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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2821: 129-133, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38997485

RESUMO

Polyclonal antibodies are relatively easy to produce and may supplement monoclonal antibodies for some applications or even have some advantages.The choice of species for production of (peptide) antisera is based on practical considerations, including availability of immunogen (vaccine) and animals. Two major factors govern the production of antisera: the nature of adaptive immune responses, which take place over days/weeks and ethical guidelines for animal welfare.Here, simple procedures for immunization of mice, rabbits, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, and chickens are presented.


Assuntos
Soros Imunes , Peptídeos , Animais , Soros Imunes/química , Soros Imunes/imunologia , Camundongos , Coelhos , Peptídeos/imunologia , Imunização , Cavalos/imunologia , Ovinos , Cabras , Suínos , Galinhas/imunologia
2.
J Immunol Methods ; 531: 113701, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38852836

RESUMO

Flagellum-mediated motility is essential to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) virulence. Antibody against flagellin reduces motility and inhibits the spread of the bacteria from the infection site. The standard soft-agar assay to demonstrate anti-flagella motility inhibition requires long incubation times, is difficult to interpret, and requires large amounts of antibody. We have developed a time-lapse video microscopy method to analyze anti-flagellin P. aeruginosa motility inhibition that has several advantages over the soft agar assay. Antisera from mice immunized with flagellin type A or B were incubated with Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-expressing P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 (FlaB+) and GFP-expressing P. aeruginosa strain PAK (FlaA+). We analyzed the motion of the bacteria in video taken in ten second time intervals. An easily measurable decrease in bacterial locomotion was observed microscopically within minutes after the addition of small volumes of flagellin antiserum. From data analysis, we were able to quantify the efficacy of anti-flagellin antibodies in the test serum that decreased P. aeruginosa motility. This new video microscopy method to assess functional activity of anti-flagellin antibodies required less serum, less time, and had more robust and reproducible endpoints than the standard soft agar motility inhibition assay.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Flagelos , Flagelina , Soros Imunes , Microscopia de Vídeo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Flagelina/imunologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/imunologia , Animais , Soros Imunes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Flagelos/imunologia , Camundongos , Infecções por Pseudomonas/imunologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia
3.
Protein J ; 43(3): 627-638, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760596

RESUMO

Stonustoxin (SNTX) is a lethal protein found in stonefish venom, responsible for many of the symptoms associated with stonefish envenomation. To counter stonefish venom challenges, antivenom is a well-established and effective solution. In this study, we aimed to produce the recombinant alpha subunit protein of Stonustoxin from Synanceia horrida and prepare antibodies against it The SNTXα gene sequence was optimized for E. coli BL21 (DE3) expression and cloned into the pET17b vector. Following purification, the recombinant protein was subcutaneously injected into rabbits, and antibodies were extracted from rabbit´s serum using a G protein column As a result of codon optimization, the codon adaptation index for the SNTXα cassette increased to 0.94. SDS-PAGE analysis validated the expression of SNTXα, with a band observed at 73.5 kDa with a yield of 60 mg/l. ELISA results demonstrated rabbits antibody titers were detectable up to a 1:256,000 dilution. The isolated antibody from rabbit´s serum exhibited a concentration of 1.5 mg/ml, and its sensitivity allowed the detection of a minimum protein concentration of 9.7 ng. In the neutralization assay the purified antibody against SNTXα protected mice challenged with 2 LD50. In conclusion, our study successfully expressed the alpha subunit of Stonustoxin in a prokaryotic host, enabling the production of antibodies for potential use in developing stonefish antivenom.


Assuntos
Proteínas Recombinantes , Animais , Coelhos , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Camundongos , Antivenenos/imunologia , Antivenenos/biossíntese , Antivenenos/genética , Venenos de Peixe/imunologia , Venenos de Peixe/genética , Venenos de Peixe/química , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Soros Imunes/imunologia
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(5): e0012187, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38809847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Snakebite envenomation inflicts a high burden of mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Antivenoms are the mainstay in the therapy of envenomation, and there is an urgent need to develop antivenoms of broad neutralizing efficacy for this region. The venoms used as immunogens to manufacture snake antivenoms are normally selected considering their medical importance and availability. Additionally, their ability to induce antibody responses with high neutralizing capability should be considered, an issue that involves the immunization scheme and the animal species being immunized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the lethality neutralization assay in mice, we compared the intrageneric neutralization scope of antisera generated by immunization of horses with monospecific, bispecific/monogeneric, and polyspecific/monogeneric immunogens formulated with venoms of Bitis spp., Echis spp., Dendroaspis spp., spitting Naja spp. or non-spitting Naja spp. It was found that the antisera raised by all the immunogens were able to neutralize the homologous venoms and, with a single exception, the heterologous congeneric venoms (considering spitting and non-spitting Naja separately). In general, the polyspecific antisera of Bitis spp, Echis spp, and Dendroaspis spp gave the best neutralization profile against venoms of these genera. For spitting Naja venoms, there were no significant differences in the neutralizing ability between monospecific, bispecific and polyspecific antisera. A similar result was obtained in the case of non-spitting Naja venoms, except that polyspecific antiserum was more effective against the venoms of N. melanoleuca and N. nivea as compared to the monospecific antiserum. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The use of polyspecific immunogens is the best alternative to produce monogeneric antivenoms with wide neutralizing coverage against venoms of sub-Saharan African snakes of the Bitis, Echis, Naja (non-spitting) and Dendroaspis genera. On the other hand, a monospecific immunogen composed of venom of Naja nigricollis is suitable to produce a monogeneric antivenom with wide neutralizing coverage against venoms of spitting Naja spp. These findings can be used in the design of antivenoms of wide neutralizing scope for sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Antivenenos , Testes de Neutralização , Animais , Cavalos/imunologia , Antivenenos/imunologia , Antivenenos/administração & dosagem , Camundongos , África Subsaariana , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Venenos de Serpentes/imunologia , Soros Imunes/imunologia , Venenos Elapídicos/imunologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/imunologia
5.
Med ; 5(5): 401-413.e4, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recently circulating Omicron variants BA.2.86 and JN.1 were identified with more than 30 amino acid changes on the spike protein compared to BA.2 or XBB.1.5. This study aimed to comprehensively assess the immune escape potential of BA.2.86, JN.1, EG.5, and EG.5.1. METHODS: We collected human and murine sera to evaluate serological neutralization activities. The participants received three doses of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines or a booster dose of the ZF2022-A vaccine (Delta-BA.5 receptor-binding domain [RBD]-heterodimer immunogen) or experienced a breakthrough infection (BTI). The ZF2202-A vaccine is under clinical trial study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT05850507). BALB/c mice were vaccinated with a panel of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RBD-dimer proteins. The antibody evasion properties of these variants were analyzed with 41 representative human monoclonal antibodies targeting the eight RBD epitopes. FINDINGS: We found that BA.2.86 had less neutralization evasion than EG.5 and EG.5.1 in humans. The ZF2202-A booster induced significantly higher neutralizing titers than BTI. Furthermore, BA.2.86 and JN.1 exhibited stronger antibody evasion than EG.5 and EG.5.1 on RBD-4 and RBD-5 epitopes. Compared to BA.2.86, JN.1 further lost the ability to bind to several RBD-1 monoclonal antibodies and displayed further immune escape. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that the currently dominating sub-variant, JN.1, showed increased immune evasion compared to BA.2.86 and EG.5.1, which is highly concerning. This study provides a timely risk assessment of the interested sub-variants and the basis for updating COVID-19 vaccines. FUNDING: This work was funded by the National Key R&D Program of China, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Beijing Life Science Academy, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the Postdoctoral Fellowship Program of China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (CPSF).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Vacinas de Subunidades Antigênicas , Humanos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Camundongos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Vacinas de Subunidades Antigênicas/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades Antigênicas/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Masculino , Soros Imunes/imunologia , Adulto , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Testes de Neutralização , Epitopos/imunologia
6.
Infect Immun ; 92(3): e0042723, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38391207

RESUMO

To address the problem of increased antimicrobial resistance, we developed a glycoconjugate vaccine comprised of O-polysaccharides (OPS) of the four most prevalent serotypes of Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) linked to recombinant flagellin types A and B (rFlaA and rFlaB) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). Flagellin is the major subunit of the flagellar filament. Flagella A and B, essential virulence factors for PA, are glycosylated with different glycans. We previously reported that while both rFlaA and rFlaB were highly immunogenic, only the rFlaB antisera reduced PA motility and protected mice from lethal PA infection in a mouse model of thermal injury. Since recombinant flagellin is not glycosylated, we examined the possibility that the glycan on native FlaA (nFlaA) might be critical to functional immune responses. We compared the ability of nFlaA to that of native, deglycosylated FlaA (dnFlaA) to induce functionally active antisera. O glycan was removed from nFlaA with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid. Despite the similar high-titered anti-FlaA antibody levels elicited by nFlaA, rFlaA, and dnFlaA, only the nFlaA antisera inhibited PA motility and protected mice following lethal intraperitoneal bacterial challenge. Both the protective efficacy and carrier protein function of nFlaA were retained when conjugated to KP O1 OPS. We conclude that unlike the case with FlaB O glycan, the FlaA glycan is an important epitope for the induction of functionally active anti-FlaA antibodies.


Assuntos
Flagelina , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Camundongos , Animais , Flagelina/metabolismo , Anticorpos , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Polissacarídeos , Flagelos/metabolismo , Soros Imunes
7.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298635, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38394140

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Multiple studies have shown that typhoid fever is endemic in developing countries characterized by poor hygiene. A unique way of Salmonella Typhi (S.Typhi) pathogenicity is establishing a persistent, usually asymptomatic carrier state in some infected individuals who excrete large numbers of bacteria in faeces. This study aimed to determine the isolation rate of S.Typhi from blood and stool samples among cases and asymptomatic individuals in the Mukuru informal settlement and identify antibiotic resistance patterns within the same population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 1014 outpatient participants presenting with typhoid-like symptoms in selected health centres in Nairobi, Kenya. Bacterial isolation was done on Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate agar (XLD) and Mac Conkey agar (Oxoid), followed by standard biochemical tests. Identification was done using API20E, and S.Typhi was confirmed by serotyping using polyvalent antisera 0-9 and monovalent antisera d. The Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was used to test the antimicrobial susceptibility of S.Typhi isolates, while Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) strains were characterized using conventional PCR. RESULTS: Of 1014 participants, 54 (5%) tested positive for S.Typhi. Thirty-eight (70%) of the S.Typhi isolated were from stool samples, while sixteen (30%) were from blood. Three (0.2%) of the isolates were from asymptomatic carriers. Of the 54 S.Typhi isolates, 20 (37%) were MDR. Resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was 43% and 52%, respectively. Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (a beta-lactam inhibitor) was 2%. The BlaTEM-1 gene was present in 19/20 (95%) MDR isolates. CONCLUSION: MDR S.Typhi is prevalent in Mukuru Informal settlement. The sharp increase in nalidixic acid resistance is an indication of reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones, which are currently the recommended drugs for the treatment of typhoid fever. This study highlights the need for effective antimicrobial stewardship and routine surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to inform policy on the prevention and control of MDR Typhoid disease.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Febre Tifoide , Humanos , Febre Tifoide/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Febre Tifoide/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Nalidíxico/farmacologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Ágar/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Salmonella typhi , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Soros Imunes/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(7): e2316960121, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319964

RESUMO

The Ebola virus causes hemorrhagic fever in humans and poses a significant threat to global public health. Although two viral vector vaccines have been approved to prevent Ebola virus disease, they are distributed in the limited ring vaccination setting and only indicated for prevention of infection from orthoebolavirus zairense (EBOV)-one of three orthoebolavirus species that have caused previous outbreaks. Ebola virus glycoprotein GP mediates viral infection and serves as the primary target of neutralizing antibodies. Here, we describe a universal Ebola virus vaccine approach using a structure-guided design of candidates with hyperglycosylation that aims to direct antibody responses away from variable regions and toward conserved epitopes of GP. We first determined the hyperglycosylation landscape on Ebola virus GP and used that to generate hyperglycosylated GP variants with two to four additional glycosylation sites to mask the highly variable glycan cap region. We then created vaccine candidates by displaying wild-type or hyperglycosylated GP variants on ferritin nanoparticles (Fer). Immunization with these antigens elicited potent neutralizing antisera against EBOV in mice. Importantly, we observed consistent cross-neutralizing activity against Bundibugyo virus and Sudan virus from hyperglycosylated GP-Fer with two or three additional glycans. In comparison, elicitation of cross-neutralizing antisera was rare in mice immunized with wild-type GP-Fer. These results demonstrate a potential strategy to develop universal Ebola virus vaccines that confer cross-protective immunity against existing and emerging filovirus species.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Ebola , Ebolavirus , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Vacinas Virais , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Anticorpos Antivirais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Soros Imunes
9.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0289198, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38271318

RESUMO

Viral populations in natural infections can have a high degree of sequence diversity, which can directly impact immune escape. However, antibody potency is often tested in vitro with a relatively clonal viral populations, such as laboratory virus or pseudotyped virus stocks, which may not accurately represent the genetic diversity of circulating viral genotypes. This can affect the validity of viral phenotype assays, such as antibody neutralization assays. To address this issue, we tested whether recombinant virus carrying SARS-CoV-2 spike (VSV-SARS-CoV-2-S) stocks could be made more genetically diverse by passage, and if a stock passaged under selective pressure was more capable of escaping monoclonal antibody (mAb) neutralization than unpassaged stock or than viral stock passaged without selective pressures. We passaged VSV-SARS-CoV-2-S four times concurrently in three cell lines and then six times with or without polyclonal antiserum selection pressure. All three of the monoclonal antibodies tested neutralized the viral population present in the unpassaged stock. The viral inoculum derived from serial passage without antiserum selection pressure was neutralized by two of the three mAbs. However, the viral inoculum derived from serial passage under antiserum selection pressure escaped neutralization by all three mAbs. Deep sequencing revealed the rapid acquisition of multiple mutations associated with antibody escape in the VSV-SARS-CoV-2-S that had been passaged in the presence of antiserum, including key mutations present in currently circulating Omicron subvariants. These data indicate that viral stock that was generated under polyclonal antiserum selection pressure better reflects the natural environment of the circulating virus and may yield more biologically relevant outcomes in phenotypic assays. Thus, mAb assessment assays that utilize a more genetically diverse, biologically relevant, virus stock may yield data that are relevant for prediction of mAb efficacy and for enhancing biosurveillance.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Anticorpos Antivirais , Testes de Neutralização , Soros Imunes , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
10.
J Appl Lab Med ; 9(2): 350-356, 2024 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38180079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Examination of urine by immunofixation electrophoresis (UIFE) is one of the tests recommended for screening and monitoring of monoclonal gammopathies, especially multiple myeloma. Unlike the serum free light chain measurement, a positive result on urine immunofixation is diagnostic for monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains. Urine is usually concentrated, generally by membrane filtration, prior to electrophoresis. METHODS: Alternative methods to membrane filtration for urine concentration were examined. Residual urine specimens submitted for urine protein electrophoresis were concentrated by precipitation of the proteins by ammonium sulfate salt precipitation, precipitation with ethanol and acetonitrile, and by desiccation. The concentrated specimens were subjected to immunofixation electrophoresis using antisera to free light chains (FLC). The results were compared with those from conventional immunofixation electrophoresis using specimens concentrated by membrane filtration. RESULTS: Ammonium sulfate, ethanol, and acetonitrile precipitation results were less than satisfactory. Concentration by desiccation provided results comparable, if not better than, those by membrane filtration and conventional UIFE. The cost of desiccation is minimal compared to more than $5.00/specimen cost of concentration by membrane filtration. The differences in the results with conventional UIFE and the method described here are likely due to (a) variability in the reactivity of different antisera to free monoclonal light chains, and (b) obscuration of monoclonal free light chains by co-migration with intact immunoglobulin monoclonal proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrating urine by desiccation for immunofixation electrophoresis is technically simple, inexpensive, and provides results comparable to concentrating by membrane filtration. Using FLC provides a more sensitive assay than using conventional antisera.


Assuntos
Gamopatia Monoclonal de Significância Indeterminada , Humanos , Sulfato de Amônio , Cadeias Leves de Imunoglobulina , Acetonitrilas , Etanol , Soros Imunes
11.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1221155, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38077403

RESUMO

Sera of immune mice that were previously cured of their melanoma through a combined radiation and immunocytokine immunotherapy regimen consisting of 12 Gy of external beam radiation and the intratumoral administration of an immunocytokine (anti-GD2 mAb coupled to IL-2) with long-term immunological memory showed strong antibody-binding against melanoma tumor cell lines via flow cytometric analysis. Using a high-density whole-proteome peptide array (of 6.090.593 unique peptides), we assessed potential protein-targets for antibodies found in immune sera. Sera from 6 of these cured mice were analyzed with this high-density, whole-proteome peptide array to determine specific antibody-binding sites and their linear peptide sequence. We identified thousands of peptides that were targeted by these 6 mice and exhibited strong antibody binding only by immune (after successful cure and rechallenge), not naïve (before tumor implantation) sera and developed a robust method to detect these differentially targeted peptides. Confirmatory studies were done to validate these results using 2 separate systems, a peptide ELISA and a smaller scale peptide array utilizing a slightly different technology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the full set of germline encoded linear peptide-based proteome epitopes that are recognized by immune sera from mice cured of cancer via radio-immunotherapy. We furthermore found that although the generation of B-cell repertoire in immune development is vastly variable, and numerous epitopes are identified uniquely by immune serum from each of these 6 immune mice evaluated, there are still several epitopes and proteins that are commonly recognized by at least half of the mice studied. This suggests that every mouse has a unique set of antibodies produced in response to the curative therapy, creating an individual "fingerprint." Additionally, certain epitopes and proteins stand out as more immunogenic, as they are recognized by multiple mice in the immune group.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Animais , Camundongos , Proteoma , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Imunoterapia , Peptídeos , Epitopos , Soros Imunes
12.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1299639, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38116010

RESUMO

Introduction: The D antigen variants are classified as weak, partial, and extremely weak (DEL) and can be differentiated using molecular tests. In Chile, the laboratories of local blood centers do not identify variants of the D antigen, referring them for study to the Reference Laboratory of the Public Health Institute of Chile. So, our aim was to talk about the results of the molecular analysis of variants of the D antigen in samples that had different results in the serological classification. Methods: In the D antigen classification of the Rh system, 479 samples with serological discrepant results were sent for molecular analysis. The Rh phenotype was performed with monoclonal anti-C, anti-c, anti-E, and anti-e antisera by direct agglutination. To find the D antigen, researchers used direct agglutination with monoclonal antisera and indirect antiglobulin testing with the column (gel) agglutination method. Molecular analysis was performed with a polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (SSP-PCR) and sequencing. Results and discussion: The presence of D antigen variants was confirmed in 332 samples (69.3%), with an initial discrepancy in serological classification. In this group of discrepant samples, the frequency of weak RhD variants was 66% (219/332), that of extremely weak RhD was 28% (93/332), and that of partial RhD was 6% (20/332). The weak variants type 2 (27.4%), type 3 (8.4%), type 48 (8.4%), and type 1 (8.1%) were the next most prevalent variants after RHD*DEL43 (28%). The ccEe (R2r) phenotype was the most frequently detected (38.4%) and is present in 87% of the RHD*DEL43 samples. The E antigen is associated with the presence of this variant. Our analyses give the first description of D antigen variants in Chile. The most common variants are DEL type (RHD*DEL43) and weak (weak type 2), which are linked to the ccDEe (R2r) phenotype. These findings allow us to characterize the variants of the D antigen in Chile and, according to the obtained data, to design strategies for the management of donors, patients, and pregnant women.


Assuntos
Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Rh-Hr , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Chile , Genótipo , Soros Imunes , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Rh-Hr/genética
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1687-1697, dic. 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528806

RESUMO

SUMMARY: In response to the threat posed by new variants of SARS-CoV-2 and the urgent need for effective treatments in the absence of vaccines, the aim of this study was to develop a rapid and cost-effective hyperimmune serum (HS) derived from sheep and assess its efficacy. The utilization of a halal-certified, easily maintained in certain geographic regions, easy-to-handle animal such as sheep could provide a viable alternative to the expensive option of horses. Sheep were immunized with a whole inactivated SARS-CoV- 2 antigen to produce HS, which was evaluated for neutralizing potency using the PRNT50 assay. K18-hACE2 transgenic mice (n=35) were divided into three groups: control, SARS-CoV-2 exposure through inhalation, and SARS-CoV-2 exposed mice treated with HS. HS efficacy was assessed through serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, qRT-PCR analysis, histopathological examination of lungs and hearts, and transmission electron microscopy. Purified HS exhibited significant neutralizing activity (1/24,576). The SARS-CoV-2+HS group showed lower levels of TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-6 (P<0.01) and relatively lower levels of MCP-1 compared to the SARS-CoV-2 group. HS prevented death, reduced viral RNA levels in the lungs and hearts, protected against severe interstitial pneumonia, preserved lung tissue integrity, and prevented myocyte damage, while the SARS-CoV-2 group exhibited viral presence in the lungs. This study successfully developed a sheep-derived HS against the entire SARS-CoV-2 virus, resulting in a significant reduction in infection severity, inflammation, and systemic cytokine production. The findings hold promise for treating severe COVID-19 cases, including emerging viral variants, and immunocompromised patients.


En respuesta a la amenaza que suponen las nuevas variantes del SARS-CoV-2 y la urgente necesidad de tratamientos eficaces en ausencia de vacunas, el objetivo de este estudio fue desarrollar un suero hiperinmune (HS) rápido y rentable derivado de ovejas. y evaluar su eficacia. La utilización de un animal con certificación halal, de fácil mantenimiento en determinadas regiones geográficas y de fácil manejo, como las ovejas, podría proporcionar una alternativa viable a la costosa opción de los caballos. Las ovejas fueron inmunizadas con un antígeno de SARS-CoV-2 completamente inactivado para producir HS, cuya potencia neutralizante se evaluó mediante el ensayo PRNT50. Los ratones transgénicos K18-hACE2 (n = 35) se dividieron en tres grupos: control, exposición al SARS-CoV-2 mediante inhalación y ratones expuestos al SARS-CoV-2 tratados con HS. La eficacia de HS se evaluó mediante niveles de citoquinas proinflamatorias en suero, análisis qRT-PCR, examen histopatológico de pulmones y corazones y microscopía electrónica de transmisión. El HS purificado exhibió una actividad neutralizante significativa (1/24,576). El grupo SARS-CoV-2+HS mostró niveles más bajos de TNF-α, IL-10 e IL-6 (P<0,01) y niveles relativamente más bajos de MCP-1 en comparación con el grupo SARS-CoV-2. HS evitó la muerte, redujo los niveles de ARN viral en los pulmones y el corazón, protegió contra la neumonía intersticial grave, preservó la integridad del tejido pulmonar y evitó el daño de los miocitos, mientras que el grupo SARS-CoV-2 exhibió presencia viral en los pulmones. Este estudio desarrolló con éxito un HS derivado de ovejas contra todo el virus SARS-CoV-2, lo que resultó en una reducción significativa de la gravedad de la infección, la inflamación y la producción sistémica de citocinas. Los hallazgos son prometedores para el tratamiento de casos graves de COVID- 19, incluidas las variantes virales emergentes y los pacientes inmunocomprometidos.


Assuntos
Animais , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Soros Imunes/administração & dosagem , Sistema Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Respiratório/ultraestrutura , Ovinos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Citometria de Fluxo , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavalos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/prevenção & controle , Miocárdio/ultraestrutura
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 403, 2023 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37932796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Safe and effective vaccines are crucial for the control and eventual elimination of malaria. Novel approaches to optimize and improve vaccine efficacy are urgently required. Nanoparticle-based delivery platforms are considered potent and powerful tools for vaccine development. METHODS: In this study, we developed a transmission-blocking vaccine against malaria by conjugating the ookinete surface antigen PSOP25 to the Acinetobacter phage coat protein AP205, forming virus-like particles (VLPs) using the SpyTag/SpyCatcher adaptor system. The combination of AP205-2*SpyTag with PSOP25-SpyCatcher resulted in the formation of AP205-PSOP25 complexes (VLP-PSOP25). The antibody titers and avidity of serum from each immunization group were assessed by ELISA. Western blot and IFA were performed to confirm the specific reactivity of the elicit antisera to the native PSOP25 in Plasmodium berghei ookinetes. Both in vitro and in vivo assays were conducted to evaluate the transmission-blocking activity of VLP-PSOP25 vaccine. RESULTS: Immunization of mice with VLP-PSOP25 could induced higher levels of high-affinity antibodies than the recombinant PSOP25 (rPSOP25) alone or mixtures of untagged AP205 and rPSOP25 but was comparable to rPSOP25 formulated with alum. Additionally, the VLP-PSOP25 vaccine enhanced Th1-type immune response with remarkably increased levels of IgG2a subclass. The antiserum generated by VLP-PSOP25 specifically recognizes the native PSOP25 antigen in P. berghei ookinetes. Importantly, antisera generated by inoculation with the VLP-PSOP25 could inhibit ookinete development in vitro and reduce the prevalence of infected mosquitoes or oocyst intensity in direct mosquito feeding assays. CONCLUSIONS: Antisera elicited by immunization with the VLP-PSOP25 vaccine confer moderate transmission-reducing activity and transmission-blocking activity. Our results support the utilization of the AP205-SpyTag/SpyCatcher platform for next-generation TBVs development.


Assuntos
Vacinas Antimaláricas , Malária , Animais , Camundongos , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Plasmodium berghei , Formação de Anticorpos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Soros Imunes , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
15.
Virol J ; 20(1): 257, 2023 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37940989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrinsic fitness costs are likely to have guided the selection of lineage-determining mutations during emergence of variants of SARS-CoV-2. Whereas changes in receptor affinity and antibody neutralization have been thoroughly mapped for individual mutations in spike, their influence on intrinsic replicative fitness remains understudied. METHODS: We analyzed mutations in immunodominant spike epitope E484 that became temporarily fixed over the pandemic. We engineered the resulting immune escape mutations E484K, -A, and -Q in recombinant SARS-CoV-2. We characterized viral replication, entry, and competitive fitness with and without immune serum from humans with defined exposure/vaccination history and hamsters monospecifically infected with the E484K variant. We additionally engineered a virus containing the Omicron signature mutations N501Y and Q498R that were predicted to epistatically enhance receptor binding. RESULTS: Multistep growth kinetics in Vero-, Calu-3, and NCI-H1299 were identical between viruses. Synchronized entry experiments based on cold absorption and temperature shift identified only an insignificant trend toward faster entry of the E484K variant. Competitive passage experiments revealed clear replicative fitness differences. In absence of immune serum, E484A and E484Q, but not E484K, were replaced by wildtype (WT) in competition assays. In presence of immune serum, all three mutants outcompeted WT. Decreased E484A fitness levels were over-compensated for by N501Y and Q498R, identifying a putative Omicron founder background that exceeds the intrinsic and effective fitness of WT and matches that of E484K. Critically, the E484A/Q498R/N501Y mutant and E484K have equal fitness also in presence of pre-Omicron vaccinee serum, whereas the fitness gain by E484K is lost in the presence of serum raised against the E484K variant in hamsters. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of E484A and E484Q prior to widespread population immunity may have been limited by fitness costs. In populations already exposed to the early immune escape epitope E484K, the Omicron founder background may have provided a basis for alternative immune escape evolution via E484A. Studies of major antigenic epitope changes with and without their epistatic context help reconstruct the sequential adjustments of intrinsic fitness versus neutralization escape during the evolution of major SARS-CoV-2 variants in an increasingly immune human population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Cricetinae , Humanos , Epitopos/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Mutação , Soros Imunes , Epitopos Imunodominantes , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes
16.
Nature ; 624(7992): 639-644, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37871613

RESUMO

A severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron subvariant, BA.2.86, has emerged and spread to numerous countries worldwide, raising alarm because its spike protein contains 34 additional mutations compared with its BA.2 predecessor1. We examined its antigenicity using human sera and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Reassuringly, BA.2.86 was no more resistant to human sera than the currently dominant XBB.1.5 and EG.5.1, indicating that the new subvariant would not have a growth advantage in this regard. Importantly, sera from people who had XBB breakthrough infection exhibited robust neutralizing activity against all viruses tested, suggesting that upcoming XBB.1.5 monovalent vaccines could confer added protection. Although BA.2.86 showed greater resistance to mAbs to subdomain 1 (SD1) and receptor-binding domain (RBD) class 2 and 3 epitopes, it was more sensitive to mAbs to class 1 and 4/1 epitopes in the 'inner face' of the RBD that is exposed only when this domain is in the 'up' position. We also identified six new spike mutations that mediate antibody resistance, including E554K that threatens SD1 mAbs in clinical development. The BA.2.86 spike also had a remarkably high receptor affinity. The ultimate trajectory of this new SARS-CoV-2 variant will soon be revealed by continuing surveillance, but its worldwide spread is worrisome.


Assuntos
Epitopos de Linfócito B , Receptores Virais , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Humanos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Mutação , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Soros Imunes/imunologia
17.
Virulence ; 14(1): 2268496, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37817444

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a major threat to public health and animal husbandry. Several in vivo vertebrate models, such as mice, guinea pigs, and nonhuman primates, have been used to study Brucella pathogenesis, bacteria-host interactions, and vaccine efficacy. However, these models have limitations whereas the invertebrate Galleria mellonella model is a cost-effective and ethical alternative. The aim of the present study was to examine the invertebrate G. mellonella as an in vivo infection model for Brucella. Infection assays were employed to validate the fitness of the larval model for Brucella infection and virulence evaluation. The protective efficacy of immune sera was evaluated by pre-incubated with a lethal dose of bacteria before infection. The consistency between the mouse model and the larval model was confirmed by assessing the protective efficacy of two Brucella vaccine strains. The results show that G. mellonella could be infected by Brucella strains, in a dose- and temperature-dependent way. Moreover, this larval model can effectively evaluate the virulence of Brucella strains in a manner consistent with that of mammalian infection models. Importantly, this model can assess the protective efficacy of vaccine immune sera within a day. Further investigation implied that haemolymph played a crucial role in the protective efficacy of immune sera. In conclusion, G. mellonella could serve as a quick, efficient, and reliable model for evaluating the virulence of Brucella strains and efficacy of immune sera in an ethical manner.


Assuntos
Brucella , Mariposas , Animais , Camundongos , Cobaias , Mariposas/microbiologia , Larva/microbiologia , Virulência , Soros Imunes , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mamíferos
18.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 89(10): e0120423, 2023 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37819079

RESUMO

Rodents are important reservoir hosts of pathogenic leptospires in the US Virgin Islands. Our previous work determined that trapped rodents were colonized with Leptospira borgpetersenii serogroup Ballum (n = 48) and/or Leptospira kirschneri serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae (n = 3). In addition, nine rodents appeared to be colonized with a mixed population comprising more than one species/serogroup. The aim of this study was to validate this finding by characterizing clonal isolates derived from cultures of mixed species. Cultures of presumptive mixed species (designated LR1, LR5, LR37, LR57, LR60, LR61, LR68, LR70, and LR72) were propagated in different media including Hornsby-Alt-Nally (HAN) media, incubated at both 29℃ and 37℃, and T80/40/LH incubated at 29℃. Polyclonal reference antisera specific for serogroup Ballum and Icterohaemorrhagiae were used to enrich for different serogroups followed by subculture on agar plates. Individual colonies were then selected for genotyping and serotyping. Of the nine cultures of mixed species/serogroups, a single clonal isolate was separated in five of them: L. borgpetersenii serogroup Ballum in LR1, LR5, and LR37, and L. kirschneri serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae in LR60 and LR72. In four of the cultures with mixed species (LR57, LR61, LR68, and LR70), clonal isolates of both L. borgpetersenii serogroup Ballum and L. kirschneri serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae were recovered. Our results definitively establish that rodents can be colonized with more than one species/serogroup of Leptospira concurrently. The identification and characterization of multiple species/serogroups of Leptospira from individual reservoir hosts of infection are essential to understand the epidemiology and transmission of disease to both human and domestic animal populations.IMPORTANCEPathogenic Leptospira, the causative agent of human and animal leptospirosis, comprise a diverse genus of species/serogroups which are inherently difficult to isolate from mammalian hosts due to fastidious growth requirements. Molecular evidence has indicated that reservoir hosts of Leptospira may shed multiple species concurrently. However, evidence of this phenomena by culture has been lacking. Culture is definitive and is essential for comprehensive characterization of recovered isolates by high-resolution genome sequencing and serotyping. In this work, a protocol using recently developed novel media formulations, in conjunction with reference antisera, was developed and validated to demonstrate the recovery of multiple species/serogroups of pathogenic Leptospira from the same host. The identification and characterization of multiple species/serogroups of Leptospira from individual reservoir hosts of infection are essential to understand the epidemiology and transmission of disease to both human and domestic animal populations.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Animais , Humanos , Sorogrupo , Roedores , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/veterinária , Animais Domésticos , Rim , Soros Imunes/genética
19.
Viruses ; 15(10)2023 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37896862

RESUMO

The antigenicity of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been evaluated using virus-neutralizing titer data analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and has demonstrated numerous isolates to be antigenically divergent from US vaccine strains. The lack of BVDV-1b strains in currently licensed vaccines has raised concerns regarding the lack of protection against BVDV-1b field strains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigenic diversity of BVDV-1b strains and better understand the breadth of antigenic relatedness using BVDV-1b antisera and antisera from vaccine strains. Results from this analysis demonstrate the antigenic diversity observed among BVDV-1b isolates and genetic assignment into the BVDV-1b subgenotype is not representative of antigenic relatedness. This is demonstrated by BVDV-1b isolates (2280N, SNc, Illc, MSU, and 2337) observed to be as antigenically dissimilar as BVDV-2a isolates when using BVDV-1b antisera. Additionally, when BVDV-1a vaccine antisera was used for comparisons, a greater percentage of BVDV-1b isolates clustered with BVDV-1a vaccine strains as part of PC1, suggesting antigenic relatedness and potentially partial protection. Collectively, data from this study would suggest that while most BVDV-1b isolates are antigenically similar, there are antigenically dissimilar BVDV-1b isolates as determined by the lack of cross-reactivity, which may contribute to the lack of protection.


Assuntos
Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 1 , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Vacinas , Animais , Bovinos , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/genética , Análise Multivariada , Soros Imunes , Diarreia , Filogenia
20.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1222267, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37675118

RESUMO

Introduction: Syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum (Tp), is resurging globally. Tp's repertoire of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) includes BamA (ß-barrel assembly machinery subunit A/TP0326), a bipartite protein consisting of a 16-stranded ß-barrel with nine extracellular loops (ECLs) and five periplasmic POTRA (polypeptide transport-associated) domains. BamA ECL4 antisera promotes internalization of Tp by rabbit peritoneal macrophages. Methods: Three overlapping BamA ECL4 peptides and a two-stage, phage display strategy, termed "Epivolve" (for epitope evolution) were employed to generate single-chain variable fragments (scFvs). Additionally, antisera generated by immunizing mice and rabbits with BamA ECL4 displayed by a Pyrococcus furiosus thioredoxin scaffold (PfTrxBamA/ECL4). MAbs and antisera reactivities were evaluated by immunoblotting and ELISA. A comparison of murine and rabbit opsonophagocytosis assays was conducted to evaluate the functional ability of the Abs (e.g., opsonization) and validate the mouse assay. Sera from Tp-infected mice (MSS) and rabbits (IRS) were evaluated for ECL4-specific Abs using PfTrxBamA/ECL4 and overlapping ECL4 peptides in immunoblotting and ELISA assays. Results: Each of the five mAbs demonstrated reactivity by immunoblotting and ELISA to nanogram amounts of PfTrxBamA/ECL4. One mAb, containing a unique amino acid sequence in both the light and heavy chains, showed activity in the murine opsonophagocytosis assay. Mice and rabbits hyperimmunized with PfTrxBamA/ECL4 produced opsonic antisera that strongly recognized the ECL presented in a heterologous scaffold and overlapping ECL4 peptides, including S2. In contrast, Abs generated during Tp infection of mice and rabbits poorly recognized the peptides, indicating that S2 contains a subdominant epitope. Discussion: Epivolve produced mAbs target subdominant opsonic epitopes in BamA ECL4, a top syphilis vaccine candidate. The murine opsonophagocytosis assay can serve as an alternative model to investigate the opsonic potential of vaccinogens. Detailed characterization of BamA ECL4-specific Abs provided a means to dissect Ab responses elicited by Tp infection.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Sífilis , Camundongos , Animais , Coelhos , Treponema pallidum , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Soros Imunes , Epitopos
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