Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 21.630
Filtrar
2.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0303792, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848385

RESUMO

The mission of NIH-sponsored institutional training programs such as the T32 is to provide strong research and career training for early career scientists. One of the main avenues to pursuing health-related research is becoming research faculty at an academic institution. It is therefore important to know whether these programs are succeeding in this mission, or, if barriers exist that prevent trainees from pursuing these careers. Our institution currently trains ~ 2400 post-doctoral scholars per year, approximately 5% of whom are enrolled in one of our 33 T32 programs. In this study, we 1) compare the proximal professional career trajectories of T32 trainees with non-T32 trainees at our institution, 2) compare proximal career trajectories of trainees in a subset of cardiovascular T32 programs based on their previous training backgrounds, and 3) survey past and current T32 trainees in a subset of cardiovascular T32 programs about the barriers and enablers they experienced to pursuing research-oriented careers. We find that former T32 trainees are significantly more likely to attain appointments as primarily research faculty members, compared to other trainees. Trainees report a perceived lack of stability, the paucity of open positions, and the 'publish or perish' mentality of academia as the top barriers to pursuing careers in academia. However, they were still more likely to choose research over clinical careers after participating in a dedicated T32 program. Our results support the conclusion that structured training programs strengthen the pipeline of young scientists pursuing careers in academic research, including those from underrepresented backgrounds. However, T32 postdoctoral researchers are held back from pursuing academic careers by a perceived lack of stability and high competition for faculty positions.


Assuntos
Docentes , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Escolha da Profissão , Masculino , Feminino , Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Pesquisadores/educação , Educação de Pós-Graduação/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
BMC Med Ethics ; 25(1): 67, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic research can yield information that is unrelated to the study's objectives but may be of clinical or personal interest to study participants. There is an emerging but controversial responsibility to return some genetic research results, however there is little evidence available about the views of genomic researchers and others on the African continent. METHODS: We conducted a continental survey to solicit perspectives of researchers, science policy makers and research ethics committee members on the feedback of individual genetic research findings in African genomics research. RESULTS: A total of 110 persons participated in the survey with 51 complete and 59 incomplete surveys received. Data was summarised using descriptive analysis. Overall, our respondents believed that individual genetic research results that are clinically actionable should be returned to study participants apparently because participants have a right to know things about their health, and it might also be a means for research participation to be recognized. Nonetheless, there is a need for development of precise guidance on how to return individual genetic research findings in African genomics research. DISCUSSION: Participants should receive information that could promote a healthier lifestyle; only clinically actionable findings should be returned, and participants should receive all important information that is directly relevant to their health. Nevertheless, detailed guidelines should inform what ought to be returned. H3Africa guidelines stipulate that it is generally considered good practice for researchers to feedback general study results, but there is no consensus about whether individual genomic study results should also be fed back. The decision on what individual results to feedback, if any, is very challenging and the specific context is important to make an appropriate determination.


Assuntos
Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa , Pesquisa em Genética , Genômica , Pesquisadores , Humanos , Pesquisadores/ética , Genômica/ética , Pesquisa em Genética/ética , África , Masculino , Feminino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoal Administrativo/ética , Adulto , Retroalimentação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Negra/genética
16.
BMC Med Ethics ; 25(1): 54, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A morally sound framework for benefit-sharing is crucial to minimize research exploitation for research conducted in developing countries. However, in practice, it remains uncertain which stakeholders should be involved in the decision-making process regarding benefit-sharing and what the implications might be. Therefore the study aimed to empirically propose a framework for benefit-sharing negotiations in research by taking HIV vaccine trials as a case. METHODS: The study was conducted in Tanzania using a case study design and qualitative approaches. Data were collected using in-depth interviews (IDI) and focus group discussions (FGD). A total of 37 study participants were selected purposively comprising institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, community advisory board (CAB) members, a policymaker, and HIV/AIDS advocates. Deductive and inductive thematic analysis approaches were deployed to analyze collected data with the aid of MAXQDA version 20.4.0 software. RESULTS: The findings indicate a triangular relationship between the research community, researched community and intermediaries. However, the relationship ought to take into consideration the timing of negotiations, the level of understanding between parties and the phase of the clinical trial. The proposed framework operationalize partnership interactions in community-based participatory research. CONCLUSION: In the context of this study, the suggested framework incorporates the research community, the community being researched, and intermediary parties. The framework would guarantee well-informed and inclusive decision-making regarding benefit-sharing in HIV vaccine trials and other health-related research conducted in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Infecções por HIV , Negociação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Vacinas contra a AIDS/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Tanzânia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Grupos Focais , Masculino , Feminino , Tomada de Decisões , Pesquisadores , Participação dos Interessados , Países em Desenvolvimento , Adulto
17.
Health Promot Int ; 39(3)2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722020

RESUMO

The health promotion literature that considers how scientific evidence can be effectively communicated tends to focus on evaluating the effectiveness of communication materials. This has resulted in a knowledge gap regarding effective knowledge translation processes. This study explores the process, reasoning and practices for developing books for children that incorporate evidence-based information to aid understanding of scientific evidence about health and environmental or natural disasters. This study is informed by a systematic review of the literature combined with responses to an email interview with authors of books for children. Nine published studies were included in the systematic review. Twenty-two authors responded to the email survey (25% response rate, following 86 invitations). We report seven key findings to guide the development of health-promoting books for children: (i) understand the needs and expectations of the audience, (ii) articulate the topic and research evidence, (iii) assemble a team with a mix of content knowledge and creative expertise, (iv) format should be chosen to suit the user group and guided by the creative team, (v) early testing with children and their support system is crucial, (vi) develop a dissemination strategy to reach the user group and (vii) engage in reflexivity through evaluation of effectiveness of messaging. The current investigation can guide the process, reasoning and practice of developing books for children that incorporate evidence about health and environmental disasters.


Assuntos
Livros , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Criança , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Pesquisadores , Pesquisa Translacional Biomédica
18.
BMJ Glob Health ; 9(4)2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724078

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Global South researchers struggle to publish in Global North journals, including journals dedicated to research on health professions education (HPE). As a consequence, Western perspectives and values dominate the international academic landscape of HPE. This study sought to understand Global South researchers' motivations and experiences of publishing in Global North journals. METHODS: This study used a hermeneutic phenomenological perspective. Unstructured interviews were conducted with 11 authors from 6 Global South countries. Interview transcripts were analysed through a process of familiarisation, identifying significant statements, formulating meanings, clustering themes, developing exhaustive descriptions, producing a fundamental structure and seeking verification. RESULTS: Participants described being motivated by local institutional expectations, to improve reputation, to meet Global North perceptions of quality and to draw attention to their Global South context. Participants described experiences where their work was deemed irrelevant to Global North audiences, they were unable to interpret rejections and had learnt to play the publishing game by attending to both local and global imperatives. These motivations and experiences revealed several practical, academic and transformational tensions that Global South authors faced. CONCLUSION: The tensions and negotiations encountered by Global South authors who publish in HPE journals reflect a 'border consciousness' whereby authors must shift consciousness, or become 'shapeshifters', inhabiting two or more worlds as they cross borders between the Global South and Global North conventions. There is an added burden and risk in performing this shapeshifting, as Global South authors stand astride the borders of two worlds without belonging fully to either.


Assuntos
Motivação , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Humanos , Editoração , Pesquisadores , Feminino , Masculino , Saúde Global
19.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303304, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Collection of biosamples for translational research studies is vital for understanding biological pathways, discovering disease-related biomarkers, and identifying novel therapeutic targets. However, a lack of infrastructure for sample procurement, processing, storage, and shipping may hinder the ability of clinical research units to effectively engage in translational research. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers to biosampling-based translational research in the critical care setting in Canada. METHODS: We administered an online survey to members of the Canadian Critical Care Trials Group (CCCTG), the Canadian Critical Care Translational Biology Group (CCCTBG), and the Canadian Critical Care Research Coordinators Group (CCCRCG). The survey focused on participants' personal experience of biosampling research, research infrastructure, motivating factors, and perceived barriers. RESULTS: We received 59 responses from 31 sites, including 6 community intensive care unit (ICU) sites. The overall response rate was 11.3%. The majority of respondents were research coordinators (44%), followed by clinician-investigators (33.8%), graduate students (10.2%), and PhD-investigators (8.5%). Although most (63.8%) respondents reported an interest in participating in translational research, they also reported that their ICUs were currently contributing to a third of the number of translational studies compared to clinical studies. For respondents with experience in participating in translational research studies, the most common barriers were lack of funding, lack of time, and insufficient research staff. For respondents without previous experience, the perceived facilitators were more interest from their research group, improved training/mentorship, increased funding, and better access to laboratory equipment. CONCLUSIONS: Our survey found that the majority of participants were interested in and recognize the value of participating in biosampling-based translational research but lacked funding, time, and research personnel trained in biosampling protocols. Our survey also identified factors that might encourage participation at new sites. Addressing these barriers will be a key step towards increasing translational research capacity across Canada.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Pesquisadores , Pesquisa Translacional Biomédica , Humanos , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Masculino , Feminino , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
20.
Can Fam Physician ; 70(5): 329-341, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744505

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the citation impact and characteristics of Canadian primary care researchers and research publications. DESIGN: Citation analysis. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 266 established Canadian primary care researchers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The 50 most cited primary care researchers in Canada were identified by analyzing data from the Scopus database. Various parameters, including the number of publications and citations, research themes, Scopus h index, content analysis, journal impact factors, and field-weighted citation impact for their publications, were assessed. Information about the characteristics of these researchers was collected using the Google search engine. RESULTS: On average, the 50 most cited primary care researchers produced 51.1 first-author publications (range 13 to 249) and were cited 1864.32 times (range 796 to 9081) over 29 years. Twenty-seven publications were cited more than 500 times. More than half of the researchers were men (60%). Most were clinician scientists (86%) with a primary academic appointment in family medicine (86%) and were affiliated with 5 universities (74%). Career duration was moderately associated with the number of first-author publications (0.35; P=.013). Most research focused on family practice, while some addressed health and health care issues (eg, continuing professional education, pharmaceutical policy). CONCLUSION: Canada is home to a cadre of primary care researchers who are highly cited in the medical literature, suggesting that their work is of high quality and relevance. Building on this foundation, further investments in primary care research could accelerate needed improvements in Canadian primary care policy and practice.


Assuntos
Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Canadá , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Bibliometria , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA