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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250256, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355912

RESUMO

Abstract Ferns are often used by indigenous people in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This study was designed to collect the ethnomedicinal and traditional knowledge of these locals about this group of vascular plants. Forty taxa belong to nineteen genera and ten families are used in the treatment of different diseases. The Pteridaceae was the most representative family with twelve taxa (30%), followed by Athyriaceae and Dryopteridaceae with six taxa each (30%), and Thelypteridaceae with five taxa (12.5%). Regarding the genera, Adiantum, Asplenium and Dryopteris ranked first with four taxa each (30%), followed by Aleuritopteris, Diplazium, Pteris and Equisetum with three taxa each (30%), followed by Athyrium, Oeosporangium, Polystichum and Pseudophegopteris with two taxa each (20%). These taxa were commonly used in the treatment of respiratory disorders i.e. asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonia; intestinal ulcer, stomach, urinary ailments and skin disorders by the methods of decoction and infusion. Traditional knowledge about ethnomedicinal plants is a valuable and essential source for the discovery of allopathic, herbal and homeopathic medicines.


Resumo As samambaias são frequentemente usadas pelos indígenas em Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Este estudo foi desenhado para coletar o conhecimento etnomedicinal e tradicional desses moradores sobre este grupo de plantas vasculares. Quarenta táxons pertencem a dezenove gêneros, e dez famílias são utilizadas no tratamento de diferentes doenças. Pteridaceae foi a família mais representativa com doze táxons (30%), seguida por Athyriaceae e Dryopteridaceae com seis táxons cada (30%), e Thelypteridaceae com cinco táxons (12,5%). Em relação aos gêneros, Adiantum, Asplenium e Dryopteris ficaram em primeiro lugar com quatro táxons cada (30%), seguidos por Aleuritopteris, Diplazium, Pteris e Equisetum com três táxons cada (30%), e Athyrium, Oeosporangium, Polystichum e Pseudophegopteris com dois táxons cada (20%). Estes táxons foram comumente usados ​​no tratamento de distúrbios respiratórios, isto é, asma, bronquite, enfisema, pneumonia; úlcera intestinal, estômago, doenças urinárias e doenças da pele pelos métodos de decocção e infusão. O conhecimento tradicional sobre plantas etnomedicinais é uma fonte valiosa e essencial para a descoberta de medicamentos alopáticos, fitoterápicos e homeopáticos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Plantas Medicinais , Gleiquênias , Traqueófitas , Paquistão , Fitoterapia , Medicina Tradicional
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246803, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339417

RESUMO

Abstract Traditional medicine is cheaper and easily available to local people, to care for most frequent diseases in the Northern parts of Pakistan. Our study aimed at inventorying medicine from local plants, documenting their uses, and assessing their market value in 2015-2018 during spring, summer, and winter seasons. A total of 15 trips were made, 5 in each season. Semi-structured interviews with 165 inhabitant's age range between 20-80 years were conducted, analyzed the data is analyzed using Relative frequency of citation(RFC), Use Value(UV), Fidelity Level(FL), Informants consensus factor(ICF), and Jaccard index(JI) to find the most frequent and well-known used species in the area. A total of 86 species belonging to 39 vascular plant families, 33 genera were documented as medicinally important. Family Asteraceae was observed as the dominant family among all the families with 10 species, the leaf was the most used parts and decoction 36% was the most preferred preparation type. Herb was the predominant life form (67%). The maximum UV (0.92) was demonstrated by J. adhatoda L. species, while A. sativum L. shows maximum RFC (0.58), the highest ICF value represented by diarrhea and dermatitis 0.92, and high FL value is recorded 100%. According to our collections, wild species were 45%, invasive species were 38% and cultivated 17% recorded, dicots species were recorded more 81%. Seven 7 medicinal species is being economically important and export to the local and international market of the world, whereas P. integrima L. species were the most exported species according to the local dealers. The investigated area is rural and the local people depend on the area's plants for their health needs, and other uses like a vegetable, fuelwood, fodder, etc. The current result of RFC, UV, ICF, FL, and JI shows that medicinal flora needs to be pharmacologically and phytochemically investigated to prove their efficacy. The documentation of medicinal knowledge is important to preserve this precious old knowledge before it is lost forever, due to technological and environmental changes in the world.


Resumo A medicina tradicional é mais barata e facilmente disponível à população local para cuidar das doenças mais frequentes nas áreas do norte do Paquistão. Nosso estudo teve como objetivo inventariar medicamentos de plantas locais, documentar seus usos e avaliar seu valor de mercado em 2015-2018 durante as temporadas de primavera, verão e inverno. Foram feitas 15 viagens, 5 em cada temporada. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com 165 moradores na faixa etária de 20 a 80 anos, com dados analisados ​​por meio de frequência relativa de citação (RFC), valor de uso (UV), nível de fidelidade (FL), fator de consenso de informantes (CIF), e o índice de Jaccard (JI) para encontrar as espécies utilizadas mais frequentes e conhecidas na área. Um total de 86 espécies pertencentes a 39 famílias de plantas vasculares, 33 gêneros foram documentados como medicamente importantes. A família Asteraceae foi observada como a família dominante entre todas as famílias com 10 espécies, a folha foi a parte mais utilizada e a decocção 36% foi o tipo de preparação mais preferido. A erva foi a forma de vida predominante (67%). O UV máximo (0,92) foi demonstrado pelas espécies de J. adhatoda L., enquanto A. sativum L. mostra RFC máximo (0,58), o maior valor de ICF representado por diarreia e dermatite 0,92, e alto valor de FL é registrado 100%. De acordo com nossas coleções, as espécies selvagens foram 45%, as espécies invasoras 38% e as cultivadas 17% registradas, as espécies dicotiledôneas foram registradas mais 81%. Sete espécies medicinais estão sendo economicamente importantes e exportadas para o mercado local e internacional do mundo, enquanto as espécies de P. integrima L. foram as espécies mais exportadas de acordo com os comerciantes locais. A área investigada é rural e a população local depende das plantas da área para suas necessidades de saúde e outros usos como vegetal, lenha, forragem etc. O resultado atual de RFC, UV, ICF, FL e JI mostra que a flora medicinal precisa ser investigada farmacológica e fitoquimicamente para comprovar sua eficácia. A documentação do conhecimento medicinal é importante para preservar esse precioso conhecimento antigo antes que se perca para sempre, devido às mudanças tecnológicas e ambientais do mundo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Plantas Medicinais , Paquistão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Folhas de Planta , Etnobotânica , Fitoterapia , Medicina Tradicional
3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(14): 5200-5209, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35916818

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ginkor Fort® (Tonipharm, Recordati Group; GB-T-H combined treatment) comprises ginkgo biloba extract, troxerutin and heptaminol chlorhydrate. It is a venotonic and vasculoprotective agent that strengthens veins, increases vessel resistance, and reduces permeability. Thanks to these synergistic actions, it is indicated for the treatment of signs and symptoms of venous insufficiency (VI) and signs related to the hemorrhoidal crisis. This review recapitulates the rationale for using venotonics to manage VI and discusses available evidence on the use of GB-T-H combined treatment to manage VI and hemorrhoidal crisis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Papers were retrieved by a PubMed search using different keywords. No language or publication date restrictions were used. Documents from the Authors' literature collection were also considered. Papers were selected for inclusion according to their relevance to the topic. RESULTS: Preclinical and clinical studies showed that the GB-T-H combined treatment acts on both the acute phase symptoms and the pathogenetic mechanisms of the VI, through the prevention of the hypoxia-induced activation of endothelial cells, the reduction of the capillary tone and the hemostatic activity. This leads to the long-term slowing of the disease progression, suggesting that the GB-T-H combined treatment can manage the acute clinical manifestations and as a prevention measure with prolonged use in both VI and hemorrhoidal crises. In the available study, the GB-T-H combined treatment showed excellent tolerability. CONCLUSIONS: Available literature evidence and extensive clinical experience support the use of the GB-T-H combined treatment as an effective and safe option for treating and preventing the clinical manifestation of VI and hemorrhoidal crisis.


Assuntos
Heptaminol , Insuficiência Venosa , Células Endoteliais , Ginkgo biloba , Heptaminol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxietilrutosídeo/análogos & derivados , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Venosa/tratamento farmacológico
4.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 18(1): 54, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aboriginal peoples have occupied the island continent of Australia for millennia. Over 500 different clan groups or nations with distinctive cultures, beliefs, and languages have learnt to live sustainably and harmoniously with nature. They have developed an intimate and profound relationship with the environment, and their use of native plants in food and medicine is largely determined by the environment they lived in. Over 1511 plant species have been recorded as having been used medicinally in Australia. Most of these medicinal plants were recorded from the Aboriginal communities in Northern Territory, New South Wales, South Australia, and Western Australia. Not much has yet been reported on Aboriginal medicinal plants of Queensland. Therefore, the main aim of this review is to collect the literature on the medicinal plants used by Aboriginal peoples of Queensland and critically assess their ethnopharmacological uses. METHODS: The information used in this review was collected from archival material and uploaded into the Tropical Indigenous Ethnobotany Centre (TIEC) database. Archival material included botanist's journals/books and old hard copy books. Scientific names of the medicinal plant species were matched against the 'World Flora Online Plant List', and 'Australian Plant Census' for currently accepted species names to avoid repetition. An oral traditional medical knowledge obtained through interviewing traditional knowledge holders (entered in the TIEC database) has not been captured in this review to protect their knowledge. RESULTS: This review identified 135 species of Queensland Aboriginal medicinal plants, which belong to 103 genera from 53 families, with Myrtaceae being the highest represented plant family. While trees represented the biggest habit, leaves were the most commonly used plant parts. Of 62 different diseases treated by the medicinal plants, highest number of plants are used for treating skin sores and infections. Few plants identified through this review can be found in other tropical countries but many of these medicinal plants are native to Australia. Many of these medicinal plants are also used as bush food by Aboriginal peoples. CONCLUSION: Through extensive literature review, we found that 135 medicinal plants native to Queensland are used for treating 62 different diseases, especially skin infections. Since these medicinal plants are also used as bush food and are rarely studied using the Western scientific protocols, there is a huge potential for bioprospecting and bush food industry.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Austrália , Etnobotânica , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Fitoterapia , Queensland
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(12): 3392-3396, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35851134

RESUMO

Herbal/botanical monograph, first emerging abroad, includes the scientific conclusions on safety and effectiveness of herbal medicine/botanical medicine, as it is often compiled by drug regulatory authorities. It is designed to unify the related technologies in this field and evaluation standards for review. Thus, herbal/botanical monograph is vital for the internationalization of Chinese medicine and being inscribed into the herbal/botanical monograph of target country is the first step for drug registration there. At the moment, there are few domestic studies on international herbal/botanical monographs, let alone the importance of the monographs in international registration of Chinese medicine preparations. This study first described international monographs on herbal/botanical medicine, then discussed the similarities and differences between international monographs and Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and finally analyzed the significance and value of the monographs in the international registration of Chinese medicine. On this basis, this study underscored the research on herbal/botanical monographs of key candidate countries for Chinese medicine registration, with a view to enhancing international recognition and laying the foundation for international registration and related policy formulation.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Plantas Medicinais , Medicina Herbária , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Fitoterapia , Padrões de Referência
8.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 42(4): 652-666, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35848983

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update the current characteristics about the scope and quality of mixed methods research (MMR) in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) after nearly 10 years. METHODS: A 5-stage approach for conducting a scoping review was adopted. Articles published on the top 10 journals in CAM with the highest impact factor in 2020 were screened for MMR. Information of included articles were extracted, and then synthesized to illustrate the current state. Methodological quality was evaluated according to the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool (MMAT) 2018 version. RESULTS: A total of 55 (55/2991, 2%) articles using mixed methods were retrieved, including 17 medical studies and 38 ethnobotanical studies. We performed an in-depth analysis on the 17 medical studies, which studied cancer, stress, pain, fatigue, exercises, mindfulness intervention, herbal medicine use, art and acupuncture. Thirteen pilot studies applied MMR to evaluate the feasibility of interventions or programs (13/17, 76%); phenomenology was inferred as the most common philosophical assumptions (13/17, 76%); the most applied type of MMR was convergent design (16/17, 94%); integration often took place at integration (12/17, 71%). Among the 16 eligible studies for quality appraisal, majority were rated as good (14/16, 88%), whereas two studies were rated as poorly described. Primarily, a poor rating was due to incomplete reporting of data analysis and citations in qualitative components; lack of confounder controlling and the sampling strategy in quantitative components; poor description of integration and justification for mixed methods. Comparing with the previous review, fewer MMR were published in 2020 in CAM, but the proportion of studies that clearly reported MMR has increased by 4 times (4%→15%). CONCLUSION: CAM researchers need to realize the benefits that MMR can have on conducting further health care research. Our findings highlight that applying MMR will be helpful to understand the complex dynamics and interdisciplinary nature of complex intervention. In addition, addressing a standardized reporting criteria for MMR is recommended.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura , Terapias Complementares , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Publicações
9.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 8: e2200069, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35820080

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In Tanzania, patients with cancer present late with advanced stages. Among other reasons, the use of herbal medicine (HM) might contribute to delay in diagnosis and treatment. This study aims to understand the utilization of HM and the reasons for its' use. METHODS: A semistructured 30-item questionnaire with closed- and open-ended questions was applied to a cohort of patients with cancer at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre. Content analysis was performed for answers to open-ended questions. RESULTS: Three hundred two patients were interviewed, 50.9% males and 49.1% females. The mean age was 64 years. 71.6% were in stages III/IV. 70.5% patients used HM and 67.1% started conventional medicine after stopping HM, 7.5% started HM after conventional medicine, and 24.9% combined both. Stage IV patients used HM as first line significantly more often in comparison: stage I 55.6%; II 58.1%; III 57.2%; and IV 70.6%. 77.5% did not tell their doctors about the use of HM. Commonest reasons to use HM were belief in cure, hope of symptom relief, lack of cancer services, and tradition. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients used HM before consulting a doctor, which contributes to stage IV presentation. Use of HM alongside with chemotherapy is mostly not known to the treating physician and may lead to interactions. These findings must alert health care workers and health policymakers to further foster health education about cancer and its treatment. Further research is needed to understand the wide use of HM among Tanzanian patients with cancer and the role that traditional and spiritual healers play in the field of cancer care.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Plantas Medicinais , Feminino , Medicina Herbária , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
10.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 295: 366-369, 2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35773886

RESUMO

In this study, we addressed the alternative medications that have been targeted in the clinical trials (CTs) to be evidenced as an adjuvant treatment against COVID-19. Based on the outcomes from CTs, we found that dietary supplements such as Lactoferrin, and Probiotics (as SivoMixx) can play a role enhancing the immunity thus can be used as prophylactics against COVID-19 infection. Vitamin D was proven as an effective adjuvant treatment against COVID-19, while Vitamin C role is uncertain and needs more investigation. Herbals such as Guduchi Ghan Vati can be used as prophylactic, while Resveratrol can be used to reduce the hospitalization risk of COVID-19 patients. On the contrary, there were no clinical improvements demonstrated when using Cannabidiol. This study is a part of a two-phase research study. In the first phase, we gathered evidence-based information on alternative therapeutics for COVID-19 that are under CT. In the second phase, we plan to build a mobile health application that will provide evidence based alternative therapy information to health consumers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Terapias Complementares , Ácido Ascórbico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Resveratrol/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico
11.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807319

RESUMO

Cancer is the second cause of death in the world and is foreseen to be responsible for about 16 million deaths in 2040. Approximately, 60% of the drugs used to treat cancer are of natural origin. Besides the extensive use of some of these drugs in therapies, such as those derived from the genus Taxus, a significant number of plants have revealed themselves as useful against cancer in recent years. The field of ethnobotany focuses on documenting traditional knowledge associated with plants, constituting a starting point to uncover the potential of new plant-based drugs to treat or prevent, in this case, tumour diseases and side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. From a series of extensive ethnobotanical prospections across the Catalan linguistic area (CLA), we have recorded uses for 41 taxa with antitumour effects. The two most quoted botanical families are Asteraceae and Ranunculaceae, and the most frequently reported species is Ranunculus parnassifolius, a high-mountain species, which is widely collected for this purpose. The reported species have been used to treat an important number of cancer types, focusing on preventive, palliative, and curative uses, as well as to deal with the side effects of conventional treatments. Comparing our results in CLA with previous data available in the most comprehensive databases of pharmacology and a review of cytotoxicity assays revealed that for the several species reported here, there was no previous evidence of traditional uses against cancer. Despite the need for further analyses to experimentally validate the information presented here, combining traditional uses and phylogenetically-informed strategies to phytochemical and pharmacological research would represent new avenues to establish more integrative approaches, hence improving the ability to select new candidate taxa in cancer research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Plantas Medicinais , Humanos , Linguística , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia/métodos
12.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807320

RESUMO

Phytotherapy offers obvious advantages in the intervention of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), but it is difficult to clarify the working mechanisms of the medicinal materials it uses. DGS is a natural vasoprotective combination that was screened out in our previous research, yet its potential components and mechanisms are unknown. Therefore, in this study, HPLC-MS and network pharmacology were employed to identify the active components and key signaling pathways of DGS. Transgenic zebrafish and HUVECs cell assays were used to evaluate the effectiveness of DGS. A total of 37 potentially active compounds were identified that interacted with 112 potential targets of CAD. Furthermore, PI3K-Akt, MAPK, relaxin, VEGF, and other signal pathways were determined to be the most promising DGS-mediated pathways. NO kit, ELISA, and Western blot results showed that DGS significantly promoted NO and VEGFA secretion via the upregulation of VEGFR2 expression and the phosphorylation of Akt, Erk1/2, and eNOS to cause angiogenesis and vasodilation. The result of dynamics molecular docking indicated that Salvianolic acid C may be a key active component of DGS in the treatment of CAD. In conclusion, this study has shed light on the network molecular mechanism of DGS for the intervention of CAD using a network pharmacology-driven strategy for the first time to aid in the intervention of CAD.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Animais , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Farmacologia em Rede , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fitoterapia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
13.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807377

RESUMO

Species of the genus Miconia are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of diseases, such as pain, throat infections, fever, and cold, and they used as depuratives, diuretics, and sedatives. This work reviewed studies carried out with Miconia species, highlighting its ethnomedicinal uses and pharmacological and phytochemical potential. This information was collected in the main platforms of scientific research (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science). Our findings show that some of the traditional uses of Miconia are corroborated by biological and/or pharmacological assays, which demonstrated, among other properties, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimutagenic, antiparasitic, antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activities. A total of 148 chemical compounds were identified in Miconia species, with phenolic compounds being the main constituents found in the species of this genus. Such phytochemical investigations have demonstrated the potential of species belonging to this genus as a source of bioactive substances, thus reinforcing their medicinal and pharmacological importance.


Assuntos
Melastomataceae , Etnofarmacologia , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
14.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807405

RESUMO

The greatest challenge in the analysis of herbal components lies in their variety and complexity. Therefore, efficient analytical tools for the separation and qualitative and quantitative analysis of multi-components are essential. In recent years, various emerging analytical techniques have offered significant support for complicated component analysis, with breakthroughs in selectivity, sensitivity, and rapid analysis. Among these techniques, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has attracted much attention because of its high column efficiency and environmental protection. SFC can be used to analyze a wide range of compounds, including non-polar and polar compounds, making it a prominent analytical platform. The applicability of SFC for the separation and determination of natural products in herbal medicines is overviewed in this article. The range of applications was expanded through the selection and optimization of stationary phases and mobile phases. We also focus on the two-dimensional SFC analysis. This paper provides new insight into SFC method development for herbal medicine analysis.


Assuntos
Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Plantas Medicinais , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Medicina Herbária , Fitoterapia
15.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807485

RESUMO

Ziziphus nummularia, a small bush of the Rhamnaceae family, has been widely used in traditional folk medicine, is rich in bioactive molecules, and has many reported pharmacological and therapeutic properties. Objective: To gather the current knowledge related to the medicinal characteristics of Z. nummularia. Specifically, its phytochemical contents and pharmacological activities in the treatment of various diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, are discussed. Methods: Major scientific literature databases, including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, Chemical Abstracts, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts, Henriette's Herbal Homepage, Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases, were searched to retrieve articles related to the review subject. General web searches using Google and Google scholar were also utilized. The search period covered articles published between 1980 and the end of October 2021.The search used the keywords 'Ziziphus nummularia', AND ('phytochemical content', 'pharmacological properties, or activities, or effects, or roles', 'anti-inflammatory', 'anti-drought', 'anti-thermal', 'anthelmintic', 'antidiabetic',' anticancer', 'anticholinesterase', 'antimicrobial', 'sedative', 'antipyretic', 'analgesic', or 'gastrointestinal'). Results: This plant is rich in characteristic alkaloids, especially cyclopeptide alkaloids such as nummularine-M. Other phytochemicals, including flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, tannins, and phenolic compounds, are also present. These phytochemicals are responsible for the reported pharmacological properties of Z. nummularia, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, anticancer, analgesic, and gastrointestinal activities. In addition, Z. nummularia has anti-drought and anti-thermal characteristics. Conclusion: Research into the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Z. nummularia has demonstrated that this plant is a rich source of novel bioactive compounds. So far, Z. nummularia has shown a varied pharmacological profile (antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective), warranting further research to uncover the therapeutic potential of the bioactives of this plant. Taken together, Z. nummularia may represent a new potential target for the discovery of new drug leads.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Ziziphus , Antioxidantes , Etnofarmacologia , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ziziphus/química
16.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807517

RESUMO

Herbal medicine has been gaining special interest as an alternative choice of treatment for several diseases, being generally accessible, cost-effective and safe, with fewer side-effects compared to chemically synthesized medicines. Over 25% of drugs worldwide are derived from plants, and surveys have shown that, when available, herbal medicine is the preferred choice of treatment. Origanum syriacum (Lamiaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant in the Middle East, both as a home and a folk remedy, and in the food and beverage industry. Origanum syriacum contains numerous phytochemical compounds, including flavonoids, phenols, essential oils, and many others. Because of its bioactive compounds, O. syriacum possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiparasitic capacities. In addition, it can be beneficial in the treatment of various diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and peptic ulcers. In this review, the chemical compositions of different types of extracts and essential oils from this herb will first be specified. Then, the pharmacological uses of these extracts and essential oils in various contexts and diseases will be discussed, putting emphasis on their efficacy and safety. Finally, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of O. syriacum phytochemicals in disease treatment will be described as a basis for further investigation into the plant's pharmacological role.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Óleos Voláteis , Origanum , Plantas Medicinais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Origanum/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química
17.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807526

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic complication that affects people of all ages. The increased prevalence of diabetes worldwide has led to the development of several synthetic drugs to tackle this health problem. Such drugs, although effective as antihyperglycemic agents, are accompanied by various side effects, costly, and inaccessible to the majority of people living in underdeveloped countries. Medicinal plants have been used traditionally throughout the ages to treat various ailments due to their availability and safe nature. Medicinal plants are a rich source of phytochemicals that possess several health benefits. As diabetes continues to become prevalent, health care practitioners are considering plant-based medicines as a potential source of antidiabetic drugs due to their high potency and fewer side effects. To better understand the mechanism of action of medicinal plants, their active phytoconstituents are being isolated and investigated thoroughly. In this review article, we have focused on pharmacologically active phytomolecules isolated from medicinal plants presenting antidiabetic activity and the role they play in the treatment and management of diabetes. These natural compounds may represent as good candidates for a novel therapeutic approach and/or effective and alternative therapies for diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Plantas Medicinais , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais/química
18.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 18(1): 51, 2022 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35810291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measures of the importance of medicinal plants have long been used in ethnobotany and ethnobiology to understand the influence of social-ecological system factors in the formation of individuals' differential knowledge and use. However, there is still a gap in empirical studies that seek to understand the temporal aspects of this process. METHODS: To overcome this issue, we used the concept of the structural core of medicinal plants, a theoretical-evolutionary model, which argues that the importance of medicinal plant resources is related to the increase in individual and population fitness. It represents the set of the most effective and available resources that would treat the most common diseases in an environment. This composition of knowledge would be conservative over space and time. To test these questions, we hypothesized that the composition of the structural core remains constant during temporal changes in a social-ecological context, and that the composition of the infantile structural core (new generation) is similar to that of the adults (older generation). For 2 years, we tracked the structure of important medicinal plants among the same 49 residents of a community located in Vale do Catimbau in Pernambuco, Brazil. We also compared the importance of the medicinal plants among two different generations, children/adolescents and adults, in the same space/time context. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Our results refuted both hypotheses. Regarding the composition of important medicinal plants through temporal variations and for children's learning, our results were not predicted by the model. This suggests that the structural core should not be regarded as a conservative phenomenon, but rather a congenital, dynamic, and plastic occurrence that has adapted to configure itself as a short-term population response to the treatment of local diseases.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Criança , Etnobotânica , Humanos , Conhecimento , Medicina Tradicional , Fitoterapia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897276

RESUMO

Despite some preliminary studies of the available herbal medicine preparations and their curative effects on COVID-19, experts still fear that unproper use of such homemade medicines could do more harm than good to people relying on unproven alternatives of questionable efficacy. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of herbal medicines used for respiratory system disorders in the Pasvalys district during the COVID-19 pandemic in Lithuania. An archival source was also studied, looking for possible recipes for the treatment and prevention of respiratory diseases in Lithuanian traditional medicine, emphasizing the safety guidelines. The survey was conducted using the deep interview method. The respondents mentioned 60 species of medicinal plants from 29 different families used for the treatment and prevention of respiratory system disorders (for cough mostly, 51.70% of all indications). Twenty eight out of 60 plant species were not included in the European Medicines Agency monographs and only 50% of all included species were used as indicated by the European Medicines Agency for respiratory system disorders. The trends in the ethnopharmacological choices of modern consumers and the analysis of archival sources can be a great source of ideas for new herbal-based pharmaceutical preparations for COVID-19 symptoms in Lithuania considering the safety recommendations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Plantas Medicinais , Doenças Respiratórias , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Medicina Herbária , Humanos , Lituânia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Sistema Respiratório , Doenças Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia
20.
Molecules ; 27(14)2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889247

RESUMO

Medicinal plants have considerable potential as antimicrobial agents due to the presence of secondary metabolites. This comprehensive overview aims to summarize the classification, morphology, and ethnobotanical uses of Euphorbia neriifolia L. and its derived phytochemicals with the recent updates on the pharmacological properties against emerging infectious diseases, mainly focusing on bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections. The data were collected from electronic databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, Semantic Scholar, ScienceDirect, and SpringerLink by utilizing several keywords like 'Euphorbia neriifolia', 'phytoconstituents', 'traditional uses', 'ethnopharmacological uses', 'infectious diseases', 'molecular mechanisms', 'COVID-19', 'bacterial infection', 'viral infection', etc. The results related to the antimicrobial actions of these plant extracts and their derived phytochemicals were carefully reviewed and summarized. Euphol, monohydroxy triterpene, nerifoliol, taraxerol, ß-amyrin, glut-5-(10)-en-1-one, neriifolione, and cycloartenol are the leading secondary metabolites reported in phytochemical investigations. These chemicals have been shown to possess a wide spectrum of biological functions. Different extracts of E. neriifolia exerted antimicrobial activities against various pathogens to different extents. Moreover, major phytoconstituents present in this plant, such as quercetin, rutin, friedelin, taraxerol, epitaraxerol, taraxeryl acetate, 3ß-friedelanol, 3ß-acetoxy friedelane, 3ß-simiarenol, afzelin, 24-methylene cycloarenol, ingenol triacetate, and ß-amyrin, showed significant antimicrobial activities against various pathogens that are responsible for emerging infectious diseases. This plant and the phytoconstituents, such as flavonoids, monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, and alkaloids, have been found to have significant antimicrobial properties. The current evidence suggests that they might be used as leads in the development of more effective drugs to treat emerging infectious diseases, including the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Euphorbia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/tratamento farmacológico , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
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