents with varying levels of eating disorders symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between eating disorder behaviors and specific facets of emotion dysregulation, and differences in emotion dysregulation between eating disorder diagnostic groups. METHOD: Participants were 2,783 adolescents, 11-19 years (M = 14 years, 9 months, SD = 1 year, 6 months), who completed self-report measures as part of the EveryBODY study. Adolescents were identified as not having eating disorder symptoms (n = 2,122) or meeting diagnostic criteria for symptoms of specific eating disorder, including: anorexia nervosa or atypical anorexia nervosa (n = 57), bulimia nervosa (n = 136), binge-eating disorder (n = 57), other specified feeding or eating disorder characterized by binge eating or purging (n = 381), and unspecified feeding or eating disorder (n = 30). RESULTS: Binge eating, driven exercise, and fasting were each uniquely associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas purging was not. Similar findings were obtained within specific domains of emotion dysregulation. Findings from diagnostic groups showed a significant main effect of diagnosis on overall emotion dysregulation and most domains of emotion dysregulation. Adolescents with eating disorder symptoms consistently reported higher emotion dysregulation compared to those without these symptoms. DISCUSSION: Findings indicate that emotion dysregulation is a key factor across eating disorder pathology, and potential treatment target across the spectrum of eating disorder diagnoses in adolescents.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia Nervosa , Regulação Emocional , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico , Emoções , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Humanos
9.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(Suppl 9): 84-85, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559784

RESUMO

Eating disorders are disabling, deadly, and costly mental disorders that considerably impair physical health and disrupt psychosocial functioning. Disturbed attitudes towards weight, body shape, and eating play a key role in the origin and maintenance of eating disorders. Eating disorders have been increasing over the past 50 years and changes in the food environment have been implicated. All health-care providers should routinely enquire about eating habits as a component of overall health assessment. Six main feeding and eating disorders are now recognised in diagnostic systems: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder, pica, and rumination disorder (Treasure 2020).


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia Nervosa , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/terapia , Bulimia Nervosa/terapia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Humanos , Obesidade/terapia
10.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255766, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358270

RESUMO

Eating disorders are prevalent in college students but college students are not accurate in identifying the presence of eating disorders (ED) especially when race is involved. Much has been researched about diagnostic ability in vignette form, but little outside of this. For example, it is not known how facial features, such as perceived femininity, may affect observers' beliefs about the likelihood of disordered eating depending on race. In the present study, we examined how biases regarding facial appearance and disordered eating may differ depending on the race of face images. Using a technique called reverse correlation, we estimated the image templates associated with perceived likelihood of disordered eating using both White and Black Faces. Specifically, we recruited 28 college students who categorized White and Black faces according to perceived likelihood of an eating disorder diagnosis in the presence of image noise. Subsequently, we asked Amazon Mechanical Turk participants to categorize the resulting race-specific face templates according to perceived ED likelihood and femininity. The templates corresponding to a high likelihood of an ED diagnosis were distinguished from low-likelihood images by this second independent participant sample at above-chance levels. For Black faces, the templates corresponding to a high likelihood of an ED diagnosis were also selected as more feminine than low-likelihood templates at an above-chance level, whereas there was no such effect found for White faces. These results suggest that stereotyped beliefs about both femininity and the likelihood of disordered eating may interact with perceptual processes.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico , Bulimia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Feminilidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/epidemiologia , Anorexia Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/fisiopatologia , Bulimia Nervosa/epidemiologia , Bulimia Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Face/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Estereotipagem , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Eat Disord ; 54(11): 2009-2014, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338326

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Eating disorders (EDs) are a well-studied public health issue in the general population. Less is known, however, about the prevalence of such conditions and levels of comorbid psychopathology among military and veteran populations. The current study sought to describe the probable prevalence of EDs and levels of comorbid psychopathology using a racially diverse treatment-seeking sample of US veteran men and women. METHOD: Veterans (N =254) presenting for routine clinical care completed self-report questionnaires assessing EDs, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and shame. RESULTS: Thirty-one percent of the sample met probable criteria for either bulimia nervosa (BN), binge-eating disorder, or purging disorder. Although overall ED prevalence estimates were similar across men and women, estimates of BN were higher among Black veterans compared to White veterans or veterans who identified as a race other than Black or White. Further, mean levels of psychopathology were significantly higher in veterans with a probable ED compared to those without. DISCUSSION: This study extends previous research and highlights the importance of establishing dedicated ED screening programs within the Veterans Health Administration.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia Nervosa , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Veteranos , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Psicopatologia
12.
Int J Eat Disord ; 54(11): 2015-2018, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405903

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Occasionally, patients with eating disorders have been subsequently diagnosed with esophageal achalasia. We sought to establish whether eating disorders and achalasia coexisted more often than expected by chance alone. METHOD: National record-linkage study of hospital inpatients in England, between 2001 and 2017. Use of Cox proportional hazards to compare the occurrence of achalasia in cohorts of people with or without anorexia nervosa (AN), and with or without bulimia nervosa (BN), with adjustment of the comparisons for such confounders as age, sex, and year of admission. RESULTS: There were 18,500 people in the AN cohort, 11,300 in the BN cohort, and 8.7 million in the comparison cohort. The Cox regression hazard ratio, comparing the AN cohort with the reference cohort, was 3.4 (95% confidence interval 1.8-6.3) and that in the BN cohort was 4.2 (2.2-8.2). DISCUSSION: AN and achalasia, and BN and achalasia, were diagnosed in the same individuals, more often than expected by chance. Clinicians should be aware of the possible associations with achalasia because the treatment of eating disorders and achalasia is different.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Bulimia Nervosa , Acalasia Esofágica , Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Anorexia Nervosa/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Acalasia Esofágica/diagnóstico , Acalasia Esofágica/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos
13.
Periodontol 2000 ; 87(1): 17-31, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463986

RESUMO

People with eating disorders suffer from a mental disorder that negatively affects their physical and/or mental health. The three most frequent eating disorders are binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa. Environmental and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of eating disorders in vulnerable persons. Although treatment varies among different types of eating disorders, nutrition, medical care combined with psychotherapy and medications are standard of care. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the oral health impact of eating disorders with a special emphasis on the periodontium. Oral health professionals have a unique role to play in the early diagnosis of eating disorders because of the important impact that eating disorders have on the oral cavity. In vomiting-associated eating disorders, the risk of erosive tooth wear is mainly localized to the palatal surfaces of the incisors. Emerging evidence also indicates a high frequency of gingivitis and gingival recessions associated with compulsive toothbrushing. A holistic approach, including oral health and functional rehabilitation, should be promoted by physicians, psychiatrists, and dentists for people with eating disorders.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Bulimia Nervosa , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Gengivite , Bulimia Nervosa/complicações , Bulimia Nervosa/terapia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Humanos , Saúde Bucal
14.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(6): 515-524, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419970

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the recent literature on the epidemiology of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in terms of incidence, prevalence and mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the overall incidence rate of anorexia nervosa is considerably stable over the past decades, the incidence among younger persons (aged <15 years) has increased. It is unclear whether this reflects earlier detection or earlier age of onset. Nevertheless, it has implications for future research into risk factors and for prevention programs. For bulimia nervosa, there has been a decline in overall incidence rate over time. The lifetime prevalence rates of anorexia nervosa might be up to 4% among females and 0.3% among males. Regarding bulimia nervosa, up to 3% of females and more than 1% of males suffer from this disorder during their lifetime. While epidemiological studies in the past mainly focused on young females from Western countries, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are reported worldwide among males and females from all ages. Both eating disorders may carry a five or more times increased mortality risk. SUMMARY: Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa occur worldwide among females and males of all age groups and are associated with an increased mortality risk.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Bulimia Nervosa , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Anorexia Nervosa/epidemiologia , Bulimia Nervosa/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Prevalência
15.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): e364-e369, agosto 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281909

RESUMO

Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria son enfermedades de elevada prevalencia en la adolescencia y tienen repercusión en la salud integral. El objetivo fue describir su evolución y tratamiento en un grupo de adolescentes. Se estudiaron adolescentes menores de 18 años con al menos 6 meses de seguimiento y tratados por un equipo interdisciplinario. Se incluyeron 41 adolescentes: 23 presentaron anorexia nerviosa; 9, trastornos alimentarios no especificados; 7, bulimia nerviosa y 2, trastorno por atracones. El 35 % de pacientes con anorexia nerviosa requirió internación por complicaciones de la desnutrición. El 69 % de las pacientes con anorexia nerviosa, el 57 % de quienes tenían bulimia nerviosa y el 78 % de quienes tenían un trastorno alimentario no especificado presentaron remisión total o parcial, y no hubo pacientes fallecidos. La mayoría presentó una evolución favorable con el tratamiento.


Eating disorders are highly prevalent diseases in adolescence and have an impact on overall health. The objective was to describe the evolution and treatment of eating disorders in adolescents. Adolescents under 18 years of age with at least 6 months of follow-up and treated by an interdisciplinary team were studied. Forty one adolescents were included, 23 presented anorexia nervosa, 9 unspecified eating disorders, 7 bulimia nervosa and 2 binge eating disorders. Thirty five percent of patients with anorexia nervosa required hospitalization for complications of malnutrition. Sixty nine percent of the patients with anorexia nervosa, 57 % with bulimia nervosa, and 78 % with unspecified eating disorders had total or partial remission and there were no deceased patients. The majority presented a favorable evolution with the treatment.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Anorexia Nervosa/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Seguimentos , Bulimia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Bulimia Nervosa/terapia , Bulimia Nervosa/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/terapia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/epidemiologia
16.
Int J Eat Disord ; 54(10): 1766-1770, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259338

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence suggests that supervised and adapted physical activity provides cognitive benefits for individuals with eating disorders (EDs). The mechanisms underlying the benefits of physical activity are poorly understood. Addressing this knowledge gap may inform the appropriate integration of structured physical activity into eating disorders treatment and recovery. We draw attention to recent findings in the study of the impact of physical activity on the brain, and we describe the neurostructural and neurocognitive changes associated with physical activity observed in various clinical and nonclinical populations. Considering the identified impairment in brain volume- and/or neurocognitive function in various EDs, we propose that positive effects of physical activity may play a meaningful role in successful ED treatment. Accordingly, we outline research steps for closing the knowledge gap on how physical activity may aid in ED recovery, and emphasize the need to combine measures of cognitive and behavioral responses to physical activity, with technology capable of measuring changes in brain structure and/or function.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia Nervosa , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Encéfalo , Exercício Físico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Humanos
17.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 23(9): 56, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264408

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aimed to accrue recent evidence exploring effects of modern online activities (e.g., Internet use) on feeding and eating disorder symptoms, and related traits. We examined available evidence to ascertain any direct influences from online activities on feeding and eating disorders, thereby shedding light on putative mechanisms by which those influences may occur. RECENT FINDINGS: Many facets of problematic usage of the Internet correlate cross sectionally with eating disorder and related psychopathology. There is evidence to suggest that significant effects do exist in the direction of specific Internet activities contributing to eating disorder symptoms, viewed dimensionally. Putative mechanisms are discussed. However, a significant number of eating disorder phenotypes and Internet-related activities remain under-researched. Specific facets of engagement with the online environment appear to confer risk for feeding and eating problems, evidence being strongest for non-clinical studies using dimensional measures. More research is required to rigorously confirm causal effects, including in patients meeting formal diagnostic criteria for eating disorders. We also highlight the need for high-quality evidence to explore how eating disorder phenotypes are commonly as well as uniquely affected by different online activities. Such research is needed in order that scientific understanding in this area can be translated to protect those most at risk of disordered eating, including through changes in public health approaches and clinical practice.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia Nervosa , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Psicopatologia
18.
Compr Psychiatry ; 109: 152262, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research has identified abnormal emotion regulation (ER) as an underlying mechanism in the onset and maintenance of eating disorders. Yet, it still remains unclear whether different forms of ER, adaptive and maladaptive strategies, are similar across categories of eating disorders. METHOD: A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to look at ER differences between anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), two common eating disorder pathologies with different eating patterns. RESULTS: 41 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The results revealed no differences in the use of maladaptive ER strategies between individuals with AN and BN, however patients with AN tend to use less adaptive ER strategies as compared to patients with BN. CONCLUSIONS: Making less use of adaptive strategies in AN might be due to low body weight and high levels of alexithymia which define AN. In order to improve treatment outcome in individuals suffering from AN, these findings suggest to focus more on improving the use of adaptive ER strategies.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Bulimia Nervosa , Regulação Emocional , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Anorexia , Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Bulimia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Bulimia Nervosa/terapia , Humanos
19.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(4): e364-e369, 2021 08.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309320

RESUMO

Eating disorders are highly prevalent diseases in adolescence and have an impact on overall health. The objective was to describe the evolution and treatment of eating disorders in adolescents. Adolescents under 18 years of age with at least 6 months of follow-up and treated by an interdisciplinary team were studied. Forty one adolescents were included, 23 presented anorexia nervosa, 9 unspecified eating disorders, 7 bulimia nervosa and 2 binge eating disorders. Thirty five percent of patients with anorexia nervosa required hospitalization for complications of malnutrition. Sixty nine percent of the patients with anorexia nervosa, 57 % with bulimia nervosa, and 78 % with unspecified eating disorders had total or partial remission and there were no deceased patients. The majority presented a favorable evolution with the treatment.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Bulimia Nervosa , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Anorexia Nervosa/epidemiologia , Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Bulimia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Bulimia Nervosa/epidemiologia , Bulimia Nervosa/terapia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Pesquisa
20.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203957

RESUMO

Feeding and Eating Disorders (FED) are mostly described in infants and adolescents but are less well-known in children. Information on the prevalence of FED in the general pediatric population is still limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and the care pathway of FED in a population aged 0-18 years old, using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5 classification. Two physicians interviewed 401 families using a questionnaire including demographics, BMI, dietary behavior data, and age-appropriate screening tools. Qualitative and quantitative variables were compared using the Chi2 test and Student's t-test, respectively. After a headcount adjustment based on the French population by age group, the estimated prevalence rate was 3% [95%CI (1.7-5.1)] for Avoidant and Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID), and 9.7% [95%CI (7.2-13.0)] for Unspecified FED (UFED), which included other restrictive and compulsive FED. The median age for ARFID was 4.8 years (0.8-9 years), and 7.5 years (0.6-17 years) for UFED. The interviews did not identify cases of anorexia, bulimia, binge eating disorder, other specified FED, pica or rumination. Only 15.2% of children with an FED were receiving medical care. The development of validated pediatric screening tools, as well as the training of health professionals in children FED is necessary.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Transtorno da Evitação ou Restrição da Ingestão de Alimentos , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia Nervosa , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
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