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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258758, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665832

RESUMO

The spatial agglomeration of capital factors has become an important force affecting regional economic development and industrial structure. Investigating the spatial relationship of capital factor agglomeration is a key way to accelerate the upgrading of urban industrial structure and realize sustainable development. Based on the panel data of 284 cities in China from 2008 to 2017, we use the theoretical framework of spatial econometrics and estimate the spatial effects of capital factor agglomeration on the upgrading of urban industrial structure. Both the global Moran index and the local Moran scatter chart present that the agglomeration of capital factors and the upgrading index of urban industrial structure shows the characteristics of spatial agglomeration. The results reveal that the agglomeration of capital factors can significantly promote the upgrading of the industrial structure of local and surrounding cities. Still, the spatial spillover effect is not significant. We then explore the possible factors that limit the spatial spillover effects of capital agglomeration. Using the results of the paper, we provide policy suggestions for strengthening urban industrial construction and optimizing the urban governance model.


Assuntos
Financiamento de Capital/métodos , Desenvolvimento Industrial , Algoritmos , China , Cidades , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Análise Espacial , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
3.
Neurology ; 97(17): e1653-e1660, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pregabalin (Lyrica), a widely used drug that has generated billions in revenue as a treatment for diabetic neuropathy and other conditions, was originally discovered in an academic medical center, largely supported by public funding. We aimed to define the extent of direct federal public funding that contributed to various stages of pregabalin's development prior to US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. METHODS: We identified key research, scientists, and organizations involved in the development of pregabalin from its discovery through FDA approval. Using key terms (e.g., its indications and mechanism of action), we searched PubMed for relevant publications and determined whether each publication was based on federal public funding using the NIH RePORTER. For each award prior to the drug's FDA approval, we scored its potential relatedness to pregabalin's development based on its title, investigator, and organization, and then examined descriptions of the most relevant awards to aid in defining these relationships. The budgets for all related awards were converted to 2020 dollars. RESULTS: Pregabalin was discovered largely on the basis of publicly funded research at Northwestern University; in 1990, it was licensed to Parke-Davis, which further developed it through its FDA approval in 2004. Most key terms were related to the drug and drug target (n = 5) and organizations involved (n = 5), followed by patent-listed inventors (n = 3). These key terms linked 6,438 core project awards and we identified 37 NIH awards related to pregabalin's development: 9 awards through 1990 ($3.3 million) and 28 from 1991 through 2004 ($10.5 million). CONCLUSION: Like that of many other widely sold medications, the development of pregabalin relied on public sector as well as industry contributions to its discovery, with relevant NIH awards totaling $13.8 million during its preapproval development.


Assuntos
Financiamento de Capital/economia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/economia , Pregabalina/economia , Setor Público/economia , Humanos
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257812, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570812

RESUMO

This paper aims to investigate the association between perceived production risk of horticultural farms and access to finance from different finance providers. The collection of data was conducted among 434 farmers in Indonesia particularly farmers produced mango, mangosteen, chili and red onion. Production risk was measured by the coefficient of variation, skewness, kurtosis and the 25th percentile. Depending on the risk measure, a lower production risk was found for commercial credit from banks and flexible payments of inputs to kiosks. Conversely, we did not find any lower production risk associated with finance provided by farmers' associations and other sources such as family and friends. Results of this study are useful for policy makers, finance providers and supply chain actors in agriculture. For policy makers, the results of this study can help in designing policy to enhance farmers' access to finance, whereas finance providers and supply chain actors, such as traders, obtain insight into whether their financial provisions effectively reduce production risk.


Assuntos
Financiamento de Capital , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Horticultura/economia , Coleta de Dados , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Indonésia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251958, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043663

RESUMO

Scaling is a ubiquitous concept in agricultural research in the global south as donors require their research grantees to prove that their results can be scaled to impact upon the livelihoods of a large number of beneficiaries. Recent studies on scaling have brought critical perspectives to the rather technocratic tendencies in the agricultural innovations scaling literature. Drawing on theoretical debates on spatial strategies and practical experience of agricultural innovation scaling in Ethiopia, this paper adds to the current debate on what constitutes scaling and how to overcome critical scaling constraints. The data for the paper came from a qualitative assessment using focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and document analysis on scaling work done in Ethiopia by a USAID-funded research for development project. The paper concludes with four broad lessons for the current understating of agricultural innovation scaling. First, scaling of agricultural innovations requires a balanced focus on technical requirements and associated social dynamics surrounding scaling targets, actors involved and their social relations. Second, appreciating the social dynamics of scaling emphasizes the fact that scaling is more complex than a linear rolling out of innovations towards diffusion. Third, scaling may not be strictly planned; instead, it might be an extension of the innovation generation process that relies heavily on both new and long-term relationships with key partners, trust, and continuous reflection and learning. Fourth, the overall implication of the above three conclusions is that scaling strategies need to be flexible, stepwise, and reflective. Despite the promises of flourishing scaling frameworks, scaling strategies it would appear from the Africa RISING experience that, if real impact is to be achieved, approaches will be required to be flexible enough to manage the social, processual and emergent nature of the practice of scaling.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Invenções/economia , Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Financiamento de Capital/estatística & dados numéricos , Etiópia , Humanos , Desenvolvimento de Programas/economia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia
8.
J Aging Health ; 33(7-8): 607-617, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818164

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted a disproportionate effect on older European populations living in nursing homes. This article discusses the 'fatal underfunding hypothesis', and reports an exploratory empirical analysis of the regional variation in nursing home fatalities during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain, one of the European countries with the highest number of nursing home fatalities. We draw on descriptive and multivariate regression analysis to examine the association between fatalities and measures of nursing home organisation, capacity and coordination plans alongside other characteristics. We document a correlation between regional nursing home fatalities (as a share of excess deaths) and a number of proxies for underfunding including nursing home size, occupancy rate and lower staff to a resident ratio (proxying understaffing). Our preliminary estimates reveal a 0.44 percentual point reduction in the share of nursing home fatalities for each additional staff per place in a nursing home consistent with a fatal underfunding hypothesis.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Fortalecimento Institucional , Financiamento de Capital , Casas de Saúde , Idoso , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração/economia , Masculino , Mortalidade , Casas de Saúde/organização & administração , Casas de Saúde/normas , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/normas , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia
9.
Urol Clin North Am ; 48(2): 233-244, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795057

RESUMO

Independent urology practices are under increasing competitive pressure in a changing marketplace. By providing access to capital and business management expertise, private equity can help practices consolidate and scale to unlock new growth opportunities, navigate an increasingly complex regulatory environment, and institute best practice across a network, while retaining physician ownership and an opportunity for equity appreciation. This article examines the role of private equity in urology and the potential benefits of private equity investment. It also looks at what firms look for in investment partners, how to prepare for private equity investment, and how private equity investments are structured.


Assuntos
Prática de Grupo/economia , Investimentos em Saúde , Administração da Prática Médica/economia , Urologia/economia , Financiamento de Capital , Tomada de Decisões Gerenciais , Humanos , Modelos Organizacionais , Propriedade , Estados Unidos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673412

RESUMO

The reduction in carbon emissions by industrial enterprises is an important means for promoting environmental protection and achieving sustainable development. To determine the impact of carbon emissions reduction on supply chain operation and financing decision-making, in this study we designed three financing strategies, i.e., bank loan financing, equity financing, and hybrid financing (a combination of bank loan financing and equity financing), for a manufacturer (leader) and a low-carbon supply chain composed of a capital-constrained retailer, constructed Stackelberg game models, solved the equilibrium results under each financing strategy using the reverse recursion method, and revealed the financing preference of the supply chain member companies through comparative analysis. The results showed that the increase in the consumers' low-carbon preference and equity financing ratio have positive impacts on supply chain equilibrium, a result that is opposite that for the impact of the interest rate of bank loan financing; additionally, the abovementioned three factors jointly determine the profit of the manufacturer of the low-carbon supply chain, while the retailer's profit is affected by the equity dividend ratio. Finally, we present the conditions for the financing preference of the manufacturer and the retailer. The findings of this study can provide references for low-carbon supply chain companies to make appropriate management decisions.


Assuntos
Carbono , Comércio , Financiamento de Capital , Comportamento do Consumidor , Custos e Análise de Custo
12.
J Biosci ; 462021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576340

RESUMO

Cancer is a group of diseases with major societal impact and accounts for approximately 55 percent of mortality in India. The Indian population is increasing in size and gradually ageing. As a result, the number of people diagnosed with and dying of cancer are increasing. Government funding agencies such as the Department of Biotechnology (DBT) has a clear definitive role in the management and control of cancer. Through Research and Development programs and multi-institutional networking programs, DBT has provided resources to individual investigators and to institutions, to carry out basic, applied, translational and clinical research and to develop new methods to prevent and treat disease and to conduct research especially in challenging areas pertaining to different types of cancer. This article summarizes the funding provided by DBT for different cancer research programs.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Financiamento de Capital/economia , Órgãos Governamentais/economia , Neoplasias/economia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Pesquisa/economia
13.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care ; 37: e22, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455592

RESUMO

Over the past few years, there has been an increasing recognition of the value of public involvement in health technology assessment (HTA) to ensure the legitimacy and fairness of public funding decisions [Street J, Stafinski T, Lopes E, Menon D. Defining the role of the public in Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and HTA-informed decision-making processes. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2020;36:87-95]. However, important challenges remain, in particular, how to reorient HTA to reflect public priorities. In a recent international survey of thirty HTA agencies conducted by the International Network of Agencies for HTA (INAHTA), public engagement in HTA was listed as one of the "Top 10" challenges for HTA agencies [O'Rourke B, Werko SS, Merlin T, Huang LY, Schuller T. The "Top 10" challenges for health technology assessment: INAHTA viewpoint. Int J Technol Assess. 2020;36:1-4].Historically, Australia has been at the forefront of the application of HTA for assessing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new health technologies to inform public funding decisions. However, current HTA processes in Australia lack meaningful public inputs. Using Australia as an example, we describe this important limitation and discuss the potential impact of this gap on the health system and future directions.


Assuntos
Financiamento de Capital , Tomada de Decisões , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/economia , Austrália , Análise Custo-Benefício , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/organização & administração
14.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 219: 108491, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Buprenorphine is a highly effective, office-based treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD), but affordable access to it remains challenging despite initial government investment in its development. We aimed to estimate the public sector's contribution to the development of buprenorphine for OUD. METHODS: We researched buprenorphine's timeline of development as an OUD treatment to identify key terms (e.g., authors of pivotal studies, labeled indication). We then conducted a PubMed search for each key term. We extracted article identification numbers and linked them to federal funding through the NIH RePORTER. We reviewed the title, investigator, and organization of each award distributed up to and including 2002 and classified awards as "highly related," "possibly related," or neither. Amounts of related awards were converted to 2019 US dollars. RESULTS: Over the course of nearly four decades, the active ingredient in buprenorphine was synthesized by a pharmaceutical manufacturer, but it was developed for OUD primarily by investigators in government and academic centers, including a formal government-industry partnership for commercialization. We identified 29 key terms related to its development as an OUD treatment that linked to 7060 NIH awards. Among these awards, 40 were "highly related" ($39.9 million) and 20 were "possibly related" ($22.4 million). CONCLUSIONS: An estimated $62.3 million in NIH awards to institutions and investigators supported the development of buprenorphine as a treatment for OUD. Despite this investment by the public sector, buprenorphine remains expensive, which limits access to this important treatment.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Financiamento de Capital , Humanos
17.
J Homosex ; 68(8): 1371-1392, 2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833818

RESUMO

This ethnographic study considers the political economy of queer and trans of color community organizations in the context of urban neoliberal governance in Toronto, Canada. While state institutions promote entrepreneurship-based arts funding as a means of economic development, queer and trans of color grassroots initiatives engage with these institutions in ways that compel a reconsideration of the relationship between entrepreneurship and neoliberalism. I propose the concept sacrificial entrepreneurship to identify how the disruption of the neoliberal incitement to personal gain by sacrificing one's economic well-being is patterned along lines of race, gender and sexuality. Focusing on Unapologetic Burlesque, a queer anti-racist community performance initiative, I show how queer and trans of color grassroots initiatives in Toronto take public resources intended to promote individual profit-making to create minoritized spaces of belonging. Through sacrificial entrepreneurship queer and trans of color subjects simultaneously collude and oppose the unfolding of neoliberal state initiatives.


Assuntos
Arte , Empreendedorismo , Política , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Canadá , Financiamento de Capital , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho
19.
Cuad Bioet ; 31(103): 423-427, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375807

RESUMO

The interaction between doctors and pharmaceutical companies has been and is common, occurs in multiple ways and has proven, in many cases, to be necessary for the development of medicine. However, some of the sales techniques of the pharmaceutical industry are not ethically acceptable and can compromise the independence of physicians. An ethical dilemma arises from a real case in which the search for vulnerability in prescription based on a donation by a pharmaceutical company was not easy to identify.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica/ética , Doações/ética , Marketing/ética , Médicos/ética , Autonomia Profissional , Financiamento de Capital/ética , Crime , Indústria Farmacêutica/legislação & jurisprudência , Endocrinologia , Departamentos Hospitalares , Hospitais Gerais , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Ciências da Nutrição , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Comunicação Persuasiva , Padrões de Prática Médica/ética
20.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352755

RESUMO

Funding vaccine development research is more complicated than simply putting out an announcement of funds available. The funders must decide whether product development can be accomplished by purely applied research, or whether more fundamental knowledge is needed before product development can be started. If additional basic knowledge is needed, identifying the specific area of the knowledge gap can be a challenge. Additionally, when there appears to be a clear path of applied research sometimes obstacles are encountered that require a return to more basic work. After deciding on the work to be done, funders must attract the scientists with the broad range of needed skills to cover all the stages of development. Collaborations must be promoted and alliances with other funders and industry must be developed. Funders use multiple tools and strategies to accomplish these tasks with varying success.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , HIV/imunologia , Pesquisa , Financiamento de Capital , Infecções por HIV/virologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Pesquisa/economia , Pesquisa/história , Pesquisa/tendências
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