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1.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257112, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492089

RESUMO

Public health and social interventions are critical to mitigate the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Ethiopia has implemented a variety of public health and social measures to control the pandemic. This study aimed to assess social distancing and public health preventive practices of government employees in response to COVID-19. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,573 government employees selected from 46 public institutions located in Addis Ababa. Data were collected from 8th to 19th June 2020 using a paper-based self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 23.0. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with outcome variables (perceived effectiveness of facemask wearing to prevent coronavirus infection, and COVID-19 testing). Majority of the participants reported facemask wearing (96%), avoiding close contact with people including handshaking (94.8%), consistently followed government recommendations (95.6%), frequent handwashing (94.5%), practiced physical distancing (89.5%), avoided mass gatherings and crowded places (88.1%), restricting movement and travelling (71.8%), and stayed home (35.6%). More than 80% of the participants perceived that consistently wearing a facemask is highly effective in preventing coronavirus infection. Respondents from Oromia perceived less about the effectiveness of wearing facemask in preventing coronavirus infection (adjusted OR = 0.27, 95% CI:0.17-0.45). About 19% of the respondents reported that they had ever tested for COVID-19. Respondents between 40-49 years old (adjusted OR = 0.41, 95% CI:0.22-0.76) and 50-66 years (adjusted OR = 0.43, 95% CI:0.19-0.95) were less likely tested for coronavirus than the younger age groups. Similarly, respondents from Oromia were less likely to test for coronavirus (adjusted OR = 0.26, 95% CI:0.12-0.56) than those from national level. Participants who were sure about the availability of COVID-19 testing were more likely to test for coronavirus. About 57% of the respondents perceived that the policy measures in response to the pandemic were inadequate. The findings showed higher social distancing and preventive practices among the government employees in response to COVID-19. Rules and regulations imposed by the government should be enforced and people should properly apply wearing facemasks, frequent handwashing, social and physical distancing measures as a comprehensive package of COVID-19 prevention and control strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Empregados do Governo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Teste para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Distanciamento Físico , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210072

RESUMO

The use of dietary supplements is prevalent among many groups worldwide. However, few studies have examined their use among government employees. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the association among sociodemographic characteristics, body weight status, and energy intake with dietary supplement use among government employees in Putrajaya, Malaysia. Simple random sampling was used to select a sample of 460 government employees from six ministries in Putrajaya, Malaysia. The data used in this study were collected through anthropometric measurements (height, weight, % body fat, waist and hip circumferences), a self-administered questionnaire (sociodemographic characteristics and dietary supplements use), and an interviewer-administered questionnaire (24-hour dietary recall; fruit and vegetable intake). The results indicated that the prevalence of dietary supplement use was 55.4%, with vitamin C (38.4%) being the most popular type of dietary supplement. Health issues (80.8%) were the most common reason for usage, internet (59.2%) was the main source of information, and pharmacies (71.8%) were the most indicated places to purchase dietary supplements. A multivariate analysis showed that participants who were female, married, had better monthly income, lived within a smaller household size, had a normal body mass index, classified as having unhealthily high body fat percentage, did not skip breakfast, and consumed at least five servings of fruits and vegetables per day were significantly more likely to use dietary supplements. In conclusion, health-conscious groups were more prone to consume dietary supplements, and due to the high prevalence of dietary supplement use, dissemination of accurate scientific information regarding dietary supplements is highly recommended among government employees.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Empregados do Governo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Antropometria , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254001, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288913

RESUMO

Health, disease, and mortality vary greatly at the county level, and there are strong geographical trends of disease in the United States. Healthcare is and has been a top priority for voters in the U.S., and an important political issue. Consequently, it is important to determine what relationship voting patterns have with health, disease, and mortality, as doing so may help guide appropriate policy. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between voting patterns and over 150 different public health and wellbeing variables at the county level, comparing all states, including counties in 2016 battleground states, and counties in states that flipped from majority Democrat to majority Republican from 2012 to 2016. We also investigated county-level health trends over the last 30+ years and find statistically significant relationships between a number of health measures and the voting patterns of counties in presidential elections. Collectively, these data exhibit a strong pattern: counties that voted Republican in the 2016 election had overall worse health outcomes than those that voted Democrat. We hope that this strong relationship can guide improvements in healthcare policy legislation at the county level.


Assuntos
Governo Federal , Geografia Médica , Empregados do Governo , Política , Saúde Pública , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Política de Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Morbidade , Mortalidade , Estados Unidos
4.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253624, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Revelations that some members of Congress, including members of key health care committees, hold substantial personal investments in the health care industry have raised concerns about lawmakers' financial conflicts of interest (COI) and their potential impact on health care legislation and oversight. AIMS: 1) To assess historical trends in both the number of legislators holding health care-related assets and the value and composition of those assets. 2) To compare the financial holdings of members of health care-focused committees and subcommittees to those of other members of the House and Senate. METHODS: We analyzed 11 years of personal financial disclosures by all members of the House and Senate. For each year, we calculated the percentage of members holding a health care-related asset (overall, by party, and by committee); the total value of all assets and health care-related assets held; the mean and median values of assets held per member; and the share of asset values attributable to 9 health asset categories. FINDINGS: During the study period, over a third of all members of Congress held health care-related assets. These assets were often substantial, with a median total value per member of over $43,000. Members of health care-focused committees and subcommittees in the House and Senate did not hold health care-related assets at a higher rate than other members of their respective chambers. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that lawmakers' health care-related COI warrant the same level of attention that has been paid to the COI of other actors in the health care system.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/economia , Governo Federal , Empregados do Governo/estatística & dados numéricos , Investimentos em Saúde/tendências , Conflito de Interesses , Revelação , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde/economia , Investimentos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Política , Estados Unidos
5.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251465, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974671

RESUMO

This study proposes a model in which organizational identification mediates the correlations among state-owned enterprises (SOEs), authentic leadership, Christian religiousness, and unethical pro-organizational behavior (UPB). The proposed theoretical framework is based on moral identity theory, social identity theory, and social exchange theory. We tested the hypothesized model using data (N = 389) from employees of various companies and industries in Poland. Of the respondents, 49.1% worked in SOEs. The reliability and validity of the measures were established. The correlation coefficients among the analyzed variables were obtained using the bootstrap confidence interval method. To thoroughly examine the causal relationships among the variables, covariance-based structural equation modeling (CB-SEM) was adopted. Path analysis was conducted and used to verify a model in which organizational identification mediated the correlations among state involvement in the ownership of an enterprise, authentic leadership, Christian religiousness, and UPB. State involvement in the ownership of an enterprise, authentic leadership, and Christian religiousness were linked to increased organizational identification, which in turn was linked to the intensification of UPB. With the level of organizational identification controlled, state ownership of an enterprise was linked to lower UPB intensity. Limitations, implications and future research directions are discussed.


Assuntos
Cristianismo , Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Liderança , Princípios Morais , Cultura Organizacional , Propriedade/ética , Setor Público/ética , Adulto , Idoso , Causalidade , Decepção , Escolaridade , Ética , Feminino , Fraude , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Organizacionais , Motivação , Polônia , Revelação da Verdade , Adulto Jovem
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(18): e25826, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950991

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: There is evidence that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH) D] levels may be associated with cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between 25-(OH) D levels and blood pressure (BP), blood lipids, and arterial elasticity in middle-aged and elderly cadres in China.In this retrospective study, we included 401 civil servants and cadres aged >42 years who underwent medical examinations at Guiyang Municipal First People's Hospital, China in 2018. The participants were assigned to deficiency (≤20 ng/mL), insufficiency (20-30 ng/mL), and sufficiency (≥30 ng/mL) groups according to 25-(OH) D levels in their blood. Demographics, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), BP, ankle-brachial index (ABI), and blood lipids were compared among groups. The associations between 25-(OH) D and other parameters were evaluated using linear regression analysis.Median (range) 25-(OH) D levels in the deficiency (n = 162), insufficiency (n = 162), and sufficiency (n = 77) groups were 15.32 (2.93-19.88), 25.12 (20.07-29.91), and 33.91 (30.23-82.42) ng/mL, respectively. There were significant differences in systolic BP, pulse pressure, baPWV (left and right sides), ABI (left side), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides (TGs; all P < .05) among groups. Multivariate linear regression revealed that TG, left baPWV, and right baPWV were significantly negatively correlated with 25-(OH) D levels (all P < .05).In this study, 25-(OH) D levels were found to be associated with TG, left baPWV, and right baPWV values. 25-(OH) D deficiency may be associated with reduced arterial elasticity.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Artérias/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , China/epidemiologia , Elasticidade/fisiologia , Feminino , Empregados do Governo/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico
8.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210014, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with the willingness to take the pandemic influenza vaccine. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of Brazilian civil servants participating in the fourth wave (2012-2013) of the longitudinal Pró-Saúde Study. Associations were expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), estimated by multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: Among 2,828 participants, 15.9% would not be willing to vaccinate in the future if the Brazilian Ministry of Health promoted a new vaccination campaign against pandemic influenza. Not willing to vaccinate in the future was strongly associated with not taking the pandemic influenza vaccine in 2010 (OR = 9.0, 95%CI 6.9 - 11.6). Among the unvaccinated, females, those aged > 60 years, and non-health care workers were less willing to vaccinate in the future. Again, in the vaccinated group, females were less willing to vaccinate. CONCLUSION: Multidisciplinary efforts should be encouraged in order to identify reasons for refusing vaccination, focusing on the individual and group perceptions of susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers to vaccination. Such information is needed to identify target groups for the delivery of customized interventions towards preventing emerging pandemics, such as avian influenza and COVID-19.


Assuntos
Empregados do Governo , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Vacinação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Empregados do Governo/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/psicologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807907

RESUMO

The current rapid growth of the economy has necessitated an assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its associated factors among employees. Unfortunately, there are still limited data available in this area among the Malaysian working population in government sectors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with HRQOL among government employees in Putrajaya, Malaysia. This cross-sectional study recruited 460 eligible government employees who worked in the area of Putrajaya through simple random sampling. The self-administered questionnaire was distributed to these participants to collect information on the SF-36 profile of scores, sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors, and medical history. The results of this study signify that most of the participants were identified as having good HRQOL with the mean score of overall HRQOL was 72.42 ± 14.99. Multivariate analysis showed that being younger, receiving a better monthly personal income, a smaller household number, performing more physical activity, not having any chronic disease, and not using any long-term medication were significantly positively associated with overall HRQOL. The participants who did not have a family history of chronic disease were reported to be significantly associated with better mental component summary (MCS). Further, males were significantly positively associated with bodily pain (BP) and general health (GH) only, whereas better occupational status was limited to social functioning (SF). In conclusion, the results of this study provide motivation for future research and initiatives for improving the physical, emotional, and social well-being of government employees.


Assuntos
Empregados do Governo , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 46(3): 283-292, 2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927076

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the prevalence and influencing factors for drinking behavior and heavy drinking among government employees in Changsha and provide a basis for carrying out interventions for drinking behaviors and formulating public health promotion plans for government employees. METHODS: Government employees were recruited consecutively from the Health Management Center of a general hospital in Changsha between December 2017 and December 2018. Information on sociodemograpic characteristics, drinking behaviors, life events, and psychosocial characteristics was collected using a standard set of questionnaire. Drinking behavior was defined as drinking once or more per week for the past 12 months. The differences in drinking rates and excessive drinking rates among groups with different characteristics were compared. Multivariate analysis was performed to analyze the associated factors of drinking behaviors and heavy drinking for government employees. RESULTS: A total of 6 190 people completed this investigation. The overall drinking rate of government employees in Changsha was 21.9%, and the rate of drinking was higher in males than that in females (44.7% vs 4.0%, P<0.01). Among the participants who drinked, the heavy drinking rates of males and females were 26.4% and 10.1%, respectively, while the harmful drinking rates of males and females were 6.0% and 2.2%, respectively. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that smoking, below high school education level, frequency of social intercourse ≥ 2 times per week, and having married or the divorced/widowed marital status were associated with alcohol drinking for male governmental employees. While aged 41 to 60 years old, frequency of social intercourse ≥ 2 times per week, life events stimulation ≥8 points were the risk factors for female; male, aged 41 to 60 years old, smoking, frequency of social intercourse≥ 2 times per week, and life events stimulation ≥1 point were the risk factors for heavy drinking. CONCLUSIONS: The drinking and heavy drinking rates of government employees are high in Changsha. Marital status, physical exercise, and frequency of social intercourse are the common influencing factors of male drinking behavior and female drinking behavior. The life events stimulation is the influencing factor of heavy drinking.


Assuntos
Empregados do Governo , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fumar
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(13)2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771920

RESUMO

Drawing on over 4,000,000 individual and 2,000 agency observations across five countries, this paper examines the relationship between features of an employee's work environment and intrinsic motivation in public agencies. It finds that practices which foster employees' sense of autonomy, competence, and relatedness are associated with substantially higher levels of intrinsic motivation across a broad range of settings. This is true both at the individual and agency level and when examining changes within agency over time. These patterns appear to be at least partially a result of differential selection in and out of the agency, with lower levels of supportive practices associated with greater desire to exit for employees with higher levels of intrinsic motivation. Nonfinancial elements of job design are strongly associated with intrinsic motivation, as are potentially more difficult to alter features of an agency, such as satisfaction with compensation and managerial quality. There is also suggestive evidence that the relationship between agency practices and employee intrinsic motivation is stronger when tasks are more difficult to monitor.


Assuntos
Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Motivação , Satisfação Pessoal , Setor Público/organização & administração , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Austrália , Canadá , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Índia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
12.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 83(1): 63-74, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727738

RESUMO

The Japanese government has made efforts towards the advancement of women into society; thereby, the proportion of female managers has been increasing. Recent reports have shown that managers tend to be in poor health condition. However, little research has been conducted to examine the psychological health of female managers. Therefore, the aim of our study was to reveal the difference of psychological distress by occupational position in female workers with focus on occupational stress. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2017 via an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire distributed to workers in Tsukuba City, Japan. Student unpaired t test was used to compare occupational stress and psychological distress by occupational position. Binomial logistic regressions were used to analyze factors that affect psychological distress separately in managers and non-managers. A total of 1543 women (168 managers, 1375 non-managers) were analyzed. Managers showed higher occupational stress but lower psychological distress than non-managers. Problems in interpersonal relationships was positively associated with psychological distress, whereas occupation as a researcher/academic was negatively associated with psychological distress in managers. Mental workload and problems in interpersonal relationships were positively associated with psychological distress, whereas reward from work and support were negatively associated with psychological distress in non-managers. Managers and non-managers both showed an association between psychological distress and problems of interpersonal relationships. Non-managers might have higher psychological distress due to lower reward from work. It is important to increase reward from work and to develop female workers' interpersonal skills in order to reduce the psychological distress of female workers.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Relações Interpessoais , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Proteção , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Recompensa , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 3149289, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746632

RESUMO

Background: Social health insurance is one of the possible organizational mechanisms for raising and pooling funds to finance health services, private health insurance, community insurance, and others. Objective: The study was aimed to assess willingness to pay for social health insurance and associated factors among government employees in Mujja town, Ethiopia. Methods: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted on the total sample size of 375 study respondents. A simple random sampling technique was employed. Data were entered into EPI info 7 and analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 22.0. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors by controlling confounding variables. Statistical significance was declared at p < 0.05. Results: This study revealed that 37.6% (95% CI: 33.1%, 42.61%) respondents were willing to pay for social health insurance. In the final model, respondents who ever heard about health insurance schemes were seven times (AOR = 7.205; 95% CI: 1.385, 37.475) more likely willing to pay for social health insurance. Thos who had history of difficulty and having other source to cover medical bills were 92.6% (AOR = 0.074; 95% CI: 0.009, 0.612) and 94.6% (AOR = 0.054; 95% CI: 0.011, 0.257) less likely to pay, respectively. Conclusions: Willingness to pay for social health insurance was low. Being heard about health insurance, history of difficulty, and having other sources to cover medical bills were associated factors. Thus, it is recommended that media promotion and these factors should be considered for the successful implementation of the scheme.


Assuntos
Seguro de Saúde Baseado na Comunidade/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Planos de Assistência de Saúde para Empregados/economia , Adulto , Atitude , Etiópia , Feminino , Órgãos Governamentais/economia , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Polícia/psicologia , Tamanho da Amostra , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Ensino/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 772: 144836, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770893

RESUMO

The 2019 Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV 2 (COVID-191) pandemic has severely impacted global health, safety, economic development and diplomacy. The government of Nepal issued a lockdown order in the Kathmandu Valley for 80 days from 24 March to 11 June 2020. This paper reports associated changes in ambient PM2.5 measured at fixed-site monitors and changes in personal exposure to PM2.5 monitored by APT Minima by four American diplomats who completed monitoring before and during lockdown (24 h for each period per person, 192 person-hours in total). Time activities and use of home air pollution mitigation measures (use of room air cleaners (RACs), sealing of homes) were recorded by standardized diary. We compared PM2.5 exposure level by microenvironment (home (cooking), home (other activities), at work, commuting, other outdoor environment) in terms of averaged PM2.5 concentration and the contribution to cumulative personal exposure (the product of PM2.5 concentration and time spent in each microenvironment). Ambient PM2.5 measured at fixed-sites in the US Embassy and in Phora Durbar were 38.2% and 46.7% lower than during the corresponding period in 2017-2019. The mean concentration of PM2.5 to which US diplomats were exposed was very much lower than the concentrations of ambient levels measured at fixed site monitors in the city both before and during lockdown. Within-person comparisons suggest personal PM2.5 exposure was 50.0% to 76.7% lower during lockdown than before it. Time spent outdoors and cooking at home were large contributors to cumulative personal exposure. Low indoor levels of PM2.5 were achieved at work and home through use of RACs and measures to seal homes against the ingress of polluted air from outside. Our observations indicate the potential reduction in exposure to PM2.5 with large-scale changes to mainly fossil-fuel related emissions sources and through control of indoor environments and activity patterns.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Empregados do Governo , Humanos , Nepal , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(2): e381-e382, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783541

RESUMO

A recent correspondence discussed two important attributes of the government officials, namely, public service and common good. These two could possibly help the government in terms of promoting vaccination programs in the Philippines. This paper proposes transparency as the third attribute that could help in gaining trust from the people in promoting vaccination in the country.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Governo Federal , Empregados do Governo , Humanos , Filipinas , SARS-CoV-2 , Justiça Social , Vacinação
18.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(2): e311-e312, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33575801

RESUMO

Recent reports show that there is resistance in certain countries in regard with receiving COVID-19 vaccination. Different factors contribute to this resistance. With this, if we are to promote COVID-19 vaccination, government officials must build public trust so that the hesitancy among the citizens will be lessened. Thus, this paper proposes that in building public trust, the true essence of common good and public service must be seen from the officials so that their constituents will trust them with their decisions.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Empregados do Governo , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Justiça Social , Confiança , Vacinação
19.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e8, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Government Employees Medical Scheme (GEMS) introduced an EDO named the Emerald Value Option (EVO) in January 2017. The option was introduced to contain the cost of care whilst simultaneously improving the quality of care by championing care coordination. AIM: This study aimed to assess the impact of introducing an EDO such as EVO as a cost-containment strategy using contracted provider networks and coordinated care. SETTING: The study was conducted using aggregated data from GEMS. Government Employees Medical Scheme is a restricted medical scheme available to government employees in South Africa. METHODS: This is a descriptive pairwise comparison study between the Emerald benefit option (the parent option), which does not have embedded care coordination, and its derivative, EVO. RESULTS: Membership and claims data for 2018 were analysed. Expenditure per life per month in 2018 on the EVO amounts to R1357.01. After adjusting for the risk profile of beneficiaries on the EVO, expenditure per life per month would be expected to be R1621.73 (based on the conventional Emerald option). This translates to a savings of 16.3%. Similarly, health outcomes for EVO were more favourable than expected, actual admission rates were lower at 23.2% versus 26.2% expected. CONCLUSIONS: The EVO benefit design has succeeded in lowering the cost of care through network provider contracting and care coordination. The EVO has saved approximately R490 million in healthcare costs in 2018. If applied across the medical schemes industry, it is estimated that EVO contracting, and care coordination principles could save R20 billion per annum.


Assuntos
Financiamento Governamental , Empregados do Governo , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Poupança para Cobertura de Despesas Médicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , África do Sul
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