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1.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 16(4): e13287, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38978351

RESUMO

Salmonellosis associated with reptiles is a well-researched topic, particularly in China and the United States, but it occurs less frequently in Europe. The growth of the human population and changes in the environment could potentially increase the interaction between humans and free-living reptiles, which are an unidentified source of Salmonella species. In this study, we sought to explore this issue by comparing the microbiota of free-living European grass snakes, scientifically known as Natrix natrix, with that of captive banded water snakes, or Nerodia fasciata. We were able to isolate 27 strains of Salmonella species from cloacal swabs of 59 N. natrix and 3 strains from 10 N. fasciata. Our findings revealed that free-living snakes can carry strains of Salmonella species that are resistant to normal human serum (NHS). In contrast, all the Salmonella species strains isolated from N. fasciata were sensitive to the action of the NHS, further supporting our findings. We identified two serovars from N. natrix: Salmonella enterica subspecies diarizonae and S. enterica subspecies houtenae. Additionally, we identified three different virulotypes (VT) with invA, sipB, prgH, orgA, tolC, iroN, sitC, sifA, sopB, spiA, cdtB and msgA genes, and ß-galactosidase synthesised by 23 serovars. The identification of Salmonella species in terms of their VT is a relatively unknown aspect of their pathology. This can be specific to the serovar and pathovar and could be a result of adaptation to a new host or environment.


Assuntos
Salmonella , Fatores de Virulência , Animais , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/classificação , Humanos , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Colubridae/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/genética , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella enterica/classificação , Salmonella enterica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmonella enterica/patogenicidade , Serpentes/microbiologia , Cloaca/microbiologia
3.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 42(3): 653-666, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38925780

RESUMO

Envenomations are the 23rd most common reason for calls to US poison control centers, with over 35,000 incidents reported annually. Snake bites account for over 20% of those calls, while marine envenomations are likely underreported at 3% to 4%.1 While these types of envenomations may not be encountered on a daily basis for many physicians, the different types of envenomations warrant unique management strategies based on the offending creature and symptom presentation. This text serves as a review of the epidemiology, clinical presentations, and management of endemic North American species of snakes and marine vertebrate and invertebrate envenomations.


Assuntos
Antivenenos , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Humanos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/terapia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/diagnóstico , Animais , Antivenenos/uso terapêutico , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/diagnóstico , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Serpentes
4.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5213, 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38890335

RESUMO

Ultraviolet (UV) colour patterns invisible to humans are widespread in nature. However, research bias favouring species with conspicuous colours under sexual selection can limit our assessment of other ecological drivers of UV colour, like interactions between predators and prey. Here we demonstrate widespread UV colouration across Western Hemisphere snakes and find stronger support for a predator defence function than for reproduction. We find that UV colouration has evolved repeatedly in species with ecologies most sensitive to bird predation, with no sexual dichromatism at any life stage. By modelling visual systems of potential predators, we find that snake conspicuousness correlates with UV colouration and predator cone number, providing a plausible mechanism for selection. Our results suggest that UV reflectance should not be assumed absent in "cryptically coloured" animals, as signalling beyond human visual capacities may be a key outcome of species interactions in many taxa for which UV colour is likely underreported.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Cor , Comportamento Predatório , Serpentes , Raios Ultravioleta , Animais , Serpentes/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Pigmentação/fisiologia , Aves/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino
5.
J Exp Biol ; 227(12)2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38869075

RESUMO

Lepidosaurian reptiles, particularly snakes, periodically shed the outer epidermal layers of their skin (ecdysis) to restore or enhance vital functions such as regulating water and gaseous exchange, growth, and protection against insult, infection or physical injury. Although many studies have focused on the nature and mechanisms of skin shedding, little attention has been paid to the timing of the first ecdysis in neonates following birth or hatching. A recent study investigated patterns of the time to first postnatal ecdysis in snakes based on a large dataset taken from the literature. The analysis demonstrated patterns in the time to first postnatal ecdysis related to phylogeny as well as several life history traits. While this assessment provides important advances in our knowledge of this topic, data on known biophysical drivers of ecdysis - temperature and humidity - were largely unavailable and were not evaluated. The first postnatal ecdysis of neonatal snakes can be viewed as an adaptive adjustment to the transition from the aqueous environment of the embryo to the aerial environment of the newborn. Hence, the timing of the first postnatal ecdysis is logically influenced by the aerial environment into which a newborn snake or hatchling finds itself. Therefore, in this Commentary, we first emphasize the putative plasticity of ecdysis with respect to epidermal lipids that structure the water permeability barrier and are established or renewed during ecdysis to reduce transepidermal evaporative water loss. We then discuss the likely importance of biophysical variables as influential covariates that need future investigation as potential co-determinants of the timing of first postnatal ecdysis.


Assuntos
Muda , Serpentes , Animais , Serpentes/fisiologia , Serpentes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Muda/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Nature ; 630(8016): 273, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834698
7.
PeerJ ; 12: e17577, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38938602

RESUMO

Background: Enhancing detection of cryptic snakes is critical for the development of conservation and management strategies; yet, finding methods that provide adequate detection remains challenging. Issues with detecting snakes can be particularly problematic for some species, like the invasive Burmese python (Python bivittatus) in the Florida Everglades. Methods: Using multiple survey methods, we predicted that our ability to detect pythons, larger snakes and all other snakes would be enhanced with the use of live mammalian lures (domesticated rabbits; Oryctolagus cuniculus). Specifically, we used visual surveys, python detection dogs, and time-lapse game cameras to determine if domesticated rabbits were an effective lure. Results: Time-lapse game cameras detected almost 40 times more snakes (n = 375, treatment = 245, control = 130) than visual surveys (n = 10). We recorded 21 independent detections of pythons at treatment pens (with lures) and one detection at a control pen (without lures). In addition, we found larger snakes, and all other snakes were 165% and 74% more likely to be detected at treatment pens compared to control pens, respectively. Time-lapse cameras detected almost 40 times more snakes than visual surveys; we did not detect any pythons with python detection dogs. Conclusions: Our study presents compelling evidence that the detection of snakes is improved by coupling live mammalian lures with time-lapse game cameras. Although the identification of smaller snake species was limited, this was due to pixel resolution, which could be improved by changing the camera focal length. For larger snakes with individually distinctive patterns, this method could potentially be used to identify unique individuals and thus allow researchers to estimate population dynamics.


Assuntos
Boidae , Serpentes , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo , Animais , Coelhos , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo/métodos , Florida , Cães , Fotografação/instrumentação , Fotografação/métodos , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia
8.
Vet Parasitol ; 329: 110218, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838380

RESUMO

Blastocystis inhabits the digestive tracts of a diverse range of hosts. Transmission patterns, including host specificity, and the clinical and public health significance of Blastocystis in humans remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the distribution and genetic diversity of Blastocystis in herbivorous and carnivorous reptiles in Eastern Thailand. A total of 501 faecal samples were collected from 363 iguanas, 79 bearded dragons, 50 tortoises, and nine snakes in an animal breeding farm in Chonburi Province, Eastern Thailand. Detection and differentiation of Blastocystis was based on amplification, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of specific small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA genes from faecal DNA extracted from the samples. Altogether 101/501 samples (20 %) were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing-positive for Blastocystis, 90 (89 %) of which were from iguanas; the remaining positive samples were from African spurred tortoise (n=6), Bearded dragon (n=3), Leopard tortoise (n=1), and Red-footed tortoise (n=1). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the Blastocystis sequences from iguanas were largely similar, and they were distinct from those of the tortoises. Subtype 17 was found in the three bearded dragons and likely reflected Blastocystis from prey animals. This is the largest survey of Blastocystis in reptiles to date. Remarkable differences in Blastocystis colonization rates and genetic diversity were observed between iguanas and other reptile orders, and what was considered Blastocystis colonization was only observed in herbivorous reptiles.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Fezes , Variação Genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Filogenia , Animais , Blastocystis/genética , Blastocystis/classificação , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/transmissão , Fezes/parasitologia , Répteis/parasitologia , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Lagartos/parasitologia , Serpentes/parasitologia
9.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 33(2): e015823, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836808

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to record Centrorhynchus sp. associated with the exotic species Aquarana catesbeiana (bullfrog) in southern Brazil and to present a checklist of vertebrate hosts in South America. Twenty-nine adults and juveniles of A. catesbeiana were collected in Capão do Leão, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, between October 2019 and December 2020. We found 275 specimens of Centrorhynchus sp. cystacanths in the stomach musculature and coelomic cavity of 55.1% of hosts (16). There was no significant differences in the prevalence and mean intensity of infection with cystacanths when compared males and females of A. catesbeiana. The prevalence was significantly higher in adults than in juveniles. The checklist presents 106 species of vertebrate hosts and 14 taxa of Centrorhynchus recorded in nine South American countries. Avian were the main definitive hosts of Centrorhynchus spp. and snakes Dipsadidae, anurans Hylidae and Leptodactylidae the main paratenic hosts in South America. This is the first record of Centrorhynchus cystacanths in A. catesbeiana in the South America. The study provides tools to help understand the parasitic relationships between species of Centrorhynchus and A. catesbeiana and other hosts in areas where bullfrog have been introduced.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos , Anuros , Lista de Checagem , Animais , Anuros/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Brasil , Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/isolamento & purificação , América do Sul , Prevalência , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Vertebrados/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Serpentes/parasitologia
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(24): e2320517121, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848301

RESUMO

Self-propelling organisms locomote via generation of patterns of self-deformation. Despite the diversity of body plans, internal actuation schemes and environments in limbless vertebrates and invertebrates, such organisms often use similar traveling waves of axial body bending for movement. Delineating how self-deformation parameters lead to locomotor performance (e.g. speed, energy, turning capabilities) remains challenging. We show that a geometric framework, replacing laborious calculation with a diagrammatic scheme, is well-suited to discovery and comparison of effective patterns of wave dynamics in diverse living systems. We focus on a regime of undulatory locomotion, that of highly damped environments, which is applicable not only to small organisms in viscous fluids, but also larger animals in frictional fluids (sand) and on frictional ground. We find that the traveling wave dynamics used by mm-scale nematode worms and cm-scale desert dwelling snakes and lizards can be described by time series of weights associated with two principal modes. The approximately circular closed path trajectories of mode weights in a self-deformation space enclose near-maximal surface integral (geometric phase) for organisms spanning two decades in body length. We hypothesize that such trajectories are targets of control (which we refer to as "serpenoid templates"). Further, the geometric approach reveals how seemingly complex behaviors such as turning in worms and sidewinding snakes can be described as modulations of templates. Thus, the use of differential geometry in the locomotion of living systems generates a common description of locomotion across taxa and provides hypotheses for neuromechanical control schemes at lower levels of organization.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Locomoção , Animais , Locomoção/fisiologia , Lagartos/fisiologia , Serpentes/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Modelos Biológicos
11.
Toxicon ; 244: 107776, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38795850

RESUMO

The impact of Covid-19 on envenomations by venomous animals in countries heavily affected by both conditions has not been quantified yet. Brazil shows high incidence of envenomations by scorpions, spiders and snakes and was heavily affected by waves of Covid-19. To determine how the pandemic impacted the epidemiology of envenomations by those three groups of venomous animals, we used online databases from two surveillance sources on number of cases and mortality. During the years before and during the pandemic, scorpion stings typically occurred in adults of both sexes in urban zones in the Southeast and Northeast regions. Spider bites occurred mainly in the South region, in adults of both sexes in urban zone. Snakebites affected mainly rural adult men in the Amazon. Between 2007 and 2021, overall incidence of cases by scorpions, spiders and snakes decreased after the beginning of the pandemic, snakebites did not show changes after the pandemic started in Brazil, but cases by scorpions and spiders decreased. No changes in the incidence of deaths were observed. On national level, Covid-19 affected some demographic, clinical and epidemiological aspects in cases by scorpions, spiders and snakes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Picadas de Escorpião , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Incidência , Picadas de Escorpião/epidemiologia , Picada de Aranha/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Criança , SARS-CoV-2 , Escorpiões , Serpentes , Pandemias , Idoso
13.
Med Mycol ; 62(7)2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38816207

RESUMO

Candida auris represents one of the most urgent threats to public health, although its ecology remains largely unknown. Because amphibians and reptiles may present favorable conditions for C. auris colonization, cloacal and blood samples (n = 68), from several snake species, were cultured and molecularly screened for C. auris using molecular amplification of glycosylphosphatidylinositol protein-encoding genes and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequencing. Candida auris was isolated from the cloacal swab of one Egyptian cobra (Naja haje legionis) and molecularly identified in its cloaca and blood. The isolation of C. auris from wild animals is herein reported for the first time, thus suggesting the role that these animals could play as reservoirs of this emerging pathogen. The occurrence of C. auris in blood requires further investigation, although the presence of cationic antimicrobial peptides in the plasma of reptiles could play a role in reducing the vitality of the fungus.


Candida auris represents one of the most urgent threats to public health. In this study, we reported for the first time the isolation of C. auris from snake thus suggesting the role of these animals as reservoirs of this emerging pathogen.


Assuntos
Candida , Candidíase , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico , Reservatórios de Doenças , Animais , Candida/genética , Candida/classificação , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Candidíase/microbiologia , Candidíase/veterinária , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , Cloaca/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , DNA Fúngico/genética , Sangue/microbiologia , Serpentes/microbiologia , Elapidae , Egito , Filogenia
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10071, 2024 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698134

RESUMO

Dipsadidae is one of the largest clades of extant reptiles, showing an impressive morphological and ecological diversity. Despite this fact, the developmental processes behind its diversity are still largely unknown. In this study, we used 3D reconstructions based on micro-CT data and geometric morphometrics to evaluate the skull morphology of Philodryas agassizii, a small, surface-dwelling dipsadid that consume spiders. Adult individuals of P. agassizii exhibit a cranial morphology frequently observed in juveniles of other surface-dwelling colubroideans, represented in our analysis by its close relative Philodryas patagoniensis. Large orbits, gibbous neurocranial roof and a relatively short jaw complex are features present in juveniles of the latter species. Furthermore, we performed an extensive survey about diet of P. patagoniensis in which we detected an ontogenetic dietary shift, indicating that arthropods are more frequently consumed by juveniles of this dietary generalist. Thus, we infer that P. agassizzii retained not only the ancestral juvenile skull morphology but also dietary preferences. This study reveals that morphological changes driven by heterochronic changes, specifically paedomorphosis, influenced the retention of ancestral life history traits in P. agassizii, and therefore promoted cladogenesis. In this way, we obtained first evidence that heterochronic processes lead speciation in the snake megadiverse clade Dipsadidae.


Assuntos
Crânio , Animais , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Dieta , Serpentes/anatomia & histologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Especiação Genética , Filogenia , Evolução Biológica
15.
PeerJ ; 12: e17277, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708352

RESUMO

Background: Squamata (lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians) is a Triassic lineage with an extensive and complex biogeographic history, yet no large-scale study has reconstructed the ancestral range of early squamate lineages. The fossil record indicates a broadly Pangaean distribution by the end- Cretaceous, though many lineages (e.g., Paramacellodidae, Mosasauria, Polyglyphanodontia) subsequently went extinct. Thus, the origin and occupancy of extant radiations is unclear and may have been localized within Pangaea to specific plates, with potential regionalization to distinct Laurasian and Gondwanan landmasses during the Mesozoic in some groups. Methods: We used recent tectonic models to code extant and fossil squamate distributions occurring on nine discrete plates for 9,755 species, with Jurassic and Cretaceous fossil constraints from three extinct lineages. We modeled ancestral ranges for crown Squamata from an extant-only molecular phylogeny using a suite of biogeographic models accommodating different evolutionary processes and fossil-based node constraints from known Jurassic and Cretaceous localities. We hypothesized that the best-fit models would not support a full Pangaean distribution (i.e., including all areas) for the origin of crown Squamata, but would instead show regionalization to specific areas within the fragmenting supercontinent, likely in the Northern Hemisphere where most early squamate fossils have been found. Results: Incorporating fossil data reconstructs a localized origin within Pangaea, with early regionalization of extant lineages to Eurasia and Laurasia, while Gondwanan regionalization did not occur until the middle Cretaceous for Alethinophidia, Scolecophidia, and some crown Gekkotan lineages. While the Mesozoic history of extant squamate biogeography can be summarized as a Eurasian origin with dispersal out of Laurasia into Gondwana, their Cenozoic history is complex with multiple events (including secondary and tertiary recolonizations) in several directions. As noted by previous authors, squamates have likely utilized over-land range expansion, land-bridge colonization, and trans-oceanic dispersal. Tropical Gondwana and Eurasia hold more ancient lineages than the Holarctic (Rhineuridae being a major exception), and some asymmetries in colonization (e.g., to North America from Eurasia during the Cenozoic through Beringia) deserve additional study. Future studies that incorporate fossil branches, rather than as node constraints, into the reconstruction can be used to explore this history further.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Animais , Filogenia , Evolução Biológica , Serpentes/anatomia & histologia , Serpentes/classificação , Serpentes/genética , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/genética , Lagartos/classificação , Filogeografia , Europa (Continente) , Ásia
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(10)2024 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38793931

RESUMO

The process of image fusion is the process of enriching an image and improving the image's quality, so as to facilitate the subsequent image processing and analysis. With the increasing importance of image fusion technology, the fusion of infrared and visible images has received extensive attention. In today's deep learning environment, deep learning is widely used in the field of image fusion. However, in some applications, it is not possible to obtain a large amount of training data. Because some special organs of snakes can receive and process infrared information and visible information, the fusion method of infrared and visible light to simulate the visual mechanism of snakes came into being. Therefore, this paper takes into account the perspective of visual bionics to achieve image fusion; such methods do not need to obtain a significant amount of training data. However, most of the fusion methods for simulating snakes face the problem of unclear details, so this paper combines this method with a pulse coupled neural network (PCNN). By studying two receptive field models of retinal nerve cells, six dual-mode cell imaging mechanisms of rattlesnakes and their mathematical models and the PCNN model, an improved fusion method of infrared and visible images was proposed. For the proposed fusion method, eleven groups of source images were used, and three non-reference image quality evaluation indexes were compared with seven other fusion methods. The experimental results show that the improved algorithm proposed in this paper is better overall than the comparison method for the three evaluation indexes.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Redes Neurais de Computação , Serpentes , Animais , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Algoritmos , Aprendizado Profundo , Raios Infravermelhos
17.
Syst Parasitol ; 101(3): 41, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740609

RESUMO

Dicrocoeliid trematodes were detected from Iwasaki's snail-eating snake Pareas iwasakii in Iriomote Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and described as a new species Paradistomum dextra n. sp. in the present study. This new species can be distinguished from the type series of the other members of the genus based on size of eggs and morphological characteristics of body, oral and ventral suckers, and reproductive organs. However, the new species was hard to distinguish from Paradistomum megareceptaculum infecting snakes in Japan, including Iriomote Island where is the type locality of the new species, because it is closely similar to some part of the broad range of morphological variations in P. megareceptaculum. On the other hand, a partial sequence of 28S ribosomal DNA clearly distinguished these two species. Moreover, the new species' host snake Pareas iwasakii is reported to exclusively feed on land snails while host snakes of P. megareceptaculum feed on small vertebrates, indicating that the new species is also ecologically different from P. megareceptaculum. We also redescribed P. megareceptaculum based on adults sampled in this study and past studies to record the morphological variations of this species.


Assuntos
Especificidade da Espécie , Trematódeos , Animais , Japão , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Trematódeos/genética , Caramujos/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Serpentes/parasitologia , Filogenia
18.
Parasitol Res ; 123(5): 219, 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38780821

RESUMO

The genus Hepatozoon Miller (1908) contains a wide range of obligate parasitic organisms with complex life cycles involving vertebrates and hematophagous invertebrates. Despite over 300 species being described, only a small percentage has been characterized in snakes using morphological and molecular techniques. The prevalence of these parasites in snakes is significant, highlighting the need for molecular descriptions in such elusive hosts. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine molecularly the presence of Hepatozoon species in snakes from the Northeastern region of Argentina. Thirty-two specimens of eight snake species (Bothrops alternatus, Dryophylax hypoconia, Erythrolamprus jaegeri coralliventris, Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus, Erythrolamprus semiaureus, Philodryas olfersii latirostris, Pseudablabes (ex Philodryas) patagoniensis and Palusophis (ex Mastigodryas) bifossatus were collected and examined. PCR analysis of the 18S rRNA locus detected four samples (12% prevalence) positive for the presence of Hepatozoon DNA. Phylogenetic analysis positioned the 18S rRNA Hepatozoon sequences obtained in three different clades, one with Hepatozoon musa, another with sequences of Hepatozoon cuestensis, while the third was placed as a sister taxon to a clade including Hepatozoon cevapii and Hepatozoon massardi. This study presents the first documentation of Hepatozoon infecting snakes in Argentina, thereby expanding their distribution within southern South America. Additionally, B. alternatus and Pa. bifossatus are reported as new hosts of Hepatozoon.


Assuntos
DNA de Protozoário , Eucoccidiida , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S , Serpentes , Animais , Argentina , Serpentes/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Eucoccidiida/genética , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Eucoccidiida/classificação , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
19.
Toxicon ; 243: 107744, 2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701904

RESUMO

Snakebite poses a significant health threat in numerous tropical and subtropical nations, with around 5.4 million cases reported annually, which results in 1.8-2.7 million instances of envenomation, underscoring its critical impact on public health. The 'BIG FOUR' group comprises the primary committers responsible for most snake bites in India. Effective management of snakebite victims is essential for prognosis, emphasizing the need for preventive measures to limit snakebite-related deaths. The proposed initiative seeks to develop a transfer learning-based image classification algorithm using DenseNet to identify venomous and non-venomous snakes automatically. The study comprehensively evaluates the image classification results, employing accuracy, F1-score, Recall, and Precision metrics. DenseNet emerges as a potent tool for multiclass snake image classification, achieving a notable accuracy rate of 86%. The proposed algorithm intends to be incorporated into an AI-based snake-trapping device with artificial prey made with tungsten wire and vibration motors to mimic heat and vibration signatures, enhancing its appeal to snakes. The proposed algorithm in this research holds promise as a primary tool for preventing snake bites globally, offering a path toward automated snake capture without human intervention. These findings are significant in preventing snake bites and advancing snakebite mitigation strategies.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Aprendizado Profundo , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Serpentes , Animais , Serpentes/classificação , Índia , Humanos
20.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 440, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600171

RESUMO

Infectious diseases are influenced by interactions between host and pathogen, and the number of infected hosts is rarely homogenous across the landscape. Areas with elevated pathogen prevalence can maintain a high force of infection and may indicate areas with disease impacts on host populations. However, isolating the ecological processes that result in increases in infection prevalence and intensity remains a challenge. Here we elucidate the contribution of pathogen clade and host species in disease hotspots caused by Ophidiomyces ophidiicola, the pathogen responsible for snake fungal disease, in 21 species of snakes infected with multiple pathogen strains across 10 countries in Europe. We found isolated areas of disease hotspots in a landscape where infections were otherwise low. O. ophidiicola clade had important effects on transmission, and areas with multiple pathogen clades had higher host infection prevalence. Snake species further influenced infection, with most positive detections coming from species within the Natrix genus. Our results suggest that both host and pathogen identity are essential components contributing to increased pathogen prevalence.


Assuntos
Dermatomicoses , Animais , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Hotspot de Doença , Serpentes/microbiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Prevalência
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