Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 55.000
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5319, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493718

RESUMO

Modern machine learning (ML) technologies have great promise for automating diverse clinical and research workflows; however, training them requires extensive hand-labelled datasets. Disambiguating abbreviations is important for automated clinical note processing; however, broad deployment of ML for this task is restricted by the scarcity and imbalance of labeled training data. In this work we present a method that improves a model's ability to generalize through novel data augmentation techniques that utilizes information from biomedical ontologies in the form of related medical concepts, as well as global context information within the medical note. We train our model on a public dataset (MIMIC III) and test its performance on automatically generated and hand-labelled datasets from different sources (MIMIC III, CASI, i2b2). Together, these techniques boost the accuracy of abbreviation disambiguation by up to 17% on hand-labeled data, without sacrificing performance on a held-out test set from MIMIC III.


Assuntos
Mineração de Dados/métodos , Aprendizado Profundo , Terminologia como Assunto , Pesquisa Biomédica , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos
2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444655

RESUMO

In order to create a short, internationally valid scale to assess eating behaviour (EB) in young children at risk of undernutrition, we refined 15 phrases describing avidity or food refusal (avoidance). In study one, 149 parents matched phrases in English, Urdu, Cantonese, Indonesian or Greek to videos showing avidity and avoidance; 82-100% showed perfect agreement for the avidity phrases and 73-91% for the avoidant phrases. In study two, 575 parents in the UK, Cyprus and Indonesia (healthy) and in Kenya, Pakistan and Guatemala (healthy and undernourished) rated their 6-24 months old children using the same phrases. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α) was high for avidity (0.88) and moderate for avoidance (0.72). The best-performing 11 items were entered into a principal components analysis and the two scales loaded separately onto 2 factors with Eigen values > 1. The avidity score was positively associated with weight (r = 0.15 p = 0.001) and body mass index (BMI) Z scores (r = 0.16 p = 0.001). Both high and low avoidance were associated with lower weight and BMI Z scores. These scales are internationally valid, relate to nutritional status and can be used to inform causes and treatments of undernutrition worldwide.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamento do Lactente , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/etiologia , Desnutrição/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores Etários , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Compreensão , Seletividade Alimentar , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Lactente , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/psicologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Desnutrição/psicologia , Estado Nutricional , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Terminologia como Assunto , Tradução , Gravação em Vídeo , Ganho de Peso
3.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 32(5): 468-474, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397577

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the literature regarding reactivation of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) after treatment with antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents. RECENT FINDINGS: Reactivation can occur after anti-VEGF or laser. Risk factors for reactivation include patient and disease-related factors. Various studies are evaluating the use of different anti-VEGF agents and reactivation rates. However, the definition of reactivation varies between studies. SUMMARY: The literature has varied definitions of reactivation, which is often used interchangeably with recurrence. It is important to recognize features of reactivation of ROP to appropriately manage patients and conduct clinical trials. The International Classification of ROP 3rd edition has established a consensus guideline regarding terminology describing reactivation.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/induzido quimicamente , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Crescimento Endotelial/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Injeções Intravítreas/efeitos adversos , Fotocoagulação a Laser , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Recidiva , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/diagnóstico , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/tratamento farmacológico , Terminologia como Assunto
5.
IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst ; 32(9): 3786-3797, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370672

RESUMO

Medical imaging technologies, including computed tomography (CT) or chest X-Ray (CXR), are largely employed to facilitate the diagnosis of the COVID-19. Since manual report writing is usually too time-consuming, a more intelligent auxiliary medical system that could generate medical reports automatically and immediately is urgently needed. In this article, we propose to use the medical visual language BERT (Medical-VLBERT) model to identify the abnormality on the COVID-19 scans and generate the medical report automatically based on the detected lesion regions. To produce more accurate medical reports and minimize the visual-and-linguistic differences, this model adopts an alternate learning strategy with two procedures that are knowledge pretraining and transferring. To be more precise, the knowledge pretraining procedure is to memorize the knowledge from medical texts, while the transferring procedure is to utilize the acquired knowledge for professional medical sentences generations through observations of medical images. In practice, for automatic medical report generation on the COVID-19 cases, we constructed a dataset of 368 medical findings in Chinese and 1104 chest CT scans from The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, China, and The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, China. Besides, to alleviate the insufficiency of the COVID-19 training samples, our model was first trained on the large-scale Chinese CX-CHR dataset and then transferred to the COVID-19 CT dataset for further fine-tuning. The experimental results showed that Medical-VLBERT achieved state-of-the-art performances on terminology prediction and report generation with the Chinese COVID-19 CT dataset and the CX-CHR dataset. The Chinese COVID-19 CT dataset is available at https://covid19ct.github.io/.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Aprendizado de Máquina , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas , Algoritmos , Inteligência Artificial , China , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Terminologia como Assunto , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Transferência de Experiência , Redação
6.
Arch Virol ; 166(10): 2937-2942, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347169

RESUMO

The genus Gyrovirus was assigned to the family Anelloviridae in 2017 with only one recognized species, Chicken anemia virus. Over the last decade, many diverse viruses related to chicken anemia virus have been identified but not classified. Here, we provide a framework for the classification of new species in the genus Gyrovirus and communicate the establishment of nine new species. We adopted the 'Genus + freeform epithet' binomial system for the naming of these species.


Assuntos
Gyrovirus/classificação , Terminologia como Assunto , Anelloviridae/classificação , Anelloviridae/genética , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Vírus da Anemia da Galinha/classificação , Vírus da Anemia da Galinha/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genoma Viral/genética , Gyrovirus/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
Arch Virol ; 166(10): 2943-2953, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383165

RESUMO

Anelloviruses are small negative-sense single-stranded DNA viruses with genomes ranging in size from 1.6 to 3.9 kb. The family Anelloviridae comprised 14 genera before the present changes. However, in the last five years, a large number of diverse anelloviruses have been identified in various organisms. Here, we undertake a global analysis of mammalian anelloviruses whose full genome sequences have been determined and have an intact open reading frame 1 (ORF1). We established new criteria for the classification of anelloviruses, and, based on our analyses, we establish new genera and species to accommodate the unclassified anelloviruses. We also note that based on the updated species demarcation criteria, some previously assigned species (n = 10) merge with other species. Given the rate at which virus sequence data are accumulating, and with the identification of diverse anelloviruses, we acknowledge that the taxonomy will have to be dynamic and continuously evolve to accommodate new members.


Assuntos
Anelloviridae/classificação , Mamíferos/virologia , Anelloviridae/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , DNA Viral/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genoma Viral/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , Terminologia como Assunto
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342563

RESUMO

Following the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes electronic discussion and vote on proposals to resolve the status of the Cyanobacteria in the prokaryotic nomenclature, we announce here the results of the ballot. We also present the emended versions of General Consideration 5 and Rules 18a, 24a and 30, based on the outcome of the ballot, to be included in the new revision of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Filogenia , Cianobactérias/classificação , Terminologia como Assunto
11.
J Vasc Surg ; 74(2S): 125S-131S, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303452

RESUMO

The presented glossary highlights the concepts and terminology related to diversity, equity, and inclusion. Although this list should not be considered all-inclusive, it will provide our vascular surgical community with a common vocabulary to help propel change toward improved diversity, equity, and inclusion policies, practices, and culture. As these concepts and terminology find their place in our everyday lives, the Society for Vascular Surgery and its leadership believe that expanding the diversity, equity, and inclusion of vascular surgical professionals is a mission-critical step. This mission will help us improve patient experience through successfully delivering culturally sensitive care for our diverse community. Now is the time.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Homofobia/classificação , Racismo/classificação , Sexismo/classificação , Terminologia como Assunto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Equidade de Gênero , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Raciais , Fatores Sexuais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/classificação , Sociedades Médicas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares
12.
J Vasc Surg ; 74(2S): 64S-75S, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303461

RESUMO

Many of the systemic practices in medicine that have alienated lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning (LGBTQ) individuals persist today, undermining the optimal care for these patients and isolating LGBTQ medical providers from their colleagues. The 2020 Task Force on Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Report recently published by the Society for Vascular Surgery marked the first publication advocating for the inclusion of sexual orientation and sexual identity in the development of initiatives promoting and protecting diversity across vascular surgery. Vascular providers should be aware that it is crucial to cultivate an environment that is inclusive for LGBTQ patients because a large proportion of these patients have reported not self-disclosing their status to medical providers, either out of concern over potential personal repercussions or failing to recognize the potential relevance of LGBTQ status to their medical care. Safe Zone training has provided a standard resource for providers and staff that can be integrated into onboarding and routine training. Clarifying the current terminology for sexual orientation and identity will ensure that vascular providers will recognize patients who could benefit from screening for additional vascular risk factors relevant to this population related to sexual health, social behavior, physical health, and medical therapies. The adoption of gender neutral language on intake forms and general correspondence with colleagues is key to reducing the unintended exclusion of those with LGBTQ identities in both inpatient and outpatient environments. In many locales across the United States, the professional and personal repercussions for openly reporting LGBTQ status persist, complicating efforts toward quantifying, recognizing, and supporting these patients, practitioners, and trainees. Contributing to an inclusive environment for patients and peers and acting as a professional ally are congruent with the ethos in vascular surgery to treat all patients and colleagues with respect and optimize the healthcare of every vascular patient.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Equidade de Gênero , Identidade de Gênero , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Homofobia , Sexismo , Comportamento Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Cirurgiões , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Comunicação , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Médico-Paciente , Cirurgiões/educação , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Terminologia como Assunto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/educação
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1551-1557, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329581

RESUMO

Clinical validity assessments of gene-disease associations underpin analysis and reporting in diagnostic genomics, and yet wide variability exists in practice, particularly in use of these assessments for virtual gene panel design and maintenance. Harmonization efforts are hampered by the lack of agreed terminology, agreed gene curation standards, and platforms that can be used to identify and resolve discrepancies at scale. We undertook a systematic comparison of the content of 80 virtual gene panels used in two healthcare systems by multiple diagnostic providers in the United Kingdom and Australia. The process was enabled by a shared curation platform, PanelApp, and resulted in the identification and review of 2,144 discordant gene ratings, demonstrating the utility of sharing structured gene-disease validity assessments and collaborative discordance resolution in establishing national and international consensus.


Assuntos
Consenso , Curadoria de Dados/normas , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Genômica/normas , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/normas , Austrália , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Curadoria de Dados/métodos , Atenção à Saúde , Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/patologia , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Aplicativos Móveis/provisão & distribuição , Terminologia como Assunto , Reino Unido
14.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(9): 2557-2574, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244048

RESUMO

AIMS: a) To analyze the relationship of known and emerging biomarkers/indicators for early risk identification of cardiometabolic health risk; b) to identify early risk markers to be used in both clinical and nonclinical settings; and c) to propose a definition of early risk identification in terms of pre-metabolic syndrome (PreMetSyn). DATA SYNTHESIS: Pubmed/Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane were searched for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis. Selected studies were evaluated, and relevant data were extracted and synthesized. CONCLUSIONS: Serum uric acid is a good predictive biomarker of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and has been associated with non-alcoholic liver fat disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes. NAFLD emerges as an early risk indicator of PreMetSyn by itself. Muscle strength should also be included as an early risk marker of cardiometabolic health. High serum triglycerides and waist circumference confirm their predictive value regarding MetSyn. Indicators related to an inflammatory/pro-inflammatory status usually linked to MetSyn showed limited evidence as robust biomarkers for PreMetSyn. Authors suggest defining PreMetSyn related to cardiometabolic risk. It is also necessary to determine how close people are to the cut-off point of MetSyn components, including emerging indicators proposed by our review. Some biomarkers could be used as indicators of PreMetSyn, before any of the MetSyn components appear, allowing early health interventions to prevent its development. Defining a PreMetSyn status might consider both emerging indicators and those variables already included in the definition of MetSyn. New indicators should be considered to create a new risk score specifically meant for PreMetSyn.


Assuntos
Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Terminologia como Assunto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/classificação , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco
16.
Vet Microbiol ; 260: 109168, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246042

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of the, probably, most economically important disease for the pig industry worldwide. This disease, characterised by producing reproductive failure in sows and respiratory problems in growing pigs, appeared in the late 1980s in the United States and Canada. Since its appearance, strains capable of producing higher mortality rates as well as greater severity in clinical signs and lesions than classical strains have been identified. However, since the first reports of these "virulent" PRRSV outbreaks, no homogeneity and consensus in their description have been established. Moreover, to the authors' knowledge, there is no published information related to the criteria that a PRRSV strain should fulfil to be considered as a "virulent" strain. In this review, we revise the terminology used and gather the information related to the main characteristics and differences in clinical signs, lesions, viral replication and tropism as well as immunological parameters between virulent and classical PRRSV strains and propose a first approximation to the criteria to define a virulent PRRSV strain.


Assuntos
Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/patogenicidade , Animais , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/fisiologia , Suínos , Terminologia como Assunto , Tropismo Viral , Virulência , Replicação Viral
17.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1126): 20201333, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328792

RESUMO

Currently, there is much variation in the terminology used to describe groin pain in athletes. Several groups have attempted to reach consensus on nomenclature in this area. This article outlines the current status of groin pain nomenclature for the radiologist, highlighting inherent heterogeneity, recent attempts to reach a consensus, the need for a radiological consensus and why imprecise terminology should be avoided when reporting.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico por imagem , Virilha/diagnóstico por imagem , Virilha/lesões , Dor Pélvica/diagnóstico por imagem , Terminologia como Assunto , Humanos
18.
Virchows Arch ; 479(2): 233-246, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255145

RESUMO

The term "biobanking" is often misapplied to any collection of human biological materials (biospecimens) regardless of requirements related to ethical and legal issues or the standardization of different processes involved in tissue collection. A proper definition of biobanks is large collections of biospecimens linked to relevant personal and health information (health records, family history, lifestyle, genetic information) that are held predominantly for use in health and medical research. In addition, the International Organization for Standardization, in illustrating the requirements for biobanking (ISO 20387:2018), stresses the concept of biobanks being legal entities driving the process of acquisition and storage together with some or all of the activities related to collection, preparation, preservation, testing, analysing and distributing defined biological material as well as related information and data. In this review article, we aim to discuss the basic principles of biobanking, spanning from definitions to classification systems, standardization processes and documents, sustainability and ethical and legal requirements. We also deal with emerging specimens that are currently being generated and shaping the so-called next-generation biobanking, and we provide pragmatic examples of cancer-associated biobanking by discussing the process behind the construction of a biobank and the infrastructures supporting the implementation of biobanking in scientific research.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Pesquisa Biomédica , Medicina de Precisão , Manejo de Espécimes , Acreditação , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/classificação , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/ética , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/normas , Pesquisa Biomédica/classificação , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Pesquisa Biomédica/legislação & jurisprudência , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Formulação de Políticas , Medicina de Precisão/classificação , Medicina de Precisão/ética , Medicina de Precisão/normas , Manejo de Espécimes/classificação , Manejo de Espécimes/ética , Manejo de Espécimes/normas , Participação dos Interessados , Terminologia como Assunto
19.
J Glob Health ; 11: 04032, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326990

RESUMO

Background: Researchers use different definitions to identify children with asthma in epidemiological surveys. We conducted a systematic review to describe the definitions used in epidemiologic studies for wheeze and asthma in the paediatric population, aimed to inform the development of a uniform definition of paediatric asthma for future epidemiological research. Methods: We systematically searched terms to identify asthma and/or wheeze among children aged <13 years and published between 1995-2020 across seven databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Global Health, AMED, LILACS and CINAHL). PRISMA guidelines were followed for this review. Results: We extracted a total of 11 886 records, where 190 met our eligibility criteria and included in the analysis. Among the included studies, 62.1% (n = 118/190) used the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaires, predominantly in developing countries (80%, n = 64/80). 'Wheeze' was reported in five categories, subdivided by 14 different definitions. "Current wheeze", defined as caregivers report of wheezing sounds from the chest of the child in the past 12 months and "Wheeze ever", defined as caregivers' report of wheezing or whistling in the chest of the child at any previous time, were the most common wheeze category reported in 129 and 95 studies, respectively. Asthma was reported in nine categories using 53 definitions. The most common asthma category was "Asthma ever", which was reported in 89 studies, based on caregiver statement that the child had asthma in the past. Conclusion: Definitions of wheeze and asthma for children used in surveys are primarily based on parent-reported clinical features. Studies from developing countries more frequently used the ISAAC definitions to report childhood asthma and wheeze compared to the studies from developed counties. The use of a uniform asthma definition will aid the interpretation of research findings globally.


Assuntos
Asma , Terminologia como Assunto , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Arch Virol ; 166(10): 2911-2926, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331585

RESUMO

The family Genomoviridae (phylum Cressdnaviricota, class Repensiviricetes, order Geplafuvirales) includes viruses with circular single-stranded DNA genomes encoding two proteins, the capsid protein and the rolling-circle replication initiation protein. The genomes of the vast majority of members in this family have been sequenced directly from diverse environmental or animal- and plant-associated samples, but two genomoviruses have been identified infecting fungi. Since the last taxonomic update of the Genomoviridae, a number of new members of this family have been sequenced. Here, we report on the most recent taxonomic update, including the creation of one new genus, Gemytripvirus, and classification of ~420 new genomoviruses into 164 new species. We also announce the adoption of the "Genus + freeform epithet" binomial system for the naming of all 236 officially recognized species in the family Genomoviridae. The updated taxonomy presented in this article has been accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).


Assuntos
Vírus de DNA/classificação , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Vírus de DNA/genética , Vírus de DNA/fisiologia , DNA Circular , DNA de Cadeia Simples , Genoma Viral/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Filogenia , Terminologia como Assunto , Proteínas Virais/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA