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Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack against Pathogenic Oral Bacteria.

Azizan, Nuramirah; Mohd Said, Shahida; Zainal Abidin, Zamirah; Jantan, Ibrahim.
Molecules; 22(12)2017 Dec 05.
Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29206142
In this study, the essential oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against invasive oral pathogens, namely Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Chemical composition of the oils was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity of the oils and their major constituents were investigated using the broth microdilution method (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC)). Susceptibility test, anti-adhesion, anti-biofilm, checkerboard and time-kill assays were also carried out. Physiological changes of the bacterial cells after exposure to the oils were observed under the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). O. stamineus and F. deltoidea oils mainly consisted of sesquiterpenoids (44.6% and 60.9%, respectively), and ß-caryophyllene was the most abundant compound in both oils (26.3% and 36.3%, respectively). Other compounds present in O. stamineus were α-humulene (5.1%) and eugenol (8.1%), while α-humulene (5.5%) and germacrene D (7.7%) were dominant in F. deltoidea. The oils of both plants showed moderate to strong inhibition against all tested bacteria with MIC and MBC values ranging 0.63-2.5 mg/mL. However, none showed any inhibition on monospecies biofilms. The time-kill assay showed that combination of both oils with amoxicillin at concentrations of 1× and 2× MIC values demonstrated additive antibacterial effect. The FESEM study showed that both oils produced significant alterations on the cells of Gram-negative bacteria as they became pleomorphic and lysed. In conclusion, the study indicated that the oils of O. stamineus and F. deltoidea possessed moderate to strong antibacterial properties against the seven strains pathogenic oral bacteria and may have caused disturbances of membrane structure or cell wall of the bacteria.

Assuntos

Antibacterianos/farmacologia Ficus/química Boca/microbiologia Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia Orthosiphon/química Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/efeitos dos fármacos Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/crescimento & desenvolvimento Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/isolamento & purificação Amoxicilina/farmacologia Antibacterianos/química Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento Sinergismo Farmacológico Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos Enterococcus faecalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação Fusobacterium nucleatum/efeitos dos fármacos Fusobacterium nucleatum/crescimento & desenvolvimento Fusobacterium nucleatum/isolamento & purificação Humanos Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana Boca/patologia Óleos Voláteis/química Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos Porphyromonas gingivalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação Sesquiterpenos/química Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação Streptococcus mitis/efeitos dos fármacos Streptococcus mitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento Streptococcus mitis/isolamento & purificação Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos Streptococcus mutans/crescimento & desenvolvimento Streptococcus mutans/isolamento & purificação Streptococcus salivarius/efeitos dos fármacos Streptococcus salivarius/crescimento & desenvolvimento Streptococcus salivarius/isolamento & purificação