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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130589, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311241

RESUMO

Bioactive plant-derived molecules have emerged as therapeutic alternatives in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. In this investigation, principal bioactive compounds of the herbal infusion "horchata" from Ecuador were studied as potential novel inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The chemical composition of horchata was determined through a HPLC-DAD/ESI-MSn and GC-MS analysis while the inhibitory potential of the compounds on SARS-CoV-2 was determined by a computational prediction using various strategies, such as molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. Up to 51 different compounds were identified. The computational analysis of predicted targets reveals the compounds' possible anti-inflammatory (no steroidal) and antioxidant effects. Three compounds were identified as candidates for Mpro inhibition: benzoic acid, 2-(ethylthio)-ethyl ester, l-Leucine-N-isobutoxycarbonyl-N-methyl-heptyl and isorhamnetin and for PLpro: isorhamnetin-3-O-(6-Orhamnosyl-galactoside), dihydroxy-methoxyflavanone and dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxy-4-oxochromen-7-yl]oxy-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic acid. Our results suggest the potential of Ecuadorian horchata infusion as a starting scaffold for the development of new inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and PLpro enzymes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Pandemias , Inibidores de Proteases , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(1): 24-35, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374346

RESUMO

Background: Laboratory parameter abnormalities are commonly observed in COVID-19 patients; however, their clinical significance remains controversial. We assessed the prevalence, characteristics, and clinical impact of laboratory parameters in COVID-19 patients hospitalized in Daegu, Korea. Methods: We investigated the clinical and laboratory parameters of 1,952 COVID-19 patients on admission in nine hospitals in Daegu, Korea. The average patient age was 58.1 years, and 700 (35.9%) patients were men. The patients were classified into mild (N=1,612), moderate (N=294), and severe (N=46) disease groups based on clinical severity scores. We used chi-square test, multiple comparison analysis, and multinomial logistic regression to evaluate the correlation between laboratory parameters and disease severity. Results: Laboratory parameters on admission in the three disease groups were significantly different in terms of hematologic (Hb, Hct, white blood cell count, lymphocyte%, and platelet count), coagulation (prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time), biochemical (albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and electrolytes), inflammatory (C-reactive protein and procalcitonin), cardiac (creatinine kinase MB isoenzyme and troponin I), and molecular virologic (Ct value of SARS-CoV-2 RdRP gene) parameters. Relative lymphopenia, prothrombin time prolongation, and hypoalbuminemia were significant indicators of COVID-19 severity. Patients with both hypoalbuminemia and lymphopenia had a higher risk of severe COVID-19. Conclusions: Laboratory parameter abnormalities on admission are common, are significantly associated with clinical severity, and can serve as independent predictors of COVID-19 severity. Monitoring the laboratory parameters, including albumin and lymphocyte count, is crucial for timely treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Análise de Dados , Humanos , Laboratórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(1): 71-78, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374351

RESUMO

Background: Seroprevalence studies of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, including asymptomatic and past infections, are important to estimate the scale of the disease outbreak and to establish quarantine measures. We evaluated the clinical performance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody assays available in Korea for use in seroprevalence studies. Methods: The sensitivity, specificity, cross-reactivity, and interference of five SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays were evaluated using the following: 398 serum samples from confirmed COVID-19 patients, 510 negative control samples from before 2018 (pre-pandemic), 163 serum samples from patients with SARS, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and other viral infections, and five samples for the interference study. Results: The sensitivities of the five assays ranged from 92.2% to 98%, and their specificities, including cross-reactivity and interference, ranged from 97.5% to 100%. The agreement rates were excellent (kappa >0.9). Adjustment of the cutoff values could be considered through ROC curve analysis. The positive predictive values of the individual assays varied from 3.5% to 100% at a 0.1% prevalence but were as high as ≥95% when two assays were combined. Conclusions: The prevalence of COVID-19 in Korea is considered to be exceptionally low at present; thus, we recommend using a combination of two or more SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays rather than a single assay. These results could help select SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays for COVID-19 seroprevalence studies in Korea.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Humanos , Pandemias , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
4.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(1): 96-99, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374354

RESUMO

The sensitivity of molecular diagnostics could be affected by nucleotide variants in pathogen genes, and the sites affected by such variants should be monitored. We report a single-nucleotide variant (SNV) in the nucleocapsid (N) gene of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), i.e., G29179T, which impairs the diagnostic sensitivity of the Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). We observed significant differences between the threshold cycle (Ct) values for envelope (E) and N genes and confirmed the SNV as the cause of the differences using Sanger sequencing. This SNV, G29179T, is the most prevalent in Korea and is associated with the B.1.497 virus lineage, which is dominant in Korea. Clinical laboratories should be aware of the various SNVs in the SARS-CoV-2 genome and consider their potential effects on the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Nasofaringe , Nucleotídeos , Prevalência , República da Coreia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(1): 100-104, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374355

RESUMO

Standard tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detect the presence of viral RNA using real-time reverse transcription (rRT)-PCR. Recently, convenient, rapid, and relatively inexpensive SARS-CoV-2 antigen (Ag) detection methods have been developed. The STANDARD Q COVID-19 Ag test (SD Biosensor, Inc., Suwon, Korea) is a rapid immunochromatography test that qualitatively detects the nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 using gold conjugated antibodies. We evaluated its performance in comparison with that of Allplex 2019-nCoV Assay (Seegene, Seoul, Korea) in a retrospective case-control study using residual samples. The sensitivity and specificity of the STANDARD Q COVID-19 Ag test were 89.2% (58/65) and 96.0% (96/100), respectively. Cycle threshold (Ct) values for the three target SARS-CoV-2 genes (envelope, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and nucleocapsid genes) included in Allplex 2019-nCoV Assay were significantly lower in Ag test-positive patients than in Ag test-negative patients (P<0.001). The Ag test sensitivity was higher in samples with Ct≤30 and those collected one to five days post symptom onset. In conclusion, the STANDARD Q COVID-19 Ag test can serve as an alternative in high-prevalence settings, when the low sensitivity is compensated or when rRT-PCR tests are limited.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Nasofaringe , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Talanta ; 236: 122832, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635222

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to evaluate the application of an electronic nose and chemometric analysis to discriminate volatile organic compounds between patients with COVID-19, post-COVID syndrome and controls in exhaled breath samples. A cross-sectional study was performed on 102 exhaled breath samples, 42 with COVID-19, 30 with the post-COVID syndrome and 30 control subjects. Breath-print analysis was performed by the Cyranose 320 electronic nose with 32 sensors. Group data were evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA), and Support Vector Machine (SVM), and the test's diagnostic power was evaluated through a Receiver Operaring Characteristic curve(ROC curve). The results of the chemometric analysis indicate in the PCA a 97.6% (PC1 = 95.9%, PC2 = 1.0%, PC3 = 0.7%) of explanation of the variability between the groups by means of 3 PCs, the CDA presents a 100% of correct classification of the study groups, SVM a 99.4% of correct classification, finally the PLS-DA indicates an observable separation between the groups and the 12 sensors that were related. The sensitivity, specificity of post-COVID vs. controls value reached 97.6% (87.4%-99.9%) and 100% (88.4%-100%) respectively, according to the ROC curve. As a perspective, we consider that this technology, due to its simplicity, low cost and portability, can support strategies for the identification and follow-up of post-COVID patients. The proposed classification model provides the basis for evaluating post-COVID patients; therefore, further studies are required to enable the implementation of this technology to support clinical management and mitigation of effects.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Estudos Transversais , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Talanta ; 236: 122841, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635231

RESUMO

A rapid detection test for SARS-CoV-2 is urgently required to monitor virus spread and containment. Here, we describe a test that uses nanoprobes, which are gold nanoparticles functionalized with an aptamer specific to the spike membrane protein of SARS-CoV-2. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirms aptamer binding with the spike protein on gold surfaces. Protein recognition occurs by adding a coagulant, where nanoprobes with no bound protein agglomerate while those with sufficient bound protein do not. Using plasmon absorbance spectra, the nanoprobes detect 16 nM and higher concentrations of spike protein in phosphate-buffered saline. The time-varying light absorbance is examined at 540 nm to determine the critical coagulant concentration required to agglomerates the nanoprobes, which depends on the protein concentration. This approach detects 3540 genome copies/µl of inactivated SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Ouro , Humanos , Oligonucleotídeos , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107084, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous literature finds an increase in depressive symptoms, substance use, and suicidal ideation following the COVID-19 pandemic in the US - suicides do not appear to increase. We examine whether 1) state lockdown policies in the US precede an increase in mental health symptoms; and 2) the extent to which using substances amplifies or attenuates the relation. METHODS: We specified, as our exposure variable, the timing of state-level lockdown orders. We used, as the outcome variable, the 4-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4) that measures anxiety and depression symptoms. We utilized the Understanding America Study (UAS), a nationally representative sample of 7,597 adults across 50 states in the US, surveyed biweekly between March 10, 2020 and November 11, 2020. Linear fixed effect analyses controlled for time-invariant individual factors, as well as employment status, household income, and previous mental health diagnosis. RESULTS: Regression results indicate an increase in PHQ-4 scores of approximately 1.70 during lockdown, relative to no lockdown (p < 0.05). Relative to no lockdown, an increase in alcohol use corresponds with a 0.08 unit decrease in PHQ-4 scores during lockdown (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: State lockdown policies precede greater mental health symptoms. Increases in consuming alcohol attenuates the relation between state lockdown policies and mental health symptoms. Results may portend greater addiction following the pandemic warranting further investigation into utilization of substance use treatment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Suicídio , Adulto , Ansiedade , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Políticas , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 605: 286-295, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329980

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: We developed a geometrical model to determine the theoretical maximum number of proteins that can pack as a monolayer surrounding a spherical nanoparticle. We applied our new model to study the adsorption of receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to silica nanoparticles. Due to its abundance and extensive use in manufacturing, silica represents a reservoir where the virus can accumulate. It is therefore important to study the adsorption and the persistence of viral components on inanimate surfaces. EXPERIMENTS: We used previously published datasets of nanoparticle-adsorbed proteins to validate the new model. We then used integrated experimental methods and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations to characterise binding of the RBD to silica nanoparticles and the effect of such binding on RBD structure. FINDINGS: The new model showed excellent fit with existing datasets and, combined to new RBD-silica nanoparticles binding data, revealed a surface occupancy of 32% with respect to the maximum RBD packing theoretically achievable. Up to 25% of RBD's secondary structures undergo conformational changes as a consequence of adsorption onto silica nanoparticles. Our findings will help developing a better understanding of the principles governing interaction of proteins with surfaces and can contribute to control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 through contaminated objects.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Nanopartículas , Adsorção , Humanos , Ligação Proteica , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus
12.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107115, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loneliness is a widespread problem, with demonstrated negative health effects. However, prospective data on the relationship between loneliness and problematic substance use are lacking, and few studies have examined specific commonplace substances, such as alcohol and cannabis. This study used prospective data from a community sample of US adults with problematic alcohol or cannabis use to examine whether loneliness was a predictor of subsequent increased substance use. METHODS: Participants (N = 210) were recruited between 05/2016-06/2019 from a New York City medical center. At baseline, 3-month, and 6-month follow-ups, participants completed identical computerized questionnaires. We used generalized estimating equations to assess the average effect of past 2-week loneliness on subsequent number of days of alcohol or cannabis use, controlling for baseline days of use, demographic characteristics, and past 2-week DSM-5 depression. RESULTS: Compared with individuals who were never lonely, participants with moderate or severe loneliness had a significantly higher frequency of alcohol or cannabis use at the subsequent assessment (ß = 0.25 95% CI: 0.08-0.42). CONCLUSION: Individuals experiencing loneliness at least a few times in the past 2 weeks reported more days of subsequent alcohol or cannabis use compared with individuals who were not lonely. This is cause for concern, as national surveys of US adults indicate increasing rates of loneliness, depression and substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic. These results suggest the need for health care providers to screen for feelings of loneliness and potentially harmful coping behaviors such as substance use, and to offer healthier alternative coping strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Uso da Maconha , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Humanos , Solidão , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Talanta ; 236: 122847, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635237

RESUMO

Nucleocapsid protein (N protein) is the most abundant protein in SARS-CoV2 and is highly conserved, and there are no homologous proteins in the human body, making it an ideal biomarker for the early diagnosis of SARS-CoV2. However, early detection of clinical specimens for SARS-CoV2 remains a challenge due to false-negative results with viral RNA and host antibodies based testing. In this manuscript, a microfluidic chip with femtoliter-sized wells was fabricated for the sensitive digital detection of N protein. Briefly, ß-galactosidase (ß-Gal)-linked antibody/N protein/aptamer immunocomplexes were formed on magnetic beads (MBs). Afterwards, the MBs and ß-Gal substrate fluorescein-di-ß-d-galactopyranoside (FDG) were injected into the chip together. Each well of the chip would only hold one MB as confined by the diameter of the wells. The MBs in the wells were sealed by fluorocarbon oil, which confines the fluorescent (FL) product generated from the reaction between ß-Gal and FDG in the individual femtoliter-sized well and creates a locally high concentration of the FL product. The FL images of the wells were acquired using a conventional inverted FL microscope. The number of FL wells with MBs (FL wells number) and the number of wells with MBs (MBs wells number) were counted, respectively. The percentage of FL wells was calculated by dividing (FL wells number) by (MBs wells number). The higher the percentage of FL wells, the higher the N protein concentration. The detection limit of this digital method for N protein was 33.28 pg/mL, which was 300 times lower than traditional double-antibody sandwich based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).


Assuntos
Imunoensaio/métodos , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Humanos , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral
14.
Talanta ; 236: 122868, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635250

RESUMO

Early diagnosis and timely management of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are the keys to preventing the spread of the epidemic and controlling new infection clues. Therefore, strengthening the surveillance of the epidemic and timely screening and confirming SARS-CoV-2 infection is the primary task. In this work, we first proposed the idea of activating CRISPR-Cas12a activity using double-stranded DNA amplified by a three-dimensional (3D) DNA walker. We applied it to the design of an electrochemiluminescent (ECL) biosensor to detect the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene. We first activated the cleavage activity of CRISPR-Cas12a by amplifying the target DNA into a segment of double-stranded DNA through the amplification effect of a 3D DNA walker. At the same time, we designed an MXene based ECL material: PEI-Ru@Ti3C2@AuNPs, and constructed an ECL biosensor to detect the RdRp gene based on this ECL material as a framework. Activated CRISPR-Cas12a cleaves the single-stranded DNA on the surface of this sensor and causes the ferrocene modified at one end of the DNA to move away from the electrode surface, increasing the ECL signal. The extent of the change in electrochemiluminescence reflects the concentration of the gene to be measured. Using this system, we detected the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp gene with a detection limit of 12.8 aM. This strategy contributes to the rapid and convenient detection of SARS-CoV-2-associated nucleic acids and promotes the clinical application of ECL biosensors based on CRISPR-Cas12a and novel composite materials.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , DNA , Ouro , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , RNA Viral
15.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126799, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396958

RESUMO

Stack aerosols are generated within vertical building drainage stacks during the discharge of wastewater containing feces and exhaled mucus from toilets and washbasins. Fifteen stack aerosol-related outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in high-rise buildings have been observed in Hong Kong and Guangzhou. Currently, we investigated two such outbreaks of COVID-19 in Hong Kong, identified the probable role of chimney effect-induced airflow in a building drainage system in the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We injected tracer gas (SF6) into the drainage stacks via the water closet of the index case and monitored tracer gas concentrations in the bathrooms and along the facades of infected and non-infected flats and in roof vents. The air temperature, humidity, and pressure in vertical stacks were also monitored. The measured tracer gas distribution agreed with the observed distribution of the infected cases. Phylogenetic analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences demonstrated clonal spread from a point source in cases along the same vertical column. The stack air pressure and temperature distributions suggested that stack aerosols can spread to indoors through pipe leaks which provide direct evidence for the long-range aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through drainage pipes via the chimney effect.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , COVID-19 , Habitação , COVID-19/transmissão , Hong Kong , Humanos , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107092, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469783

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, people may use substances like cannabis for enhancement or coping purposes. Behavioral economic demand for a substance is a key determinant of its use and misuse and can be measured via hypothetical purchase tasks. Previous research suggests that motivations to use a substance play a mediational role between elevated substance demand and problems, but comparable mechanistic research has yet to be done in the COVID-19 context and on the effects of cannabis demand on cannabis use patterns. Participants (n = 137) were recruited via the online crowdsourcing platform Prolific. Participants completed measures of cannabis use and problems, motivations for cannabis use, and the Marijuana Purchase Task. Two indices of demand, Persistence (i.e., sensitivity to increasing cost of cannabis) and Amplitude (i.e., consumption of cannabis at unrestricted cost), were related to increased cannabis problems via the use motive of coping during the COVID-19 pandemic. This model did not support the mediational role of enhancement motives. Those with increased cannabis demand who tend to use cannabis to cope are at increased risk of experiencing negative cannabis-related consequences during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Adaptação Psicológica , Humanos , Motivação , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Ann Ig ; 34(1): 45-53, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698761

RESUMO

Background: Tobacco products represent a major health risk factor and a potent way to help transmission of COVID-19. Current data regarding consumption of these products in the region are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns of cigarette, hookah and other tobacco products consumption among undergraduate students from the University of Sarajevo before the COVID-19 outbreak in the country. Methods: This cross-sectional study based on a National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) was conducted among undergraduate students from the University of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Hercegovina via an online questionnaire from 22nd to 26th of January 2020. Results: Out of 605 students involved in the study, most of them were female (N=429, 70.9%); 363 (60.0%) were enrolled in medical sciences; 159 (26.3%) were attending the 3rd year of their curriculum; 224 (37%) were original from Canton Sarajevo and 514 (84.9%) were living in urban environment. Two hundred thirty five students out of 605 (38.8%) were current smokers and 117 (19.3%) hookah smokers. Being female (OR=0.539, 95% CI 0.368-0.790, p=0.002), in the 1st or 2nd year of study (OR=0.805, 95% CI 0.667-0.972, p=0.024) and living in a rural environment (OR=0.335, 95% CI 0.191-0.585, p<0.001) were associated with reduced risk of cigarette consumption, while older age (22+ years) (OR=1.287, 95% CI 1.122-1.476, p<0.001) increased the same risk. On the other side, being female (OR=0.595, 95% CI 0.380-0.930, p=0.023), of younger age (18-21 years) (OR=0.832, 95% CI 0.743-0.932, p=0.001) and medical science student (OR=0.567, 95% CI 0.328-0.978, p=0.041) were associated with decreased risk of consuming hookah. Conclusions: This study provides an insight in prevalence of smoking among students at the University of Sarajevo. More antismoking efforts are needed, especially in urban environments; and a follow-up study, to be planned in the near future, should determine whether COVID-19 pandemic (and all the modifications of lifestyles connected with it) have eventually changed tobacco consumption patterns among undergraduate students.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cachimbos de Água , Estudantes de Medicina , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bósnia e Herzegóvina/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hábitos , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Ann Ig ; 34(1): 27-44, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779676

RESUMO

Introduction: The Coronavirus pandemic (Covid-19) was first identified in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, China, and later caused a severe health crisis, causing massive disruptions to most healthcare sy-stems worldwide. The Covid-19 health emergency has seen healthcare workers in the front line facing all the difficulties related to the care burden. One of the most significant and probably underinvestigated aspects is the psychological stress of the healthcare staff managing the emergency. The aim of the paper is to analyze the literature on the impact of the Covid-19 crisis on the psychological well-being of health professionals. Methodology: We conducted a systematic review of articles published on this topic during the months from January 2020 to December 2020, searching on Pub Med, Scopus and Web of Science databases. Results: Most of the issues can be summarized into five conceptual categories: Stress, Depression and Infec-tion Anxiety, Anguish, Insomnia, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Suicide. The literature identifies many factors contributing to the onset of anxiety, depression, and stress, like the fear of contracting the disease and transmitting it to family members and friends, stressful shifts, and little rest among several others. The literature highlights the needs for adequate measures, including proper psychological support. Conclusion: The conducted review suggests that the behaviours of healthcare professionals during the emer-gency phase of the Covid-19 pandemic show psychological disorders that can compromise mental health. Therefore, there is a call for those in chief like hospital managers and policymakers to take action, promoting measures like surveillance, monitoring, and psychological support among others, to increase the resilience of healthcare workers, limiting stress and anxiety and allowing them to keep their performance at work.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
19.
Ann Ig ; 34(1): 1-12, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113953

RESUMO

Introduction: A large amount of recent research has focused on the nature of immunity elicited by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, particularly its robustness and the duration of protection it offers. As a vaccine's efficacy relies on its ability to induce a protective immune response, these questions remain particularly pertinent. An improved understanding of the immunity offered by the antibodies developed against SARS-CoV-2 in recovered patients is critical for the development of diagnostic tests and vaccines. Methods: Our study aimed at the longitudinal analysis of antibody presence, persistence and its trend over eight months in a group of 30 COVID-19 recovered patients who tested positive by real-time quantitative PCR for SARS-CoV-2 in the period 1-30 March 2020. The subjects were divided into two groups based on disease severity: mild (n=17 subjects) and moderately-severe (n=13 subjects). The MAGLUMI 2019-nCoV lgM/lgG chemiluminescent analytical system (CLIA) assay was used to analyze these antibody titres. Results: IgG antibody persistency was demonstrated in 76.7 % of the subjects (23 out of 30) at eight months post-infection. For the moderately-severe group, the titre trends for both IgM and IgG changed in a statistically significant way throughout the time period with IgM below and IgG above the set cut-off. Conclusions: The results of this study highlight an important point in terms of the association between humoral immune response and disease severity. Patients who have experienced a relatively severe infection might develop a stronger immune response that could persist for a longer period.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
20.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113866, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624574

RESUMO

The uses of bivalve molluscs in environmental biomonitoring have recently gained momentum due to their ability to indicate and concentrate human pathogenic microorganisms. In the context of the health crisis caused by the COVID-19 epidemic, the objective of this study was to determine if the SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid genome can be detected in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) exposed to raw and treated urban wastewaters from two separate plants to support its interest as bioindicator of the SARS-CoV-2 genome contamination in water. The zebra mussels were exposed to treated wastewater through caging at the outlet of two plants located in France, as well as to raw wastewater in controlled conditions. Within their digestive tissues, our results showed that SARS-CoV-2 genome was detected in zebra mussels, whether in raw and treated wastewaters. Moreover, the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 genome in such bivalve molluscans appeared even with low concentrations in raw wastewaters. This is the first detection of the SARS-CoV-2 genome in the tissues of a sentinel species exposed to raw and treated urban wastewaters. Despite the need for development for quantitative approaches, these results support the importance of such invertebrate organisms, especially zebra mussel, for the active surveillance of pathogenic microorganisms and their indicators in environmental waters.


Assuntos
Bivalves , COVID-19 , Dreissena , Animais , Dreissena/genética , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Águas Residuárias
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