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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126682, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388918

RESUMO

Biofilms are ubiquitous in aquatic environment. While so far, most of the ultraviolet (UV) disinfection studies focus on planktonic bacteria, and only limited attention has been given to UV irradiation on biofilms. To enrich this knowledge, the present paper reviews the up-to-date studies about applying UV to control biofilms in water and wastewater infrastructure. The development of UV light sources from the conventional mercury lamp to the light emitting diode (LED), and the resistance mechanisms of biofilms to UV are summarized, respectively. Then the feasibility to control biofilms with UV is discussed in terms of three technical routes: causing biofilm slough, inhibiting biofilm formation, and inactivating bacteria in the established biofilm. A comprehensive evaluation of the biofilm-targeted UV technologies currently used or potentially useful in water industry is provided as well, after comparative analyses on single/combined wavelengths, continuous/pulsed irradiation, and instant/chronic disinfection effects. UV LEDs are emerging as competitive light sources because of advantages such as possible selection of wavelengths, adjustable emitting mode and the designable configuration. They still, however, face challenges arising from the low wall plug efficiency and power output. At last, the implementation of the UV-based advanced oxidation processes in controlling biofilms on artificial surfaces is overviewed and their synergistic mechanisms are proposed, which further enlightens the prospective of UV in dealing with the biofilm issue in water infrastructure.


Assuntos
Raios Ultravioleta , Purificação da Água , Biofilmes , Desinfecção , Estudos Prospectivos , Águas Residuárias , Água
2.
Med Gas Res ; 12(1): 10-17, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472497

RESUMO

General anesthesia and surgery are associated with an increase in neural injury biomarkers. Elevations of these neural injury biomarkers in the perioperative period are associated with postoperative delirium. Xenon has been shown to be protective against a range of neurological insults in animal models. It remains to be seen if xenon anesthesia is neuroprotective in the perioperative setting in humans. Twenty-four participants scheduled for lithotripsy were randomized to receive either xenon or sevoflurane general anesthesia. There was no statistically significant difference in the concentrations of postoperative neural injury biomarkers between the xenon and sevoflurane group. Following the procedure there was a significant increase in the concentration from baseline of all three biomarkers at 1 hour post-induction with a return to baseline at 5 hours. General anesthesia for lithotripsy was associated with a significant increase at 1 hour post-induction in the neural injury biomarkers total tau, neurofilament light and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181, a marker of tau phosphorylation. The protocol was approved by the St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne Ethics Committee (approval No. HREC/18/SVHM/221) on July 20, 2018 and was registered with the Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (registration No. ACTRN12618000916246) on May 31, 2018.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios , Xenônio , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sevoflurano
3.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132295, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563779

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests that metal exposure contributes to metabolic syndrome (MetS), but little is known about the effects of combined exposure to metal mixtures. This cross-sectional study included 3748 adults who were recruited from the Medical Physical Examination Center of Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China. The levels of 21 metal(loid)s in urine were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. MetS was diagnosed according to National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III recommendations. Multivariate logistic regression model was uesd to explore the effects of single-metal and multi-metal exposures. The elastic net (ENET) regularization with an environmental risk score (ERS) was performed to estimate the joint effects of exposure to metal mixtures. A total of 636 participants (17%) were diagnosed with MetS. In single metal models, MetS was positively associated with zinc (Zn) and negatively associated with nickel (Ni). In multiple metal models, the associations remained significant after adjusting for the other metals. In the joint association analysis, the ENET models selected Zn as the strongest predictor of MetS. Compared to the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of ERS was associated with an elevated risk of MetS (OR = 3.72; 95% CI: 2.77, 5.91; P-trend < 0.001). Overall, we identified that the combined effect of multiple metals was related to an increased MetS risk, with Zn being the major contributor. These findings need further validation in prospective studies.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Metais , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150084, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500274

RESUMO

Currently, the environmental and ecological damage caused by As(V) and Sb(V) co-contamination has attracted widespread attention worldwide. Due to the similar intrinsic structure configuration and electrostatic repulsion of As(V) and Sb(V), the long-standing issue of their low co-removal capacity remains unresolved. In this study, novel Fe-Cu (FC) binary materials with varied Fe/Cu proportions were synthesized via a simple co-precipitation method to co-eliminate aquatic As(V) and Sb(V). A 2/1 ratio of Fe/Cu was determined to be a suitable proportion with a higher co-adsorption capacity, specifically 70.9 mg·g-1 for As(V) and 94.3 mg·g-1 for Sb(V). Detailed morphological and structural analyses indicated that the FC material gradually changed from microscale aggregates to nanoscale spheres with increasing Cu content, accompanied by an increasing crystalline degree and higher surface area. Additionally, the transformation of amorphous ferrihydrite (FO) into FeO(OH) was suppressed by Fe-Cu complexion during the co-adsorption process, in which ferrihydrite (FO) had more adsorption sites than FeO(OH). In addition, the addition of Cu promoted the pHpzc of FC materials from the acidic range into the neutral or alkaline range. The increased potential difference of FC materials accelerated the As(V) and Sb(V) diffusion rate and effectively offset native electrostatic repulsion, which exhibited a considerable effect than the adsorption sites. Through detailed kinetic data analysis, it was determined that the proportion of the diffusion layer thickness around Sb(V) was suppressed to the As(V) level, and the adsorption kinetics of the two species were both promoted by the self-driven force field. All the results indicated that the co-adsorption capacity depended on the coupling contribution of Fe and Cu, where Fe oxide acted as the major adsorption potential and Cu provided a self-driven force for As(V) and Sb(V) diffusion. This study may provide a novel prospective for homogeneous metal ion co-removal.


Assuntos
Óxidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Antimônio , Cobre , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Estudos Prospectivos , Água
5.
Food Chem ; 370: 130933, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507211

RESUMO

Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), an anthocyanin constituent of fruits and vegetables. It has been proven to possess numerous health benefits with no side effects. However, the poor stability of C3G is an intractable property that limits its application. Hence, the aim of this study is to improve the stability of C3G through the formation of well dispersed nanoparticles. In this study, C3G loaded ß-CD-EP-CMC nanoparticles exhibited nearly spherical with good disperse and homogeneous morphology. Results also indicated that the nanoparticles formation of grafting of C3G to ß-CD-EP-CMC could significantly improve the stability of C3G to against thermal or light degradation. Collectively, current results strongly aligned with the prospective purpose that the grafting of C3G to ß-CD-EP-CMC nanoparticles could be treated as an effective approach for improving the stability. This study opens a new avenue for the utilization and development of novel wall materials ß-CD-EP-CMC in C3G associated nutraceutical.


Assuntos
Quitosana , beta-Ciclodextrinas , Antocianinas , Epicloroidrina , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150104, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525736

RESUMO

China has pledged to achieve peak carbon emissions by 2030 and to be carbon neutral by the mid-century, and buildings will be the "last mile" sector in the transition to carbon neutrality. To help buildings hit the carbon peak goal, we investigate the different emission scales of carbon emission changes of residential and commercial building operations across 30 provinces in China through the carbon Kuznets curve (CKC) model. We observe that (1) more than three-quarters of the samples can be fitted by the CKC model. Most CKCs are the inverted U-shaped, residential and commercial buildings occupying 93% and 90% at the total emission scale, respectively. In addition, the remains can be illustrated as N-shaped curves. (2) Under the premise of CKCs existence, approximately half of the provincial residential and commercial buildings peak at different emission scales, except for emission per floor space (residential: 89%; commercial: 81%). Provinces with better economic development have a higher peaking probability. In the total emissions, the peaking probability in residential buildings is 33% and 50% for provinces with economic indicators <20,000 Chinese Yuan and 30,000-40,000 Chinese Yuan, respectively, and 22% and 67% for commercial buildings, respectively. (3) Taking carbon intensity as a case study, decoupling analysis examines the robustness of the CKC estimation. Overall, we close the gap of the CKC estimation in commercial and residential buildings, and the proposed methods can be treated as a tool for other economies to illustrate the retrospective and prospective trajectories of carbon emissions in building operations.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Carbono , Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 1): 729-741, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536933

RESUMO

Multi component reactions over heterogeneous solid acid catalysts are extremely important owing to easy separation, amenable recycling, and prospective scaling up of the process. Here, we are reporting the synthesis of biologically important dihydropyrimidinones over postsynthetic modified Cr-based metal-organic framework materials as heterogeneous catalysts containing the bifunctional Lewis and Brønsted acid sites. Cr-based metal-organic frameworks contained coordinatively unsaturated metal sites as inherent Lewis acid sites, whereas postsynthetic modifications introduced the Brønsted acid sites in the framework. A direct one pot synthesis route was employed to produce the pristine MOF in pure aqueous medium without using any additives. The bulk structure, morphology, surface and bonding properties of the synthesized materials were thoroughly characterized with powder XRD, FTIR, XPS, FE-SEM, TGA, and N2 sorption isotherms. A qualitative evolution of acid strength was carried out over the functionalized MOFs. Among the post synthetic functionalized materials, carboxylic acid functionalized framework exhibited a very high yield of dihydropyrimidinones under solvent less moderate reaction conditions. The catalyst also demonstrated a robust recyclability and wide substrate scope. Comparative study showed a very high catalytic activity of the postsynthetic modified MOFs in comparison to the reported literature. The reaction condition was optimized by varying parameters like solvent, temperature, reaction duration and catalyst loadings. The mechanistic studies indicated the involvement of both the Lewis and Brønsted sites acid sites of the catalysts in the multicomponent reaction.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Catálise , Metais , Estudos Prospectivos , Solventes
8.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 1): 848-856, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536939

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Cubosomes made from the inverse micellar cubic mesophase (I2) with Fd3m symmetry possess a unique structure of closely packed inverse micelles. These have prospective functionality in sustained drug release. In this study, we hypothesised that similar to fatty acids, various fatty acetate compounds can induce the formation of micellar Fd3m cubosomes in monoolein (MO) nanoparticles. They are different to micellar cubosomes made of MO and a fatty acid, which are pH responsive and can transition from an Fd3m phase to an inverse hexagonal phase (H2) as pH increases. We hypothesised that by co-doping a fatty acetate and fatty acid into MO, precise control of the Fd3m-H2 phase transition pH in nanoparticles can be achieved. EXPERIMENTS: Five unsaturated fatty acetates with hydrocarbon chain lengths between 18 and 24 were added to MO at a weight ratio of 0.45 - 0.60 to form nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were prepared using high-throughput formulation and characterised with synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). MO nanoparticles doped with vaccenyl acetate and vaccenic acid were used to demonstrate the fine control over Fd3m-H2 phase transition pH. FINDINGS: Micellar cubosomes (Fd3m phase) were found in MO nanoparticles doped with fatty acetates. The Fd3m structure was stable in a wide pH range of 2.6 - 8 and at temperatures up to 45 °C. In MO nanoparticles doped with the acetate/acid mixture, the Fd3m-H2 phase transition pH was tuned between pH 5 and pH 7 by adjusting the ratio of vaccenyl acetate and vaccenic acid. As a H2 phase generally offers faster drug release than an Fd3m phase, the pH responsive lipid nanoparticles developed here may find application in orally administrated formulation, where the vehicles must pass a low pH environment in the stomach before reaching neutral pH in the blood.


Assuntos
Cristais Líquidos , Nanopartículas , Acetatos , Ácidos Graxos , Glicerídeos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Micelas , Estudos Prospectivos , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Difração de Raios X
9.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 35-40, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant mental health consequences for frontline health care workers (FHCWs). However, no known study has examined the prevalence, determinants, or correlates of posttraumatic growth (PTG) in this population. METHODS: Data were analyzed from a prospective cohort of FHCWs at an urban tertiary care hospital in New York City (NYC). Assessments were conducted during the spring 2020 pandemic peak (Wave 1) and seven months later (Wave 2). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify Wave 1 sociodemographic, occupational, and psychosocial factors associated with PTG at Wave 2, and the association between aspects of PTG with burnout and pandemic-related PTSD symptoms at Wave 2. RESULTS: A total 76.8% of FHCWs endorsed moderate or greater PTG; the most prevalent domains were increased appreciation of life (67.0%), improved relationships (48.7%), and greater personal strength (44.1%). Non-White race/ethnicity, greater levels of positive emotions, pandemic-related PTSD symptoms, dispositional gratitude, and feelings of inspiration were independently associated with PTG. At Wave 2, endorsement of spiritual growth during the pandemic was associated with 52% and 44% lower odds of screening positive for pandemic-related PTSD symptoms and burnout, respectively; greater improvement in relationships was associated with 36% lower odds of screening positive for burnout. LIMITATIONS: Single institution study and use of self-report instruments. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 4-of-5 FHCWs report pandemic-related PTG, driven largely by salutogenic factors assessed during the pandemic surge. Interventions to bolster these factors may help promote PTG and mitigate risk for burnout and pandemic-related PTSD symptoms in this population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
10.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131761, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375828

RESUMO

The current method of agriculture entails the usage of excessive amounts of pesticides and fertilizers. The blatant use of conventional pesticides and fertilizers over several decades has led to their bioaccumulation with adverse effects on soil biodiversity and the development of resistance by pests. With the decline in clinically useful antibiotics and increase in multi drug resistant microbes, it is imperative to develop new and effective antimicrobial therapies. Growing awareness and demand for efficacious biorational pesticides are on the rise. Silver nanoparticles are widely known antimicrobials and have been in use for several purposes for a long time. This work reviews the implications of applying silver nanoparticles in agriculture and their possible consequences. The physiological and biochemical changes in plants due to the uptake of silver nanoparticles as a consequence of its morphology, capping biomolecules and method of application are comprehensively discussed in this review article. Studies on tolerance levels or stress due to silver nanoparticles by variation in concentration/doses on diverse flora and fauna are also analyzed here. Further, phytotoxicity and genotoxicity due to the metal as well as its transformation in soil, water and sludge are taken into account. We also gauge the potential of biogenic silver nanoparticles-viable antimicrobial agents for enhanced applications in agriculture as biopesticides.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Fertilizantes , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Prata/toxicidade
11.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131809, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Humans are regularly exposed to metals and metalloids present in air, water, food, soil and domestic materials. Most of them can cross the placental barrier and cause adverse impacts on the developing foetus. OBJECTIVES: To describe the prenatal concentrations of metals and metalloids and to study the associated sociodemographic, environmental and dietary factors in pregnant Spanish women. METHODS: Subjects were 1346 pregnant women of the INMA Project, for whom the following metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se), thallium (Tl) and zinc (Zn) were determined in urine, at both the first and the third trimesters of gestation. Sociodemographic, dietary and environmental information was collected through questionnaires during pregnancy. Multiple linear mixed models were built in order to study the association between each metal and metalloid concentrations and the sociodemographic, environmental and dietary factors. RESULTS: The most detected compounds were As, Co, Mo, Sb, Se and Zn at both trimesters. Zn was the element found in the highest concentrations at both trimesters and Tl was detected in the lowest concentrations. We observed significant associations between As, Cd, Cu, Sb, Tl and Zn concentrations and working situation, social class and age. Seafood, meat, fruits, nuts, vegetables and alcohol intake affected the levels of all the metals but Cd and Cu. Proximity to industrial areas, fields and air pollution were related to all metals except Cd, Sb and Se. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large prospective longitudinal study on the exposure to metals and metalloids during pregnancy and associated factors to include several cohorts in Spain. The present study shows that some modifiable lifestyles, food intakes and environmental factors could be associated with prenatal exposure to metal(loid)s, which may be considered in further studies to assess their relationship with neonatal health outcomes.


Assuntos
Metaloides , Metais Pesados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Metaloides/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Placenta/química , Gravidez , Gestantes , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha
12.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): E1-E8, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797247

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Pediatric providers across the United States have sought guidance on how to care for the nation's children during the uncertain historic times of the COVID-19 pandemic. The health care community has been challenged by the unprecedented burden of caring for patients when they have evolving guidelines and limited information about the effects of the virus on children. PROGRAM: In response, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) rapidly launched a national initiative to increase child health professionals' knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy. This COVID-19 ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) program created communities of learners among child health professionals and subject matter expert faculty using didactic and case-based presentations that foster an "all-teach, all-learn" approach. IMPLEMENTATION: The initial AAP COVID-19 ECHO program hosted more than 900 participants in 127 individual virtual sessions, with approximately 25 participants per session. The evolving nature of the pandemic necessitated dynamic and continuous bidirectional flow of concerns and information relevant to participants. Session topics were selected in a "just-in-time" fashion based on participant feedback from the prospective postsession surveys and faculty recommendations; speakers brought data and expert recommendations. EVALUATION: To assess impact, the AAP used a mixed-methods approach to evaluate the program's effectiveness in meeting its educational objectives. The 2-phase evaluation collected quantitative and qualitative data through an integrated feedback structure that utilized prospective postsession and retrospective postprogram surveys, along with postprogram focus groups. DISCUSSION: As the COVID-19 pandemic surges and another influenza season is upon us, the ECHO model is an effective strategy for facilitating bidirectional communication and education to build child health professionals' knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy during an unprecedented and ongoing public health emergency. KEY POINTS: The ECHO model is an effective strategy for health care organizations to facilitate bidirectional communication and education in building health professionals' clinical knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy during the unprecedented and ongoing public health emergency of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pediatria , Criança , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
13.
Food Chem ; 372: 131151, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601422

RESUMO

Chloropycean microalgae are looked up as a prospective alternate source for the production of xanthophyll carotenoid lutein. Despite, the market significance and multitude of nutraceutical applications of lutein commercial production from microalgae still remains a challenge due to the prohibitive downstream cost. This necessitates innovative less energy intensive, high lutein yielding green processes. The present work presents a comprehensive study on the rapid green microwave assisted extraction (MAE) of lutein from marine chlorophycean microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana (NIOT-2). The process parameters of microwave assisted alkali pre-treatment like exposure time (ET), alkali concentration (AC) and solid (biomass): liquid (aqueous Potassium hydroxide-KOH) ratio (S: L ratio) were optimized using single factor and response surface method (RSM) experiments. The optimized conditions for microwave assisted alkali pre-treatment (ET:1.47 min; AC: 8.16 M KOH and S:L ratio of 36.8:1 (mg/mL) augmented the lutein yield (20.69 ± 1.2 mg/g) 3.26 fold when compared to conventional extraction (6.35 ± 0.44 mg/g). Lutein extracted using optimized MAE conditions was purified and characterized. Visualization of the MAE extracted algal biomass using Scanning electron microscope confirmed the effective cell disruption. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of microwave assisted alkali treated biomass (83.85%) revealed a significantly higher crystallinity index when compared to untreated control (17.28%). MAE pre-treatment can thus be propounded as a suitable process for lutein extraction from marine microalgae due to its amalgamated rapidity, homogenous heating, less energy intensiveness and high extraction yield.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Biomassa , Luteína , Micro-Ondas , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 126086, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624468

RESUMO

The anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) of microalgae is a prospective option for generating biomethane from renewable sources. This study investigates the effects of inoculum-to-substrate ratio (ISR), C/N ratio and biochar (BC) load on the AcoD of Chlorella vulgaris and cellulose. An initial augmentation of BC at ISR 0.5-0.9 and C/N ratio 10-30 offered a pH buffering effect and resulted in biomethane yields of 233-241 mL CH4/g VS, corresponding to 1.8-4.6 times the controls. BC addition ameliorated significantly AcoD, supporting the digestate stability at less favourable conditions. The effect of the process variables was further studied with a 23 factorial design and response optimisation. Under the design conditions, the variables had less influence over methane production. Higher ISRs and C/N ratios favoured AcoD, whereas increasing amounts of BC reduced biomethane yield but enhanced production rate. The factorial design highlighted the importance of BC-load on AcoD, establishing an optimum of 0.58 % (w/v).


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis , Reatores Biológicos , Celulose , Carvão Vegetal , Digestão , Metano , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Clin Imaging ; 81: 15-23, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597999

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the value of amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for differential diagnosis of fibroadenomas and malignant breast tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study enrolled 56 patients with suspected breast tumors and performed APTw imaging. Based on the histopathology results, patients were divided into group 1 with malignant breast tumors (n = 41) and group 2 with fibroadenomas (n = 15). The measured image parameters (APTw value, ADC value, type of Time of Intensity Curve, maximum tumor diameter in image) and the maximal diameter of the tumors measured from surgical resection were compared between the two groups, and the diagnostic performance based on these parameters was quantified with ROC curve. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to analyze the association between APTw or ADC values and ER, PR, HER2, and Ki-67 expressions. RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC = 0.87 and 0.91) indicated a good inter-observer agreement of the measured APTw values. APTw values of malignant lesions were significantly higher than those of fibroadenomas (3.21 ± 1.04% vs 1.50 ± 0.54%, p < 0.001). Area under the curve (AUC) obtained from APTw imaging, DWI, DCE, APTw imaging+DWI, APTw imaging+DWI, and APTw imaging+DWI + DCE was 0.959, 0.897, 0.976, 0.997, and 1 respectively. The APTw value showed a negative correlation with ER expression (r = -0.357). CONCLUSION: APTw imaging yielded similar diagnosis performance in discriminating fibroadenomas and malignant breast tumors when compared to the DCE and better than DWI imaging, and provided supplement information on tumor cell activity to DWI images. The APTw value showed correlations with some prognostic factors for breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Fibroadenoma , Amidas , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Diferenciação Celular , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Fibroadenoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Prospectivos , Prótons
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2390: 207-232, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731471

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) offers new possibilities for hit and lead finding in medicinal chemistry. Several instances of AI have been used for prospective de novo drug design. Among these, chemical language models have been shown to perform well in various experimental scenarios. In this study, we provide a hands-on introduction to chemical language modeling. A technique based on recurrent neural networks is discussed in detail, together with a step-by-step guide to applying this AI method for focused compound library design. The program code is freely available at URL: github.com/ETHmodlab/de_novo_design_RNN .


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Idioma , Desenho de Fármacos , Modelos Químicos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118476, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763012

RESUMO

Preconception and prenatal exposure to phthalates has been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. However, it is unclear whether there are periods of heightened susceptibility during pregnancy. This prospective cohort study included 386 women undergoing fertility treatment who gave birth to a singleton infant during 2005 through 2018. Eleven phthalate metabolites were measured in spot urine samples collected at each trimester. In approximately 50% of participants, two metabolites of 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH), a phthalate substitute, were also measured. The molar sum of four di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites (∑DEHP) was calculated. We evaluated the associations of mean maternal biomarker concentrations with risk of preterm birth using modified log-binomial models and utilized multiple informant models to compare trimester-specific associations. We examined the relative biomarker concentration across gestation comparing women with preterm birth to women with term delivery using quadratic mixed model. The risk ratio for preterm birth associated with a one-unit increase in the natural log-transformed urinary concentrations of ∑DEHP (mean during pregnancy) was 1.21 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84, 1.72). In multiple informant models, these associations were strongest in the third trimester (RR = 1.51; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.95). Estimated mean ∑DEHP concentrations were higher among women with preterm than term delivery, especially late in gestation. Associations with preterm birth were also observed for each of the four individual DEHP metabolites. Detection of cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid monocarboxyisooctyl ester (MCOCH), a metabolite of DINCH, appeared to be positively related to preterm birth. In this prospective cohort of subfertile couples, maternal ∑DEHP metabolite concentrations during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, particularly during late gestation.


Assuntos
Infertilidade , Ácidos Ftálicos , Nascimento Prematuro , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118482, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763020

RESUMO

Living in walkable neighborhoods has been reported to be associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Features of walkable neighborhoods, however, may be related to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), which could increase risk of cardiovascular disease. The interaction effect between walkability and PM2.5 on risk of ischemic stroke remains to be elucidated. In this study, we recruited a total of 27,375 participants aged ≥40 years from Yinzhou District, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China to investigate the associations of walkability and PM2.5 with risk of ischemic stroke. We used amenity categories and decay functions to evaluate walkability and high-spatiotemporal-resolution land-use regression models to assess PM2.5 concentrations. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During a median follow-up of 4.08 years, we identified a total of 637 incident cases of ischemic stroke in the entire cohort. Higher walkability was associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke (quartile, Q4 vs. Q1 walkability: HR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.47-0.75), whereas PM2.5 was positively associated with risk of ischemic stroke (Q4 vs. Q1 PM2.5: HR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.29-2.25). Furthermore, we observed a significant interaction between walkability and PM2.5 on risk of ischemic stroke. Walkability was inversely associated with risk of ischemic stroke at lower PM2.5 concentrations, but this association was attenuated with increasing PM2.5 concentrations. Although walkable neighborhoods appear to decrease the risk of ischemic stroke, benefits may be offset by adverse effects of PM2.5 exposure in the most polluted areas. These findings are meaningful for future neighborhood design, air pollution control, and stroke prevention.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
19.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132056, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481172

RESUMO

Recent findings indicate that plant-root exudates can stimulate plant-associated microorganisms to enhance the biodegradation of contaminants in constructed wetlands. To understand this process, we studied the root-exudation changes of two aquatic plants (Lemna minor and Salvinia natans) upon micropollutants exposure (10, 100 and 1000 µg/L mixes containing naproxen, diclofenac, carbamazepine, and benzotriazole). After a 2-day exposure, plant exudates were collected, extracted and non-target analysis was performed with a gas chromatography-high resolution Orbitrap mass-spectrometer. Plants didn't show morphological or growth differences between the control and spiked reactors, but exudation changes were observed in both plants at all concentration levels. Partial least squares discriminant analysis showed that, for Lemna minor, the increase of micropollutants exposure was linked to the reduction of sugar and fatty acid exudation. This may trigger changes in the microbial community living on complex carbon forms. Instead, in Salvinia natans, micropollutants exposure was linked to the release of long-chain compounds such as cuticular waxes and sesquiterpenoids, which might be related to stress signaling. These results demonstrate that plant micropollutant-exposure at environmentally relevant concentration levels triggers changes in root exudates. This may help to design new strategies to enhance micropollutants degradation in nature based solutions such as in constructed wetlands.


Assuntos
Araceae , Traqueófitas , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Raízes de Plantas , Estudos Prospectivos , Áreas Alagadas
20.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 222-228, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449894

RESUMO

The current study aimed at characterizing the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) antigenemia in a cohort of critically ill adult COVID-19 patients and assessing its potential association with plasma levels of biomarkers of clinical severity and mortality. Seventy-three consecutive critically ill COVID-19 patients (median age, 65 years) were recruited. Serial plasma (n = 340) specimens were collected. A lateral flow immunochromatography assay and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used for SARS-CoV-2 N protein detection and RNA quantitation and in plasma, respectively. Serum levels of inflammatory and tissue-damage biomarkers in paired specimens were measured. SARS-CoV-RNA N-antigenemia and viral RNAemia were documented in 40.1% and 35.6% of patients, respectively at a median of 9 days since symptoms onset. The level of agreement between the qualitative results returned by the N-antigenemia assay and plasma RT-PCR was moderate (k = 0.57; p < 0.0001). A trend towards higher SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads was seen in plasma specimens testing positive for N-antigenemia assay than in those yielding negative results (p = 0.083). SARS-CoV-2 RNA load in tracheal aspirates was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the presence of concomitant N-antigenemia than in its absence. Significantly higher serum levels of ferritin, lactose dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, and D-dimer were quantified in paired plasma SARS-CoV-2 N-positive specimens than in those testing negative. Occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 N-antigenemia was not associated with increased mortality in univariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-3.34; p = 0.59). In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 N-antigenemia detection is relatively common in ICU patients and appears to associate with increased serum levels of inflammation and tissue-damage markers. Whether this virological parameter may behave as a biomarker of poor clinical outcome awaits further investigations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/sangue , Estado Terminal , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/mortalidade , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoproteínas/sangue , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Traqueia/virologia , Adulto Jovem
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