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1.
J Med Toxicol ; 17(4): 333-362, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535889

RESUMO

The Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC) Registry was established by the American College of Medical Toxicology in 2010. The registry collects data from participating sites with the agreement that all bedside and telehealth medical toxicology consultation will be entered. This eleventh annual report summarizes the Registry's 2020 data and activity with its additional 6668 cases. Cases were identified for inclusion in this report by a query of the ToxIC database for any case entered from January 1 to December 31, 2020. Detailed data was collected from these cases and aggregated to provide information which included demographics, reason for medical toxicology evaluation, agent and agent class, clinical signs and symptoms, treatments and antidotes administered, mortality, and whether life support was withdrawn. Gender distribution included 50.6% cases in females, 48.4% in males, and 1.0% identifying as transgender. Non-opioid analgesics were the most commonly reported agent class, followed by opioid and antidepressant classes. Acetaminophen was once again the most common agent reported. There were 80 fatalities, comprising 1.2% of all registry cases. Major trends in demographics and exposure characteristics remained similar to past years' reports. Sub-analyses were conducted to describe race and ethnicity demographics and exposures in the registry, telemedicine encounters, and cases related to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Congressos como Assunto , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Envenenamento/diagnóstico , Envenenamento/terapia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Relatório de Pesquisa , Toxicologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19 , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tailândia , Estados Unidos
2.
J Chromatogr A ; 1654: 462450, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399142

RESUMO

An Electrokinetic Chromatography method was developed for the stereoselective analysis of sulfoxaflor, a novel sulfoximine agrochemical with two chiral centers. A screening with fourteen negatively charged CDs was performed and Succinyl-ß-CD (Succ-ß-CD) was selected. A 15 mM concentration of this CD in a 100 mM borate buffer (pH 9.0), using an applied voltage of 20 kV and a temperature of 15 °C made possible the baseline separation of the four stereoisomers of sulfoxaflor in 13.8 min. The evaluation of the linearity, accuracy, precision, LODs and LOQs of the method developed showed its performance to be applied to the analysis of commercial agrochemical formulations, the evaluation of the stability of sulfoxaflor stereoisomers under biotic and abiotic conditions, and to predict, for the first time, sulfoxaflor toxicity (using real concentrations instead of nominal concentrations), on two non-target aquatic organisms, the freshwater plant, Spirodela polyrhiza, and the marine bacterium, Vibrio fischeri.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Capilar Eletrocinética Micelar , Piridinas , Compostos de Enxofre , Aliivibrio fischeri/efeitos dos fármacos , Araceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Piridinas/isolamento & purificação , Piridinas/toxicidade , Estereoisomerismo , Compostos de Enxofre/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Enxofre/toxicidade , Toxicologia
3.
J Anal Toxicol ; 45(8): 757, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296274
4.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207930

RESUMO

Jacek Namiesnik, who died at the age of 69, was one of the most influential analytical chemists in Poland at the second half of the 20th century and the first two decades of the 21st century [...].


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Pesquisadores/história , Toxicologia/métodos , Vinho/análise , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Polônia
5.
San Salvador; MINSAL; jul. 13, 2021. 14 p. ilus, graf.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1283710

RESUMO

El presente manual tiene como Objetivo establecer las directrices que permitan la toma de decisiones oportunas para la respuesta a brotes de intoxicaciones y/o desastres químicos, además de comunicar la información para lograr una acción de prevención y control más efectiva en los diferentes niveles del Sistema Nacional Integrado de Salud


The objective of this manual is to establish the guidelines that allow timely decision-making to respond to outbreaks of poisoning and / or chemical disasters, in addition to communicating the information to achieve a more effective prevention and control action at the different levels of the System. National Integrated Health


Assuntos
Toxicologia , Saúde , Tomada de Decisões , Desastres , Informação
6.
Crit Rev Toxicol ; 51(3): 264-282, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038674

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA that regulate the expression of messenger RNA and are implicated in almost all cellular processes. Importantly, miRNAs can be released extracellularly and are stable in these matrices where they may serve as indicators of organ or cell-specific toxicity, disease, and biological status. There has thus been great enthusiasm for developing miRNAs as biomarkers of adverse outcomes for scientific, regulatory, and clinical purposes. Despite advances in measurement capabilities for miRNAs, miRNAs are still not routinely employed as noninvasive biomarkers. This is in part due to the lack of standard approaches for sample preparation and miRNA measurement and uncertainty in their biological interpretation. Members of the microRNA Biomarkers Workgroup within the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's (HESI) Committee on Emerging Systems Toxicology for the Assessment of Risk (eSTAR) are a consortium of private- and public-sector scientists dedicated to developing miRNAs as applied biomarkers. Here, we explore major impediments to routine acceptance and use of miRNA biomarkers and case examples of successes and deficiencies in development. Finally, we provide insight on miRNA measurement, collection, and analysis tools to provide solid footing for addressing knowledge gaps toward routine biomarker use.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , MicroRNAs , Toxicologia , Humanos
7.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(2): 450-453, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856338

RESUMO

Poisoning and envenomation are a global health problem for which the mortality burden is shouldered heavily by middle- and low-income countries that often lack poison prevention programs and medical toxicology expertise. Although telehealth or teleconsult services have been used to bridge the expertise gap between countries for multiple specialties, the use of medical toxicology teleconsult services across borders has been limited. We aim to describe the use of a United States-based medical toxicology teleconsult service to support patient care at a hospital in a middle-income country that lacks this expertise. This report outlines the logistics involved in setting up such a service, including the challenges and opportunities that emerged from establishing medical toxicology teleconsult service in a low-resource setting.


Assuntos
Envenenamento , Consulta Remota , Toxicologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Prova Pericial/métodos , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Líbano/epidemiologia , Envenenamento/diagnóstico , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Envenenamento/terapia , Consulta Remota/métodos , Consulta Remota/organização & administração , Toxicologia/métodos , Toxicologia/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
8.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(5): e11177, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825779

RESUMO

Women have always played an important role in the development of toxicology all over the world. Specifically in Brazil, toxicology has had greater female representation than other countries, but women's participation at high hierarchical levels is low. Although more than 62% of the members of the Brazilian Society of Toxicology are women, only 7 out of the 22 presidents have been women throughout its 48 years of existence. This article aims to celebrate women in the field of toxicology in Brazil, based on interviews with five of these scientists who have changed the field of toxicology in Brazil as we know it today, each in their specific sub-areas. These women are: Dr. Ester de Camargo Fonseca Moraes, Dr. Silvia Berlanga de Moraes Barros, Dr. Alice Aparecida da Matta Chasin, Dr. Gisela de Aragão Umbuzeiro, and Dr. Tania Marcourakis. They are not only pioneers but they are also examples of admirable persistence in fighting the adversities presented to them. They broke the glass ceiling and opened doors for future generations of women in science. We hope that this article helps inspire women in their careers in toxicology.


Assuntos
Toxicologia , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Toxicologia/tendências
9.
J Toxicol Sci ; 46(2): 83-90, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536392

RESUMO

Epigenetic toxicity, a phenomenon in which chemicals exert epigenetic effects and produce toxicity, has been attracting attention in recent years due to advances in toxicology accompanying the development of life sciences. However, it has been difficult to identify epigenetic toxicants due to the lack of a simple experimental system to evaluate epigenetic toxicity. In this study, we developed a prototype of an in vitro reporter assay system for assessing the effects of chemicals on DNA methylation using two promoters showing different degrees of DNA methylation, Agouti IAP and Daz1 promoters, and a luciferase reporter. The system successfully detected DNA demethylating activity using 5-azacytidine, a chemical having DNA demethylation activity, as a positive control chemical, and demethylation of cytosine of CpG in the promoter was confirmed by pyrosequencing analysis. Next, in order to improve the detection sensitivity of the DNA demethylating activity of this system, we tried to increase the basal level of methylation of the Daz1 promoter by pre-methylase treatment of the reporter vectors. As a result, the detection sensitivity of the system was successfully improved in cells where the basal level of methylation was indeed increased by methylase treatment. Thus, the developed assay system here is effective for the simple evaluation of chemicals that affect DNA methylation.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Toxicologia/métodos , Azacitidina/toxicidade , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Metilases de Modificação do DNA , Luciferases/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Toxicol Sci ; 180(2): 198-211, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555348

RESUMO

FutureTox IV, a Society of Toxicology Contemporary Concepts in Toxicology workshop, was held in November 2018. Building upon FutureTox I, II, and III, this conference focused on the latest science and technology for in vitro profiling and in silico modeling as it relates to predictive developmental and reproductive toxicity (DART). Publicly available high-throughput screening data sets are now available for broad in vitro profiling of bioactivities across large inventories of chemicals. Coupling this vast amount of mechanistic data with a deeper understanding of molecular embryology and post-natal development lays the groundwork for using new approach methodologies (NAMs) to evaluate chemical toxicity, drug efficacy, and safety assessment for embryo-fetal development. NAM is a term recently adopted in reference to any technology, methodology, approach, or combination thereof that can be used to provide information on chemical hazard and risk assessment to avoid the use of intact animals (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], Strategic plan to promote the development and implementation of alternative test methods within the tsca program, 2018, https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2018-06/documents/epa_alt_strat_plan_6-20-18_clean_final.pdf). There are challenges to implementing NAMs to evaluate chemicals for developmental toxicity compared with adult toxicity. This forum article reviews the 2018 workshop activities, highlighting challenges and opportunities for applying NAMs for adverse pregnancy outcomes (eg, preterm labor, malformations, low birth weight) as well as disorders manifesting postnatally (eg, neurodevelopmental impairment, breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, fertility). DART is an important concern for different regulatory statutes and test guidelines. Leveraging advancements in such approaches and the accompanying efficiencies to detecting potential hazards to human development are the unifying concepts toward implementing NAMs in DART testing. Although use of NAMs for higher level regulatory decision making is still on the horizon, the conference highlighted novel testing platforms and computational models that cover multiple levels of biological organization, with the unique temporal dynamics of embryonic development, and novel approaches for estimating toxicokinetic parameters essential in supporting in vitro to in vivo extrapolation.


Assuntos
Testes de Toxicidade , Toxicologia , Animais , Criança , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
11.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 17(8): 887-902, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612039

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes is one of the most widely used cell-based models that resulted from the discovery of how non-embryonic stem cells can be differentiated into multiple cell types. In just one decade, iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes went from a research lab to widespread use in biomedical research and preclinical safety evaluation for drugs and other chemicals. AREAS COVERED: This manuscript reviews data on toxicology applications of human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. We detail the outcome of a systematic literature search on their use (i) in hazard assessment for cardiotoxicity liabilities, (ii) for risk characterization, (iii) as models for population variability, and (iv) in studies of personalized medicine and disease. EXPERT OPINION: iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes are useful to increase the accuracy, precision, and efficiency of cardiotoxicity hazard identification for both drugs and non-pharmaceuticals, with recent efforts beginning to demonstrate their utility for risk characterization. Notable limitations include the needs to improve the maturation of cells in culture, to better understand their potential use identifying structural cardiotoxicity, and for additional case studies involving population-wide and disease-specific risk characterization. Ultimately, the greatest future benefits are likely for non-pharmaceutical chemicals, filling a critical gap where no routine testing for cardiotoxicity is currently performed.


Assuntos
Cardiotoxicidade/diagnóstico , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Toxicologia/métodos
12.
Analyst ; 146(6): 1820-1834, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605958

RESUMO

Innovative methodological approaches are needed to conduct human health and environmental risk assessments on a growing number of marketed chemicals. Metabolomics is progressively proving its value as an efficient strategy to perform toxicological evaluations of new and existing substances, and it will likely become a key tool to accelerate chemical risk assessments. However, additional guidance with widely accepted and harmonized procedures is needed before metabolomics can be routinely incorporated in decision-making for regulatory purposes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of metabolomic strategies that have been successfully employed in toxicity assessment as well as the most promising workflows in a regulatory context. First, we provide a general view of the different steps of regulatory toxicology-oriented metabolomics. Emphasis is put on three key elements: robustness of experimental design, choice of analytical platform, and use of adapted data treatment tools. Then, examples in which metabolomics supported regulatory toxicology outputs in different scenarios are reviewed, including chemical grouping, elucidation of mechanisms of toxicity, and determination of points of departure. The overall intention is to provide insights into why and how to plan and conduct metabolomic studies for regulatory toxicology purposes.


Assuntos
Metabolômica , Toxicologia , Humanos , Medição de Risco
13.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 13: 1-7, 5/02/2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1284450

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los envenenamientos producidos por escorpiones son un problema de salud pública en constante aumento en Argentina y el mundo. Por diversas causas, los ensambles de animales venenosos de una región varían en el tiempo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue presentar la información reciente y actualizar el elenco de escorpiones de la provincia de Misiones. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo observacional a partir de la revisión de los ejemplares depositados en la Colección de Herpetología y Arácnidos del Instituto Nacional de Medicina Tropical. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvieron los primeros registros para la provincia de Tityus confluens, mientras que nuevos registros de accidentes con Tityus trivittatus ampliaron la zona de presencia de la especie en la provincia. El ensamble de escorpiones de Misiones reúne a las cuatro especies de interés médico del país. DISCUSIÓN: La detección del elenco de escorpiones de interés médico más importante del país fue consecuencia del trabajo conjunto entre los especialistas de los distintos grupos de animales ponzoñosos y los profesionales de la salud. Es importante generar y profundizar los espacios de interacción de saberes, con el objetivo de mejorar la Vigilancia de la Salud


Assuntos
Escorpiões , Toxicologia , Medicina de Viagem , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Ecoepidemiologia
14.
Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol ; 61: 1-7, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411582

RESUMO

The theme of Volume 61 is "Old and New Toxicology: Interfaces with Pharmacology." Old toxicology is exemplified by the authors of the autobiographical articles: B.M. Olivera's work on toxins and venoms from cone snails and P. Taylor's studies of acetylcholinesterase and the nicotinic cholinergic receptor, which serve as sites of action for numerous pesticides and venoms. Other articles in this volume focus on new understanding and new types of toxicology, including (a) arsenic toxicity, which is an ancient poison that, through evolution, has caused most multicellular organisms to express an active arsenic methyltransferase to methylate arsenite, which accelerates the excretion of arsenic from the body; (b) small molecules that react with lipid dicarbonyls, which are now considered the most toxic oxidative stress end products; (c) immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), which have revolutionized cancer therapy but have numerous immune-related adverse events, including cardiovascular complications; (d) autoimmunity caused by the environment; (e) idiosyncratic drug-induced liver disease, which together with the toxicity of ICIs represents new toxicology interfacing with pharmacology; and (f) sex differences in the development of cardiovascular disease, with men more susceptible than women to vascular inflammation that initiates and perpetuates disease. These articles and others in Volume 61 reflect the interface and close integration of pharmacology and toxicology that began long ago but continues today.


Assuntos
Farmacologia , Toxicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 121: 104871, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485925

RESUMO

It is tempting to base (eco-)toxicological assay evaluation solely on statistical significance tests. The approach is stringent, objective and facilitates binary decisions. However, tests according to null hypothesis statistical testing (NHST) are thought experiments that rely heavily on assumptions. The generic and unreflected application of statistical tests has been called "mindless" by Gigerenzer. While statistical tests have an appropriate application domain, the present work investigates how unreflected testing may affect toxicological assessments. Dunnett multiple-comparison and Williams trend testing and their compatibility intervals are compared with dose-response-modelling in case studies, where data do not follow textbook behavior, nor behave as expected from a toxicological point of view. In such cases, toxicological assessments based only on p-values may be biased and biological evaluations based on plausibility may be prioritized. If confidence in a negative assay outcome cannot be established, further data may be needed for a robust toxicological assessment.


Assuntos
Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Toxicologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Modelos Biológicos , Testes de Toxicidade/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(4): 1419-1427, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perilla seed oil (PSO) is the main constituent of perilla seeds currently being used in the food industry, however it also has great clinical potential in the regulation of lung function as a nutrition supplement because of the high content of α-linolenic acid (ALA). In this study, the pharmacological activities including anti-tussive, expectorant and anti-inflammatory effect of PSO were performed. Furthermore, the 90-day sub-chronic oral toxicity with a 30 day recovery period was evaluated in Wistar rats. RESULTS: The pharmacological studies demonstrated that PSO inhibited cough frequency induced by capsaicine in mice. PSO also inhibited the leukotriene B4 (LTB4) release from the calcium ionophore A23187-induced polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) to some extent. In this sub-chronic toxicity study, mortality, clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, hematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, organ weight, necropsy, and histopathology were used to evaluate the toxicity of PSO. Lower body weight and various negative impacts on liver related parameters without histopathological lesion were observed in the 16 g kg-1 groups. No clinically significant changes were discovered in the 4 g kg-1 group during the test period. CONCLUSION: In summary, PSO exhibited anti-tussive and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo and in vitro. These sub-chronic toxicity studies inferred that the 'no-observed adverse effect level' (NOAEL) of PSO in Wistar rats was determined to be 4 g kg-1 . These results may provide a safety profile and a valuable reference for the use of PSO. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Tosse/imunologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Toxicologia , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/efeitos adversos
19.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 120: 104855, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359265

RESUMO

A group of triazole compounds was selected to investigate the confidence that may be associated with read-across of a complex data gap: repeated dose toxicity. The read-across was evaluated using Assessment Elements (AEs) from the European Chemicals Agency's (ECHA's) Read-Across Assessment Framework (RAAF), alongside appraisal of associated uncertainties. Following an initial read-across based on chemical structure and properties, uncertainties were reduced by the integration of data streams such as those from New Approach Methodologies (NAM) and other existing data. In addition, addressing the findings of the ECHA RAAF framework, complemented with specific questions concerning uncertainties, increased the confidence that can be placed in read-across. Although a data rich group of compounds with a strong mechanistic basis was analysed, it was clearly demonstrated that NAM data available from publicly available resources could be applied to support read-across. It is acknowledged that most read-across studies will not be so data rich or mechanistically robust, therefore some targeted experimentation may be required to fill the data gaps. In this sense, NAMs should constitute new experimental tests performed with the specific goal of reducing the uncertainties and demonstrating the read-across hypothesis.


Assuntos
Segurança Química/normas , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica/normas , Toxicologia/normas , Triazóis/toxicidade , Incerteza , Animais , Segurança Química/métodos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Substâncias Perigosas/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica/métodos , Toxicologia/métodos , Triazóis/administração & dosagem
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