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A Toll-Like Receptor 5 Agonist Improves the Efficacy of Antibiotics in Treatment of Primary and Influenza Virus-Associated Pneumococcal Mouse Infections.

Porte, Rémi; Fougeron, Delphine; Muñoz-Wolf, Natalia; Tabareau, Julien; Georgel, Anne-France; Wallet, Fréderic; Paget, Christophe; Trottein, François; Chabalgoity, José A; Carnoy, Christophe; Sirard, Jean-Claude.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 59(10): 6064-72, 2015 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26195519
Prophylactic intranasal administration of the Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) agonist flagellin protects mice against respiratory pathogenic bacteria. We hypothesized that TLR5-mediated stimulation of lung immunity might improve the therapeutic index of antibiotics for the treatment of Streptococcus pneumoniae respiratory infections in mice. Intranasal administration of flagellin was combined with either oral administration of amoxicillin or intraperitoneal injection of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to treat S. pneumoniae-infected animals. Compared with standalone treatments, the combination of antibiotic and flagellin resulted in a lower bacterial load in the lungs and greater protection against S. pneumoniae dissemination and was associated with an early increase in neutrophil infiltration in the airways. The antibiotic-flagellin combination treatment was, however, not associated with any exacerbation of inflammation. Moreover, combination treatment was more efficacious than standalone antibiotic treatments in the context of post-influenza virus pneumococcal infection. Lastly, TLR5 signaling was shown to be mandatory for the efficacy of the combined antibacterial therapy. This report is the first to show that combining antibiotic treatment with the stimulation of mucosal innate immunity is a potent antibacterial strategy against pneumonia.