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2.
Lancet Oncol ; 23(1): e21-e31, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973228

RESUMO

High-quality randomised clinical trials testing moderately fractionated breast radiotherapy have clearly shown that local control and survival is at least as effective as with 2 Gy daily fractions with similar or reduced normal tissue toxicity. Fewer treatment visits are welcomed by patients and their families, and reduced fractions produce substantial savings for health-care systems. Implementation of hypofractionation, however, has moved at a slow pace. The oncology community have now reached an inflection point created by new evidence from the FAST-Forward five-fraction randomised trial and catalysed by the need for the global radiation oncology community to unite during the COVID-19 pandemic and rapidly rethink hypofractionation implementation. The aim of this paper is to support equity of access for all patients to receive evidence-based breast external beam radiotherapy and to facilitate the translation of new evidence into routine daily practice. The results from this European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology Advisory Committee in Radiation Oncology Practice consensus state that moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy can be offered to any patient for whole breast, chest wall (with or without reconstruction), and nodal volumes. Ultrafractionation (five fractions) can also be offered for non-nodal breast or chest wall (without reconstruction) radiotherapy either as standard of care or within a randomised trial or prospective cohort. The consensus is timely; not only is it a pragmatic framework for radiation oncologists, but it provides a measured proposal for the path forward to influence policy makers and empower patients to ensure equity of access to evidence-based radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Comitês Consultivos/normas , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Seleção de Pacientes , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/normas , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Consenso , Europa (Continente) , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação
5.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 22(1): 13, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research regarding the association between severe obesity and in-hospital mortality is inconsistent. We evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI) levels on mortality in the medical wards. The analysis was performed separately before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We retrospectively retrieved data of adult patients admitted to the medical wards at the Mount Sinai Health System in New York City. The study was conducted between January 1, 2011, to March 23, 2021. Patients were divided into two sub-cohorts: pre-COVID-19 and during-COVID-19. Patients were then clustered into groups based on BMI ranges. A multivariate logistic regression analysis compared the mortality rate among the BMI groups, before and during the pandemic. RESULTS: Overall, 179,288 patients were admitted to the medical wards and had a recorded BMI measurement. 149,098 were admitted before the COVID-19 pandemic and 30,190 during the pandemic. Pre-pandemic, multivariate analysis showed a "J curve" between BMI and mortality. Severe obesity (BMI > 40) had an aOR of 0.8 (95% CI:0.7-1.0, p = 0.018) compared to the normal BMI group. In contrast, during the pandemic, the analysis showed a "U curve" between BMI and mortality. Severe obesity had an aOR of 1.7 (95% CI:1.3-2.4, p < 0.001) compared to the normal BMI group. CONCLUSIONS: Medical ward patients with severe obesity have a lower risk for mortality compared to patients with normal BMI. However, this does not apply during COVID-19, where obesity was a leading risk factor for mortality in the medical wards. It is important for the internal medicine physician to understand the intricacies of the association between obesity and medical ward mortality.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , COVID-19/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 3401566, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35005026

RESUMO

Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, asymptomatic transmission represented an important challenge for controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2 through the traditional public health strategies. Further understanding of the contribution of asymptomatic infections to SARS-CoV-2 transmission has been of crucial importance for pandemic control. We conducted a retrospective epidemiological study to characterize asymptomatic COVID-19 cases occurred in the Apulia region, Italy, during the first epidemic wave of COVID-19 outbreak (February 29-July 7, 2020). We analyzed data collected in a regional platform developed to manage surveillance activities, namely, investigation and follow-up of cases and contacts, contact tracing, and laboratory and clinical data collection. We included all asymptomatic cases that were laboratory-confirmed during the appropriate follow-up, defined as persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 who did not develop symptoms/clinical signs of the disease. Between February 29 and July 7, 2020, a total of 4,536 cases were diagnosed with COVID-19 among 193,757 tests performed. The group of persons with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection consisted of 903 cases; the asymptomatic proportion was 19.9% (95% CI: 18.8-21.1%); this decreased with increasing age (OR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.83-0.96; p = 0.001), in individuals with underlying comorbidities (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.41-0.73; p < 0.001), and in males (OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.54-0.87; p = 0.002). The median asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive period was 19 days (IQR: 14-31) and the cumulative proportion of persons with resolution of infection 14 days after the first positive PCR test was 74%. As the public health community is debating the question of whether asymptomatic and late spreaders could sustain virus transmission in the communities, such cases present unique opportunities to gain insight into SARS-CoV-2 adaptation to human host. This has important implications for future COVID-19 surveillance and prevention.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/transmissão , Busca de Comunicante , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , RNA Viral , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
8.
PLoS Med ; 19(1): e1003870, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excess mortality captures the total effect of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on mortality and is not affected by misspecification of cause of death. We aimed to describe how health and demographic factors were associated with excess mortality during, compared to before, the pandemic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed a time series dataset including 9,635,613 adults (≥40 years old) registered at United Kingdom general practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We extracted weekly numbers of deaths and numbers at risk between March 2015 and July 2020, stratified by individual-level factors. Excess mortality during Wave 1 of the UK pandemic (5 March to 27 May 2020) compared to the prepandemic period was estimated using seasonally adjusted negative binomial regression models. Relative rates (RRs) of death for a range of factors were estimated before and during Wave 1 by including interaction terms. We found that all-cause mortality increased by 43% (95% CI 40% to 47%) during Wave 1 compared with prepandemic. Changes to the RR of death associated with most sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were small during Wave 1 compared with prepandemic. However, the mortality RR associated with dementia markedly increased (RR for dementia versus no dementia prepandemic: 3.5, 95% CI 3.4 to 3.5; RR during Wave 1: 5.1, 4.9 to 5.3); a similar pattern was seen for learning disabilities (RR prepandemic: 3.6, 3.4 to 3.5; during Wave 1: 4.8, 4.4 to 5.3), for black or South Asian ethnicity compared to white, and for London compared to other regions. Relative risks for morbidities were stable in multiple sensitivity analyses. However, a limitation of the study is that we cannot assume that the risks observed during Wave 1 would apply to other waves due to changes in population behaviour, virus transmission, and risk perception. CONCLUSIONS: The first wave of the UK COVID-19 pandemic appeared to amplify baseline mortality risk to approximately the same relative degree for most population subgroups. However, disproportionate increases in mortality were seen for those with dementia, learning disabilities, non-white ethnicity, or living in London.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Mortalidade/tendências , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
9.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 4, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the growing evidence of the extreme efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in adults and the elderly, the administration of the same prophylactic measures to pediatric subjects is debated by some parents and by a number of researchers. The aim of this manuscript is to explain the reasons for overcoming hesitancy towards COVID-19 vaccination in children and adolescents and to highlight the importance of universal COVID-19 vaccination in the pediatric population. MAIN FINDINGS: Recent epidemiological data suggest that the risk that a child with COVID-19 is hospitalized or admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit is greater than initially thought. Children may also suffer from long COVID and school closure because of COVID-19 can cause relevant mental health problems in the pediatric population. Placebo-controlled, observer-blinded, clinical trials showed appropriate efficacy, safety and tolerability of authorized mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in children and adolescents 12-17 years old. Vaccination in children younger than 12 years of age will allow further benefits . CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccine administration seems mandatory in all the children and adolescents because of COVID-19 related complications as well as the efficacy, safety and tolerability of COVID-19 vaccines in this population. Due to the recent approval of COVID-9 vaccines for children 5-10 years old, it is desirable that vaccine opponents can understand how important is the universal immunization against COVID-19 for the pediatric subjects.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização , Programas Obrigatórios , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Hospitalização , Humanos , Medição de Risco
10.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 1, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of allergic sensitization seems to be protective against SARS CoV2 infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate, using online surveys, the impact of COVID-19 on Italian allergic children, comparing the prevalence of AR and asthma symptoms between the first and second pandemic wave. METHODS: Both surveys were emailed to Italian pediatricians in April 2020 (first survey) and in March 2021 (second survey). The first one was related to the impact of COVID-19 and the most frequently reported symptoms. The second one was superimposed on the previous one, taking into account some additional aspects in the management of disease. RESULTS: A total of 99 pediatricians participated in the first survey and 267 in the second one. The first survey showed that, asthma and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis prevalence was mostly between 0 and 20% throughout the country. The second survey showed a lower prevalence of both diseases nationwide in comparison to the first one. Comparing the two surveys, statistically significant differences were reported only in the distribution of asthma prevalence in Southern Italy while no differences were highlighted in the North and in the Center. Finally regarding allergic rhinoconjunctivitis prevalence, no differences were noticed nationwide. CONCLUSIONS: Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma, if under control, did not represent risk factors for the susceptibility to SARS CoV2. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to continue therapies during COVID-19 outbreak, according to the international guidelines. However, being COVID-19 a new disease, actual knowledge will undergo continuous improvements over time.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Conjuntivite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Asma/complicações , Criança , Conjuntivite Alérgica/complicações , Humanos , Itália , Prevalência , Rinite Alérgica/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(1): e12, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the extraordinary speed of mass vaccination efforts, an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) delta variant in a vaccinee with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccine was identified in an adult day service center (ADSC) of Jeju, South Korea. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic features in infection-vulnerable facilities with a high vaccination rate of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. The second was to estimate the secondary transmission prevention effect of the vaccine in the household members by vaccination status. METHODS: We included all ADSC participants, staff and their household members. All COVID-19 infected cases were confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We calculated attack rate in ADSC and the secondary attack rate (SAR) in household members by vaccination status. RESULTS: Among a total of 42 participants and 16 staff, of which 96.6% were fully vaccinated with BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, 12 symptomatic cases and 13 asymptomatic confirmed cases of COVID-19 were found. The attack rate was 43.1%, with 13 isolates identified as SARS-CoV-2 virus, delta variant. The SAR in unvaccinated and partially vaccinated household members were 27.8% (5/18) and 25.0% (5/20), respectively, while the SAR in fully vaccinated household members was 12.5% (1/8). CONCLUSION: We describe a SARS-CoV-2 delta variant outbreak in ADSC with high vaccine coverage rate, characterized by high infection rate, high transmissibility, and low clinical severity. The outbreak proceeded to unvaccinated or partially vaccinated household members, emphasizing the need for immunizing close contacts of high-risk groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Vacinação
12.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(1): e13, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is generally asymptomatic or mild in otherwise healthy children, however, severe cases may occur. In this study, we report the clinical characteristics of children classified as critical COVID-19 in Korea to provide further insights into risk factors and management in children. METHODS: This study was a retrospective case series of children < 18 years of age classified as critical COVID-19. Cases were identified by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency surveillance system and medical records were reviewed. Critical COVID-19 was defined as cases with severe illness requiring noninvasive (high flow nasal cannula, continuous positive airway pressure, or bilevel positive airway pressure) or invasive mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), between January 20, 2020 and October 7, 2021. RESULTS: Among 39,146 cases diagnosed with COVID-19 in subjects < 18 years of age, eight cases (0.02%) were identified as critical COVID-19. The median age was 13 years (range 10 month-17 years) and male-to-female ratio was 1:1. Three children had underlying diseases; one child has asthma and major depressive disorder, one child had Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and one child had mental retardation and was newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus with the diagnosis of COVID-19. Among the eight children, seven were obese (body mass index range [BMI] median 29.3, range 25.9-38.2, weight-for-length > 97% for infant) and one was overweight (BMI 21.3). All patients had fever, six patients had dyspnea or cough and other accompanied symptoms included sore throat, headache, lethargy and myalgia. Radiologic findings showed pneumonia within 1-8 days after symptom onset. Pneumonia progressed in these children for 2-6 days and was improved within 5-32 days after diagnosis. Among the eight critical cases, remdesivir was administered in six cases. Steroids were provided for all cases. Inotropics were administered in one case. Six cases were treated with noninvasive mechanical ventilator and three required mechanical ventilator. One case required ECMO due to acute respiratory distress syndrome. All cases were admitted to the intensive care unit and admission period ranged from 9-39 days. Among all critical COVID-19 cases < 18 years of age, there were no fatal cases. CONCLUSION: To develop appropriate policies for children in the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to monitor and assess the clinical burden in this population.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 38(1): e3508, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990520

RESUMO

Emerging evidence indicates a bi-directional relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and diabetes. The possibility exists that SARS-CoV-2 could induce diabetes, but it is not yet clear whether this might be a fulminant-type diabetes, autoimmune diabetes, or a new-onset transient hyperglycaemia. This viewpoint discusses mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 might trigger type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Specifically, we looked at the role of post-translational protein modifications (PTMs) and the generation of neoepitopes as a potential mechanism in the induction of islet autoimmunity, and the pathways via which coronavirus infections might exacerbate the formation of PTMs and, in so doing, provoke the onset of T1DM.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Humanos
15.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(1): 97-107, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972825

RESUMO

Global and national surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology is mostly based on targeted schemes focused on testing individuals with symptoms. These tested groups are often unrepresentative of the wider population and exhibit test positivity rates that are biased upwards compared with the true population prevalence. Such data are routinely used to infer infection prevalence and the effective reproduction number, Rt, which affects public health policy. Here, we describe a causal framework that provides debiased fine-scale spatiotemporal estimates by combining targeted test counts with data from a randomized surveillance study in the United Kingdom called REACT. Our probabilistic model includes a bias parameter that captures the increased probability of an infected individual being tested, relative to a non-infected individual, and transforms observed test counts to debiased estimates of the true underlying local prevalence and Rt. We validated our approach on held-out REACT data over a 7-month period. Furthermore, our local estimates of Rt are indicative of 1-week- and 2-week-ahead changes in SARS-CoV-2-positive case numbers. We also observed increases in estimated local prevalence and Rt that reflect the spread of the Alpha and Delta variants. Our results illustrate how randomized surveys can augment targeted testing to improve statistical accuracy in monitoring the spread of emerging and ongoing infectious disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Número Básico de Reprodução , Viés , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/transmissão , Teste para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , Previsões , Humanos , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142046, 2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982158

RESUMO

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a distinct spatiotemporal pattern in the United States. Patients with cancer are at higher risk of severe complications from COVID-19, but it is not well known whether COVID-19 outcomes in this patient population were associated with geography. Objective: To quantify spatiotemporal variation in COVID-19 outcomes among patients with cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This registry-based retrospective cohort study included patients with a historical diagnosis of invasive malignant neoplasm and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between March and November 2020. Data were collected from cancer care delivery centers in the United States. Exposures: Patient residence was categorized into 9 US census divisions. Cancer center characteristics included academic or community classification, rural-urban continuum code (RUCC), and social vulnerability index. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. The secondary composite outcome consisted of receipt of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and all-cause death. Multilevel mixed-effects models estimated associations of center-level and census division-level exposures with outcomes after adjustment for patient-level risk factors and quantified variation in adjusted outcomes across centers, census divisions, and calendar time. Results: Data for 4749 patients (median [IQR] age, 66 [56-76] years; 2439 [51.4%] female individuals, 1079 [22.7%] non-Hispanic Black individuals, and 690 [14.5%] Hispanic individuals) were reported from 83 centers in the Northeast (1564 patients [32.9%]), Midwest (1638 [34.5%]), South (894 [18.8%]), and West (653 [13.8%]). After adjustment for patient characteristics, including month of COVID-19 diagnosis, estimated 30-day mortality rates ranged from 5.2% to 26.6% across centers. Patients from centers located in metropolitan areas with population less than 250 000 (RUCC 3) had lower odds of 30-day mortality compared with patients from centers in metropolitan areas with population at least 1 million (RUCC 1) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.31; 95% CI, 0.11-0.84). The type of center was not significantly associated with primary or secondary outcomes. There were no statistically significant differences in outcome rates across the 9 census divisions, but adjusted mortality rates significantly improved over time (eg, September to November vs March to May: aOR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.17-0.58). Conclusions and Relevance: In this registry-based cohort study, significant differences in COVID-19 outcomes across US census divisions were not observed. However, substantial heterogeneity in COVID-19 outcomes across cancer care delivery centers was found. Attention to implementing standardized guidelines for the care of patients with cancer and COVID-19 could improve outcomes for these vulnerable patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , População Rural , Vulnerabilidade Social , População Urbana , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Censos , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Sistema de Registros , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise Espacial , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(1): e0010048, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first community transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta variant of concern (VOC) in Guangzhou, China occurred between May and June 2021. Herein, we describe the epidemiological characteristics of this outbreak and evaluate the implemented containment measures against this outbreak. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention provided the data on SARS-CoV-2 infections reported between 21 May and 24 June 2021. We estimated the incubation period distribution by fitting a gamma distribution to the data, while the serial interval distribution was estimated by fitting a normal distribution. The instantaneous effective reproductive number (Rt) was estimated to reflect the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2. Clinical severity was compared for cases with different vaccination statuses using an ordinal regression model after controlling for age. Of the reported local cases, 7/153 (4.6%) were asymptomatic. The median incubation period was 6.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.42-6.71) days and the means of serial intervals decreased from 5.19 (95% CI: 4.29-6.11) to 3.78 (95% CI: 2.74-4.81) days. The incubation period increased with age (P<0.001). A hierarchical prevention and control strategy against COVID-19 was implemented in Guangzhou, with Rt decreasing from 6.83 (95% credible interval [CrI]: 3.98-10.44) for the 7-day time window ending on 27 May 2021 to below 1 for the time window ending on 8 June and thereafter. Individuals with partial or full vaccination schedules with BBIBP-CorV or CoronaVac accounted for 15.3% of the COVID-19 cases. Clinical symptoms were milder in partially or fully vaccinated cases than in unvaccinated cases (odds ratio [OR] = 0.26 [95% CI: 0.07-0.94]). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The hierarchical prevention and control strategy against COVID-19 in Guangzhou was timely and effective. Authorised inactivated vaccines are likely to contribute to reducing the probability of developing severe disease. Our findings have important implications for the containment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Idoso , Número Básico de Reprodução , COVID-19/transmissão , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262192, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990482

RESUMO

Equal Access to the COVID-19 vaccine for all remains a major public health issue. The current study compared the prevalence of vaccination reluctance in general and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and social and health factors associated with intentions to receive the vaccine. A random socio-epidemiological population-based survey was conducted in France in November 2020, in which 85,855 adults participants were included in this study. We used logistic regressions to study being "not at all in favor" to vaccination in general, and being "certainly not" willing to get vaccinated against Covid-19. Our analysis highlighted a gendered reluctance toward vaccination in general but even more so regarding vaccination against COVID-19 (OR = 1.88 (95% CI: 1.79-1.97)). We also found that people at the bottom of the social hierarchy, in terms of level of education, financial resources, were more likely to refuse the COVID-19 vaccine (from OR = 1.22 (95% CI:1.10-1.35) for respondents without diploma to OR = 0.52 (95% CI:0.47-0.57) for High school +5 or more years level). People from the French overseas departments, immigrants and descendants of immigrants, were all more reluctant to the Covid-19 vaccine (first-generation Africa/Asia immigrants OR = 1.16 (95% CI:1.04-1.30)) versus OR = 2.19 (95% CI:1.96-2.43) for the majority population). Finally, our analysis showed that those who reported not trusting the government were more likely to be Covid-19 vaccine-reluctant (OR = 3.29 (95% CI: 3.13-3.45)). Specific campaigns should be thought beforehand to reach women and people at the bottom of the social hierarchy to avoid furthering social inequalities in terms of morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Recusa de Vacinação/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hostilidade , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , /estatística & dados numéricos , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas
19.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262347, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has substantially impacted healthcare utilization worldwide. The objective of this retrospective analysis of a large hospital discharge database was to compare all-cause and cause-specific hospitalizations during the first six months of the pandemic in the United States with the same months in the previous four years. METHODS: Data were collected from all hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database (PHD) and PHD Special Release reporting hospitalizations from January through July for each year from 2016 through 2020. Hospitalization trends were analyzed stratified by age group, major diagnostic categories (MDCs), and geographic region. RESULTS: The analysis included 286 hospitals from all 9 US Census divisions. The number of all-cause hospitalizations per month was relatively stable from 2016 through 2019 and then fell by 21% (57,281 fewer hospitalizations) between March and April 2020, particularly in hospitalizations for non-respiratory illnesses. From April onward there was a rise in the number of monthly hospitalizations per month. Hospitalizations per month, nationally and in each Census division, decreased for 20 of 25 MDCs between March and April 2020. There was also a decrease in hospitalizations per month for all age groups between March and April 2020 with the greatest decreases in hospitalizations observed for patients 50-64 and ≥65 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of hospitalization declined substantially during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, suggesting delayed routine, elective, and emergency care in the United States. These lapses in care for illnesses not related to COVID-19 may lead to increases in morbidity and mortality for other conditions. Thus, in the current stage of the pandemic, clinicians and public-health officials should work, not only to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission, but also to ensure that care for non-COVID-19 conditions is not delayed.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/tendências , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde/tendências , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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