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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149826, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455281

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the enantioselective bioaccumulation, metabolism, and toxic effects of metolachlor and S-metolachlor in zebrafish. Five-month-old zebrafish were exposed to metolachlor and S-metolachlor for 28 days, then transferred to clean water and purified for 7 days. In the uptake phase, S-metolachlor was preferentially accumulated at low concentrations, while metolachlor was preferentially accumulated at high concentrations. The two chemicals were metabolized by >70% in zebrafish on the first day and showed same metabolic process. At the accumulation endpoint, S-metolachlor had no significant inhibitory effect on the enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and developmental indicators of zebrafish. However, 300 µg/L metolachlor significantly inhibited the enzymes activities of SOD, CAT and GST and affected the liver development. The preferential enrichment of metolachlor at the high concentration may be the reason for its higher toxicity to zebrafish. Further research demonstrated that metolachlor significantly altered the expression of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis-related genes, including gnrh2, gnrh3, lhß, 17ßhsd and cyp19a, thereby reducing the levels of testosterone (T) in females and sex hormones (estradiol and testosterone) in males. S-metolachlor increased the levels of estradiol (E2) in females by altering the expression of HPG axis-related genes such as fshß, cyp17, 17ßhsd and cyp19a. The mechanism of metolachlor and S-metolachlor on the endocrine disrupting effects of zebrafish is different, which may be sex-specific. 7 days after transferring the exposed zebrafish to clean water, most of the enzymes activities, sex hormone levels and related gene expression levels returned to normal, which may be related to the rapid metabolism of the two chemicals.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Peixe-Zebra , Acetamidas , Animais , Bioacumulação , Feminino , Masculino , Estereoisomerismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
2.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 207: 114431, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710728

RESUMO

Sinapine thiocyanate (ST) is an index component and pharmacological active component of Semen Sinapis and Semen Raphani, and it is widely used to relieving cough and asthma. This study aimed to obtain the metabolic and pharmacokinetic characterization of ST. The metabolic profiles of ST were obtained from rat plasma, urine, and feces via ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS). Thirteen metabolites were structurally identified, and the proposed metabolic pathways of ST included deamination, demethylation, hydrogenation, dehydration, and extensive conjugation, including glucuronidation and sulfonation. ST was selected as the plasma marker for the pharmacokinetic study. A simple and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the quantitation of ST in rat plasma. The linear range of ST was 0.1-500 ng/mL (R2 = 0.9976), and the lowest limit of quantification was 0.1 ng/mL. The intra-precision and inter-precision of the assay were 1.31-5.12% and 2.72-7.66%, and the accuracy (RE%) ranged from - 4.88% to 3.82% and - 3.47% to 6.18%. The extraction recovery, matrix effect, and stability of ST were within acceptable limits. The established method was validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of ST. For pharmacokinetic experiments, the male Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated with ST solution intravenously (2 mg/kg) or orally (100 mg/kg). The oral absolute bioavailability of ST was calculated as 1.84%, and the apparent volume of distribution of intravenous and intragastric administrations were 107.51 ± 21.16 L/kg and 78.60 ± 14.44 L/kg, respectively. The maximum plasma concentration was 47.82 ± 18.77 nM, and the time to maximum peak was 88.74 ± 20.08 min for the intragastric dosing group. According to the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profiling results, metabolites with high abundance of ST in bio-fluids would be the next object in tissue distribution and pharmacodynamic study.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tiocianatos , Administração Oral , Animais , Colina/análogos & derivados , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
3.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 207: 114421, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710729

RESUMO

Cintirorgon (LYC-55716) is a promising first-in-class antitumor agent as a RORγ agonist in the treatment against various types of cancer. To support preclinical mouse studies, a bioanalytical method was developed and successfully applied for quantification of cintirorgon in mouse plasma and tissue homogenates using LC-MS/MS. The method was fully validated in mouse plasma and partial validation was performed in eight different homogenates originating from brain, kidney, liver, lung, small intestine, small intestine content, spleen, and testis. Sample preparation was performed using 96-well plates for fast and efficient analysis. Protein precipitation was done by addition of 20 µL acetonitrile containing monensin as internal standard to 10 µL sample. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Polaris 3 C18-A column using gradient elution with 0.2% (v/v) formic acid and 0.2% (v/v) ammonium hydroxide in water (A) and methanol (B) as eluents. The total run time was 3 min. Detection was carried out with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization operated in the positive ion-mode. Quantification could be accomplished within a linear validated concentration range of 5-4,000 ng/mL (10-4,000 ng/mL in brain homogenates) with an intra- and inter-day precision between 4.6-14.7% and 5.1-15.6% (including the LLOQ), respectively, and accuracies between 89.1%-111.2%. The method was successfully applied to a preclinical study with cintirorgon in mice.


Assuntos
Plasma , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Benzoxazinas , Cromatografia Líquida , Masculino , Camundongos , Propionatos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 207: 114433, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715583

RESUMO

Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a class of drugs presenting identical anabolic properties to anabolic steroids in addition to marked reduced androgenic effects. These drugs have emerged in the doping area within the early 2000's. Ligandrol, ostarine, RAD-140 and andarine are the most popular agents belonging to this class. According to the world anti-doping agency (WADA) prohibited list, SARMs are prohibited at all times (i.e. in and out-of-competition) and are listed under the section S1.2 (other anabolic agents). The compilation of the WADA testing figures reports from 2015 to 2019 has indicated a regular increase of adverse analytical findings (AAF) due to SARMs, particularly with ostarine and ligandrol. The implementation of highly sensitive chromatographic anti-doping analyses has induced high-profile challenges of anti-doping rules violations as athletes have claimed in numerous occasions that contamination was the reason for their AAF. Since the early 2000's, it has been accepted by the Court of Arbitration for Sports (CAS) in Lausanne (Switzerland) that, under some specific circumstances, unusual explanations can be provided to the Panel to explain an AAF. This was the open door for forensic investigations, as it is done in criminal Courts. A forensic approach can include testing for SARMs in food, drinks, but mostly in dietary supplements. As most anti-doping rules violations are only known several weeks after urine collection, this biological matrix is seldom use for further tests, despite the fact that most SARMs can be detected for several weeks in urine. Luckily, hair or nail testing can be a complement to document the claim of the athlete but of course, it cannot be considered as an alternative to urinalysis. This is because a negative hair or nail result cannot exclude the use of the detected drug and cannot overrule the urine result. To date, all methods for SARMs identification in various matrices involve liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry or high-resolution mass spectrometry. The aim of this paper is to review the scientific literature on the analytical possibilities of testing SARMs in dietary supplements, urine and hair or nail clippings after an AAF to document the claims of an athlete or his/her legal team.


Assuntos
Doping nos Esportes , Receptores Androgênicos , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150042, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525709

RESUMO

Although four major natural estrogens (i.e., estrone (E1), 17ß-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and 17α-estradiol (αE2)) have been commonly found in livestock urine, this study reports the occurrence of eight other less-studied natural estrogens in urine of swine and cattle, i.e. 2-hydroxyestone (2OHE1), 4-hydroxyestrone (4OHE1), 2-hydroxyestradiol (2OHE2), 4-hydroxyestradiol (4OHE2), 16-epiestriol (16epiE3), 16α-hydroxyestrone (16αE1), 16-ketoestradiol (16ketoE2), and 17epiestriol (17epiE3). Results showed that each estrogen was found in at least one urine sample, and 6 of 8 the less-studied estrogens were present at frequencies of ≥90% in boars, ≥70% in sows, and ≥50% in dairy cattle. Five of eight the less-studied estrogens were present at frequencies of ≥33.3% in four beef cattle and one bull. On a concentration basis, the 8 less-studied natural estrogens represented 73.2%, 85.2%, 39.9%, 47.7%, 26.9%, 56.0% and 44.1% of total concentrations of the twelve natural estrogens when combining data from all animals. Similar results were observed based on estrogen equivalence, which indicated these newly detected eight less-studied natural estrogens were not negligible. This work is the first to figure out the importance of these less-studied natural estrogens in livestock urine, and their potential environmental risks associated with discharge of livestock wastewater should be urgently assessed in a holistic manner.


Assuntos
Estrogênios , Estrona , Animais , Bovinos , Estradiol , Feminino , Gado , Masculino , Suínos , Águas Residuárias
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149746, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525773

RESUMO

The prevalence of cryptorchidism has increased over the past decades, yet its origins remain poorly understood. Testis descent is dependent on androgens and likely affected by endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), targeting the androgen receptor (AR). We investigated the association between anti-androgenic activity, not derived from natural hormones, in maternal breast milk and impaired testis descent among boys. We performed a case-control study based on 199 breast milk samples from 94 mothers of cryptorchid boys and 105 random non-cryptorchid boys participating in the Norwegian HUMIS (Human Milk Study) cohort. For each participant, apolar, and polar fractions were extracted, and combined to reconstitute a mixture. Anti-androgenic activity was measured in all three fractions using the human cell-based in vitro anti-AR CALUX® assay and expressed in µg of flutamide equivalent, a well-known antiandrogen. Results from fraction analyses were compared among boys with cryptorchidism and controls using multiple logistic regression, controlling for appropriate confounders identified using a directed acyclic graph. Children's daily exposure to anti-androgenic EDCs through breastfeeding was estimated to 78 µg flutamide eq./kg of body weigh/day. The activity was higher in the polar fraction (1.48 ± 1.37 µg flutamide eq./g of milk) mainly representing non-persistent chemicals, in contrast to other fractions. However, the activity in the polar extracts was decreased when in mixtures with the apolar fraction, indicating synergistic interactions. No significant difference in the activity was observed according to cryptorchid status for polar, apolar or mixed breast milk fractions. The study showed anti-androgenic activity in nearly all human milk samples, and at levels higher than the advisory threshold. However, no significant association was observed between cryptorchidism and antiandrogenic activity measured in either polar, apolar, or mixture fractions derived from breast milk.


Assuntos
Criptorquidismo , Leite Humano , Antagonistas de Androgênios , Androgênios , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criptorquidismo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 75(1): 118-129, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428974

RESUMO

How interpreting training may enhance semantic integration in general language processing (instead of language processing during interpreting) was not clear, and its neural correlates remained unexplored. Two groups of university students with different amounts of interpreting training experience (more-IE and less-IE) performed a second language (L2) reading task, in which the target sentence ended with three types of lateralized words: expected words, words of related semantic violation (related violation), and words of unrelated semantic violation (unrelated violation). N400 responses elicited by the final words were used to index semantic integration. Two major findings suggested potential contributions of interpreting training to L2 semantic integration. First, the more-IE group exhibited smaller N400 amplitudes than the less-IE group for expected words, and no group differences were obtained for the two violations. Second, N400 amplitudes for related violations were generally smaller than those for unrelated violations in the right visual field, and this difference was more fully captured (more broadly distributed over the scalp) in the more-IE group than in the less-IE group. Therefore, smaller N400 amplitudes for expected words but not for violations, and broader scalp distribution of the differences between related and unrelated violations constitute the neural correlates for the potential contributions of interpreting training to general L2 semantic integration. The results also suggest possible connections between different types of language experience.


Assuntos
Idioma , Semântica , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leitura
8.
Clin Imaging ; 81: 136-142, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710803

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an important cause of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and accounts for a large majority of new cases. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is an association between nodal calcification and HPV positivity in the setting of metastatic HNSCC. METHODS: Consecutive patients with HNSCC who underwent CT were retrospectively identified. Patients were then divided into two groups: those with HPV-positive HNSCC and those with HPV-negative HNSCC. Demographic, clinical, and CT data were compared between the two groups to determine factors associated with HPV-positive HNSCC. RESULTS: A total of 179 patients with HNSCC were included in the final analyses, 104 (58%) of whom had HPV-positive tumors. Univariate analyses demonstrated that those with HPV-positive HNSCC were more likely to have calcified lymph nodes (p = 0.044). Analyses also confirmed previously known associations with male gender (p = 0.001), primary oropharyngeal tumors (p < 0.001), and cystic lymph nodes (<0.001). The HPV-positive HNSCC group was also less likely to have necrotic lymph nodes (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In addition to known clinical and imaging factors associated with HPV-positive metastatic HNSCC, such as male gender, oropharyngeal primary location, and cystic lymph nodes, the presence of calcifications within cervical lymph nodes, although infrequent, provides an additional useful feature to predict HPV positivity in HNSCC. Additionally, if calcified lymph nodes are present, then a primary oropharyngeal tumor site should be considered.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
Theriogenology ; 177: 94-102, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687941

RESUMO

Seminal plasma plays an important role in sperm physiology. Seminal plasma proteins vehiculated in microvesicles, carry RNAs and proteins with a potential role in early embryo development. Additionally, proteins present in seminal plasma participate in redox regulation and energy metabolism. In view of these facts, we hypothesized that differences in protein composition of the seminal plasma among stallions may help to explain differences in freeze-ability seen among them. Three independent ejaculates from 10 different stallions of varying breeds were frozen using standard protocols in our laboratory. Aliquots of the ejaculate were separated and stored at -80 °C until further proteomic analysis. Semen analysis was performed using computer assisted sperm analysis and flow cytometry. Significant differences in proteome composition of seminal plasma were observed in the group of stallions showing better motility post thaw. 3116 proteins were identified, and of these, 34 were differentially expressed in stallions with better motility post thaw, 4 of them were also differentially expressed in stallions with different percentages of linearly motile sperm post thaw and 1 protein, Midasin, was expressed in stallions showing high circular velocity post thaw. Seminal plasma proteins may play a major role in sperm functionality; being vehiculated through extracellular vesicles and participating in sperm physiology. Bioinformatic analysis identifies discriminant proteins able to predict the outcome of cryopreservation, identifying potential new biomarkers to assess ejaculate quality.


Assuntos
Preservação do Sêmen , Adenina , Animais , Arginina , Criopreservação/veterinária , Cavalos , Masculino , Metiltransferases , Proteômica , Sêmen , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Proteínas de Plasma Seminal , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides
10.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 279-286, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468990

RESUMO

Vaccines have been seen as the most important solution for ending the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antibody levels after inactivated virus vaccination. We included 148 healthcare workers (74 with prior COVID-19 infection and 74 with not). They received two doses of inactivated virus vaccine (CoronaVac). Serum samples were prospectively collected three times (Days 0, 28, 56). We measured SARS-CoV-2 IgGsp antibodies quantitatively and neutralizing antibodies. After the first dose, antibody responses did not develop in 64.8% of the participants without prior COVID-19 infection. All participants had developed antibody responses after the second dose. We observed that IgGsp antibody titers elicited by a single vaccine dose in participants with prior COVID-19 infection were higher than after two doses of vaccine in participants without prior infection (geometric mean titer: 898 and 607 AU/ml). IgGsp antibodies, participants with prior COVID-19 infection had higher antibody levels as geometric mean titers at all time points (p < 0.001). We also found a positive correlation between IgGsp antibody titers and neutralizing capacity (rs = 0.697, p < 0.001). Although people without prior COVID-19 infection should complete their vaccination protocol, the adequacy of a single dose of vaccine is still in question for individuals with prior COVID-19. New methods are needed to measure the duration of protection of vaccines and their effectiveness against variants as the world is vaccinated. We believe quantitative IgGsp values may reflect the neutralization capacity of some vaccines.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Adulto , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Comorbidade , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imunização Secundária , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
11.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102446, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481947

RESUMO

After many years of the excessive use of praziquantel against Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni), it has already led to the development of drug resistance. While schistosomiasis is still affecting millions of people every year, vaccination may be one realistic alternative way to control the disease. Currently, S. mansoni 14-kDa fatty acid-binding protein (Sm14) has shown promising results as a vaccine antigen. Yet, the use of an adjuvant may be necessary to further increase the effectiveness of the vaccine. Herein, we investigated the potential of using heat-killed Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) as an adjuvant for recombinant Sm14 (rSm14). Immunization of mice with C. acnes-adjuvanted rSm14 showed increased humoral immune responses, compared with mice immunized with rSm14 alone. Additionally, C. acnes-adjuvanted rSm14 vaccination provided higher protection to mice against S. mansoni infection and liver injuries. These results suggest that C. acnes increases the immunogenicity of rSm14, which leads to better protection against S. mansoni infection. Therefore, heat-killed C. acnes may be a promising adjuvant to use with rSm14.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/imunologia , Proteínas de Helminto/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Propionibacteriaceae/química , Schistosoma mansoni/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/prevenção & controle , Vacinas/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
12.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 287-290, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487373

RESUMO

In the 10th month of the pandemic, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination was given first to healthcare workers in Turkey after receiving emergency use approval from the Ministry of Health. This study, which was performed at the COVID-19 reference center in Ankara (the capital of Turkey) aimed to evaluate the seroconversion rate of the CoronaVac vaccine. The anti-spike immunoglobulin G response to the two-dose vaccination was retrospectively examined in healthcare workers who had no previous history of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The postvaccine seroconversion rate was investigated by measuring the antibody levels of healthcare workers who had received CoronaVac. Vaccination was administered as 600 SU in 28-day intervals. The healthcare workers' anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G levels were used to determine the seroconversion rate 2 months after the second dose of the vaccine. Of the healthcare workers, 22.9% (n = 155) were seronegative. The younger the age of the participant, the higher the level of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G. Furthermore, anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G levels were much higher in women than men.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunização Secundária/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Soroconversão/fisiologia , Turquia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 407-412, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491572

RESUMO

The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (Oxford University-Astra Zeneca) has demonstrated nearly 70% efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19 in trials and some real-world studies. The vaccine was the first to be approved in India in early January 2021 and is manufactured by the Serum Institute of India. Favorable short-term safety data of the vaccine in India in a real-world setting has been recently demonstrated. Here, we report secondary objective (COVID-19 occurrence) measures of the same ongoing prospective observational study in prioritized recipients of the vaccine. The findings are based on participants who could complete at least 2 months of follow-up (n = 1500; female/male: 472/1028; mean age: 38.8 years). Laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection was observed in 27/65 participants (41%) who received a single dose and 271/1435 (19%) who received both doses. Specifically, among doctors, 18/27 (66.7%) one dose recipients and 131/377 (34.7%) fully vaccinated developed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The majority of the cases were mild in all groups, and most were breakthrough infections. The occurrence of "severe" COVID-19 was 7.7 times lower (0.4%) in fully vaccinated participants compared to partially vaccinated (3.1%). Four deaths were observed in the study. One of the four deaths was due to sepsis, two due to unspecified cardiac events, and one due to unspecified post-COVID-19 complications. The results of this preliminary analysis necessitate vigorous research on the performance of vaccines against variants, optimal timing of vaccination, and also optimal timings of effectiveness studies to guide future vaccination policy.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Secundária/estatística & dados numéricos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vacinação
14.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 291-297, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491575

RESUMO

Due to current advances and growing experience in the management of coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), the outcome of COVID-19 patients with severe/critical illness would be expected to be better in the second wave compared with the first wave. As our hospitalization criteria changed in the second wave, we aimed to investigate whether a favorable outcome occurred in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with only severe/critical illness. Among 642 laboratory-confirmed hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the first wave and 1121 in the second wave, those who met World Health Organization (WHO) definitions for severe or critical illness on admission or during follow-up were surveyed. Data on demographics, comorbidities, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels on admission, and outcomes were obtained from an electronic hospital database. Univariate analysis was performed to compare the characteristics of patients in the first and second waves. There were 228 (35.5%) patients with severe/critical illness in the first wave and 681 (60.7%) in the second wave. Both groups were similar in terms of age, gender, and comorbidities, other than chronic kidney disease. Median serum CRP levels were significantly higher in patients in the second wave compared with those in the first wave [109 mg/L (interquartile range [IQR]: 65-157) vs. 87 mg/L (IQR: 39-140); p < 0.001]. However, intensive care unit admission and mortality rates were similar among the waves. Even though a lower mortality rate in the second wave has been reported in previous studies, including all hospitalized COVID-19 patients, we found similar demographics and outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with severe/critical illness in the first and second wave.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/patologia , Comorbidade , Combinação de Medicamentos , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento , Turquia/epidemiologia
15.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 298-302, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491581

RESUMO

For preventing the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, measures like wearing masks, social distancing, and hand hygiene played crucial roles. These measures may also have affected the expansion of other infectious diseases like respiratory tract infections (RTI) and gastro-intestinal infections (GII). Therefore, we aimed to investigate non-COVID-19 related RTI and GII during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients with a diagnosis of an acute RTI (different locations) or acute GII documented anonymously in 994 general practitioner (GP) or 192 pediatrician practices in Germany were included. We compared the prevalence of acute RTI and GII between April 2019-March 2020 and April 2020-March 2021. In GP practices, 715,440 patients were diagnosed with RTI or GII in the nonpandemic period versus 468,753 in the pandemic period; the same trend was observed by pediatricians (275,033 vs. 165,127). By GPs, the strongest decrease was observed for the diagnosis of influenza (-71%, p < 0.001), followed by acute laryngitis (-64%, p < 0.001), acute lower respiratory infections (bronchitis) (-62%, p < 0.001), and intestinal infections (-40%, p < 0.001). In contrast, the relatively rare viral pneumonia strongly increased by 229% (p < 0.001). In pediatrician practices, there was a strong decrease in infection diagnoses, especially influenza (-90%, p < 0.001), pneumonia (-73%, p < 0.001 viral; -76%, p < 0.001 other pneumonias), and acute sinusitis (-66%, p < 0.001). No increase was observed for viral pneumonia in children. The considerable limitations concerning social life implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic to combat the spread of SARS-CoV-2 also resulted in an inadvertent but welcome reduction in other non-Covid-19 respiratory tract and gastro-intestinal infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distanciamento Físico , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 303-309, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491594

RESUMO

Emerging evidence shows co-infection with atypical bacteria in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Respiratory illness caused by atypical bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila may show overlapping manifestations and imaging features with COVID-19 causing clinical and laboratory diagnostic issues. We conducted a prospective study to identify co-infections with SARS-CoV-2 and atypical bacteria in an Indian tertiary hospital. From June 2020 to January 2021, a total of 194 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were also tested for atypical bacterial pathogens. For diagnosing M. pneumoniae, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and serology (IgM ELISA) were performed. C. pneumoniae diagnosis was made based on IgM serology. L. pneumophila diagnosis was based on PCR or urinary antigen testing. Clinical and epidemiological features of SARS-CoV-2 and atypical bacteria-positive and -negative patient groups were compared. Of the 194 patients admitted with COVID-19, 17 (8.8%) were also diagnosed with M. pneumoniae (n = 10) or C. pneumoniae infection (n = 7). Confusion, headache, and bilateral infiltrate were found more frequently in the SARS CoV-2 and atypical bacteria co-infection group. Patients in the M. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae co-infection group were more likely to develop ARDS, required ventilatory support, had a longer hospital length of stay, and higher fatality rate compared to patients with only SARS-CoV-2. Our report highlights co-infection with bacteria causing atypical pneumonia should be considered in patients with SARS-CoV-2 depending on the clinical context. Timely identification of co-existing pathogens can provide pathogen-targeted treatment and prevent fatal outcomes of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Formas Bacterianas Atípicas/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/patologia , Infecções por Chlamydophila/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Doença dos Legionários/epidemiologia , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Legionella pneumophila/isolamento & purificação , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 132-138, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human tongue is important in the oral processing of food and in sensory perception. Tongue topography could influence delicate differences in sensory perception. It is hypothesized that tongue surface roughness could alter oral lubrication status and affect perception of smoothness. Fifteen participants with varying levels of tongue surface roughness were recruited and tested. Participants' in situ oral lubrication status without and after consumption of fluid food (milk with varying fat content and maltodextrin solutions with different shear viscosities) was measured. Participants' smoothness sensory scores were also recorded. RESULTS: The in situ friction coefficient (0.299-1.505) was significantly positively correlated with tongue-surface roughness (54.6-140.0 µm) in all types of test fluid samples across participants. Oral lubrication was significantly decreased when participants consumed the test fluid samples compared with no liquid food consumption, for all test fluid sample types (P < 0.05). No significant differences in in situ friction coefficient were found after participants consumed different test fluid samples, and this was mainly attributed to the limited quantities of fluid residuals in the oral cavity after expectoration. Participants whose tongue surface roughness differed did not exhibit significant differences in smoothness perception with different test fluid samples. CONCLUSION: Tongue surface roughness has a strong impact on in situ oral lubrication, and fluid food intake reduces in situ oral lubrication significantly. Saliva film and tongue surface roughness might play greater roles in oral lubrication and smoothness sensory perception if fluid is expectorated after consumption. The association between oral physiology and texture perception still needs further elucidation. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Percepção Gustatória , Língua/química , Adulto , Animais , Gorduras/química , Gorduras/metabolismo , Feminino , Fricção , Humanos , Lubrificação , Masculino , Leite/química , Leite/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Saliva/fisiologia , Propriedades de Superfície , Língua/fisiologia , Viscosidade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131706, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346322

RESUMO

Due to the use of di-isobutyl-phthalate (DiBP) in the production of soft-polyvinyl chloride articles, it is currently a hazardous substance prevalent in human daily life. However, reports on DiBP's toxicokinetics are still very scarce. And no studies have been reported on gender differences in DiBP toxicokinetics. Therefore, this study was conducted in accordance with these research needs. DiBP of 100 mg/kg has been exposed to male and female rats single or multiple times. DiBP and its major metabolite, mono-isobutyl-phthalate (MiBP), were quantified from various biological samples obtained from rats administered with DiBP. Based on these results, several toxicokinetic parameters were estimated. Toxicokinetic results between genders were compared, and from this, existence and extent of gender differences in DiBP's toxicokinetics were explored. Investigation of presence and extent of subacute toxicity in male and female rats following multiple exposures to DiBP were also conducted. This study provided comprehensive information on DiBP toxicity and gender differences that have not been reported in detail. Results of these studies imply that subacute toxicity in liver, kidney, lung, and testis of rats at 100 mg/kg of DiBP is modest and that there is little difference in toxicokinetics between genders. And in both male and female rats, the metabolism of DiBP (to MiBP) was significant, and excretion of MiBP into urine was a major indicator of DiBP exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Animais , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Rim , Masculino , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Ratos , Fatores Sexuais , Testículo , Toxicocinética
19.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131681, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346331

RESUMO

3-methylcholanthrene (3 MC) is an environmental compound belonging to the PAHs and is reportedly thought to be a risk factor for the prevalence of hepatic function disorder. Here, a dose of 0.5 mg/kg of 3 MC was given to 4-week-old male and female mice (F0) in their diet for 6 weeks. After exposure, then the mice were mated between different groups. The first filial (F1) generation offspring of exposed or unexposed parental mice were sacrificed at the age of 5 weeks (F1-5 W), and the potential effects on the F0 and F1 offspring were evaluated. The results showed that the total bile acids (TBAs) in the serum and feces in F0 females and female F1-5 W individuals born from female mice exposed to 3 MC decreased, while the TBAs in the liver increased. The transcriptional levels of major genes participating in synthesis, regulation, transportation and apical uptake was also altered correspondingly. In addition, the transcription of some genes related to inflammation was enhanced in these mice. Further investigation revealed that in addition to distinct changes in the mucus secretion, tight junction proteins and ion transport were induced, and antimicrobial peptides were also disrupted in the intestine of F0 mice and F1-5 W female offspring of maternal mice exposed to 3 MC. Our results suggested that exposure to 3 MC, but not male exposure, had the potential to interfere with BAs metabolism, affecting gut barrier function. Females were more seriously affected than males.


Assuntos
Circulação Êntero-Hepática , Metilcolantreno , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Feminino , Fígado , Masculino , Metilcolantreno/toxicidade , Camundongos , Reprodução
20.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131642, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351280

RESUMO

Neonicotinoids are replacement insecticides increasingly used for organophosphates, methylcarbamates, and pyrethroids. Experimental evidence suggests neonicotinoids may affect glucose metabolism and insulin secretion through pancreatic ß cell dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammation. However, no epidemiologic study has investigated neonicotinoids as potential diabetogens. We examined associations between neonicotinoids with insulin and glucose homeostasis parameters among 1381 non-diabetic adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2015-2016). Urinary concentrations of acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, N-desmethyl-acetamiprid, and 5-hydroxy-imidacloprid were quantified. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were assessed. Insulin resistance was defined as a homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance ≥2.5. We used weighted linear and logistic regression to estimate associations between detectable neonicotinoids with insulin and glucose homeostasis parameters compared to non-detectable neonicotinoid concentrations. Weighted detection frequencies for imidacloprid, 5-hydroxy-imidacloprid, and N-desmethyl-acetamiprid were 4.4 %, 21.5 %, and 32.8 %, respectively. Detectable imidacloprid (ß = -4.7 µIU/mL, 95 % confidence interval [CI] -8.5, -0.8) and 5-hydroxy-imidacloprid (ß = -2.4 µIU/mL, 95 % CI -4.6, -0.2) were associated with lower fasting plasma insulin levels. Individuals with detectable 5-hydroxy-imidacloprid had lower odds of insulin resistance (odds ratio [OR] = 0.3, 95 % CI 0.2, 0.7). We observed evidence of sexually dimorphic associations between N-desmethyl-acetamiprid with glucose (pint = 0.079) and 5-hydroxy-imidacloprid with HbA1c (pint = 0.038), with patterns suggesting positive associations in males and negative associations in females. Associations between 5-hydroxy-imidacloprid and insulin were modified by body mass index (BMI) (pint = 0.013). We additionally observed age modified associations between 5-hydyroxy-imidacloprid and glucose (pint = 0.048). Results suggest neonicotinoids may be associated with insulin and glucose homeostasis indices and call for prospective studies to examine the metabolic impact of these replacement insecticides in humans.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Insulina , Adulto , Feminino , Glucose , Homeostase , Humanos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Masculino , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Prospectivos
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