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1.
BMC Pediatr ; 23(1): 32, 2023 01 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670411

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Few studies have estimated the real prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) in Spain and worldwide. However, there are disparate prevalence figures. We consider research in this field essential to improve early detection, secondary prevention, and health planning. METHODS: The Minikid ADHD and TICS-Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (Children's version, AQ- Child) and a protocol of general medical questions were administered for screening purposes. The PROLEXIA battery for children aged from 4 to 6 years was used for direct assessments. Parents provided information on emotional, medical, and school aspects. The final population evaluated using these tools consisted of 291 6-year-old subjects. RESULTS: The overall risk of presenting with a neurodevelopmental disorder was 55.4%. A 23.4% risk of presenting with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in any modality (inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive and combined), a 2.8% risk of developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a 30.6% risk of presenting with a learning disorder with reading difficulties, a 5.5% risk of tics and a 22.5% risk of language problems (incomprehensible language or minor language problems) were detected in the sample. The most common combination of disorders was learning and language difficulties, accounting for 6.9% of the sample. The second most frequent combination was the presence of learning and language difficulties and ADHD, accounting for 4.5% of the sample. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of risks detected in our sample seems to be consistent with national and international studies. A significant proportion of our sample had never been previously diagnosed (85%), so early detection programs are recommended.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Trastornos del Neurodesarrollo , Tics , Adolescente , Humanos , Niño , Preescolar , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/epidemiología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Prevalencia , España/epidemiología , Tics/complicaciones , Tics/epidemiología , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/diagnóstico , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/terapia , Trastornos del Neurodesarrollo/diagnóstico , Trastornos del Neurodesarrollo/epidemiología , Trastornos del Neurodesarrollo/prevención & control , Comorbilidad , Derivación y Consulta , Atención Primaria de Salud
2.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr ; 51(1): 10-20, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36912390

RESUMEN

In recent years, an increase in the prevalence of suici- dal behaviour and completed suicides among children and young people have been observed. Considering adolescence as a sensitive point where actions to promote emotional we- llbeing can be implemented, we consider relevant the analy- sis of suicidal behaviour in this population.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Autodestructiva , Suicidio , Niño , Humanos , Adolescente , Ideación Suicida , Conducta Autodestructiva/epidemiología , Emociones , Prevalencia
3.
Dev Biol ; 458(2): 200-214, 2020 02 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738910

RESUMEN

Much of boundary formation during development remains to be understood, despite being a defining feature of many animal taxa. Axial patterning of Hydra, a member of the ancient phylum Cnidaria which diverged prior to the bilaterian radiation, involves a steady-state of production and loss of tissue, and is dependent on an organizer located in the upper part of the head. We show that the sharp boundary separating tissue in the body column from head and foot tissue depends on histone acetylation. Histone deacetylation disrupts the boundary by affecting numerous developmental genes including Wnt components and prevents stem cells from entering the position dependent differentiation program. Overall, our results suggest that reversible histone acetylation is an ancient regulatory mechanism for partitioning the body axis into domains with specific identity, which was present in the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians, at least 600 million years ago.


Asunto(s)
Tipificación del Cuerpo/fisiología , Hydra/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hydra/metabolismo , Acetilación , Animales , Diferenciación Celular , Cnidarios/metabolismo , Cabeza/crecimiento & desarrollo , Histonas/genética , Hydra/genética , Regeneración , Transducción de Señal , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(11): e25466, 2021 11 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842533

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cognitive stimulation therapy appears to show promising results in the rehabilitation of impaired cognitive processes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. OBJECTIVE: Encouraged by this evidence and the ever-increasing use of technology and artificial intelligence for therapeutic purposes, we examined whether cognitive stimulation therapy implemented on a mobile device and controlled by an artificial intelligence engine can be effective in the neurocognitive rehabilitation of these patients. METHODS: In this randomized study, 29 child participants (25 males) underwent training with a smart, digital, cognitive stimulation program (KAD_SCL_01) or with 3 commercial video games for 12 weeks, 3 days a week, 15 minutes a day. Participants completed a neuropsychological assessment and a preintervention and postintervention magnetoencephalography study in a resting state with their eyes closed. In addition, information on clinical symptoms was collected from the child´s legal guardians. RESULTS: In line with our main hypothesis, we found evidence that smart, digital, cognitive treatment results in improvements in inhibitory control performance. Improvements were also found in visuospatial working memory performance and in the cognitive flexibility, working memory, and behavior and general executive functioning behavioral clinical indexes in this group of participants. Finally, the improvements found in inhibitory control were related to increases in alpha-band power in all participants in the posterior regions, including 2 default mode network regions of the interest: the bilateral precuneus and the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex. However, only the participants who underwent cognitive stimulation intervention (KAD_SCL_01) showed a significant increase in this relationship. CONCLUSIONS: The results seem to indicate that smart, digital treatment can be effective in the inhibitory control and visuospatial working memory rehabilitation in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Furthermore, the relation of the inhibitory control with alpha-band power changes could mean that these changes are a product of plasticity mechanisms or changes in the neuromodulatory dynamics. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN71041318; https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN71041318.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Inteligencia Artificial , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/terapia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Niño , Cognición , Función Ejecutiva , Humanos , Masculino
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e24336, 2021 10 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698653

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antiobesity drugs are prescribed for the treatment of obesity in conjunction with healthy eating, physical activity, and behavior modification. However, poor adherence rates have been reported. Attitudes or beliefs toward medications are important to ascertain because they may be associated with patient behavior. The analysis of tweets has become a tool for health research. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the content and key metrics of tweets referring to antiobesity drugs. METHODS: In this observational quantitative and qualitative study, we focused on tweets containing hashtags related to antiobesity drugs between September 20, 2019, and October 31, 2019. Tweets were first classified according to whether they described medical issues or not. Tweets with medical content were classified according to the topic they referred to: side effects, efficacy, or adherence. We additionally rated it as positive or negative. Furthermore, we classified any links included within a tweet as either scientific or nonscientific. Finally, the number of retweets generated as well as the dissemination and sentiment score obtained by the antiobesity drugs analyzed were also measured. RESULTS: We analyzed a total of 2045 tweets, 945 of which were excluded according to the criteria of the study. Finally, 320 out of the 1,100 remaining tweets were also excluded because their content, although related to drugs for obesity treatment, did not address the efficacy, side effects, or adherence to medication. Liraglutide and semaglutide accumulated the majority of tweets (682/780, 87.4%). Notably, the content that generated the highest frequency of tweets was related to treatment efficacy, with liraglutide-, semaglutide-, and lorcaserin-related tweets accumulating the highest proportion of positive consideration. We found the highest percentages of tweets with scientific links in those posts related to liraglutide and semaglutide. Semaglutide-related tweets obtained the highest probability of likes and were the most disseminated within the Twitter community. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis of posted tweets related to antiobesity drugs shows that the interest, beliefs, and experiences regarding these pharmacological treatments are heterogeneous. The efficacy of the treatment accounts for the majority of interest among Twitter users.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Antiobesidad , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Fármacos Antiobesidad/efectos adversos , Actitud , Humanos
6.
Am J Ther ; 27(4): e346-e355, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082829

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Regarding the treatment of patients with resistant schizophrenia, different options exit, although they are supported by limited evidence. In this study, antipsychotic polypharmacy, comprising 1200 mg of amisulpride and 600 mg of quetiapine, was used. Clinical change evaluation was performed using neurocognitive evaluations. STUDY QUESTION: The use of amisulpride and quetiapine will imply a clinical improvement in patients affected by schizophrenia, which will be specially reflected in a cognitive improvement. STUDY DESIGN: Naturalistic and prospective study. Twenty-six patients were applied and assessed by a battery of neurocognitive evaluations since the pretreatment baseline until 6-month treatment. The patients had no biological response to medication, high social maladjustment, and a long clinical history of the disease. Kane and Brenner criteria for treatment-resistant schizophrenia were applied to choose the subjects. MEASURES AND OUTCOMES: The cognitive improvement will imply a significant betterment, from the pretreatment baseline until 6-month treatment, in the following cognitive tests: Stroop Test, WAIS Coding Subtest, and Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT). An improvement in the Calgary Depression Scale, Simpson-Angus Scale, and Visual Analogue Scale (EVA) will also be observed. This scales were been used during the baseline, 3 months after, and then, 6 months. RESULTS: Subjects, after 6-month treatment with amisulpride and quetiapine, did show statistically significant differences in the assessed areas: WAIS Coding Subtest (P < 0.001), CTMT A and B (CTMT A P < 0.034; CTMT B P < 0.000), and Stroop Tests: Word (P < 0.001), Word-Color (P < 0.007), and Interference (P < 0.039). Furthermore, they showed a statistically significant difference in the Calgary Depression Scale (P < 0.002), Simpson-Angus Scale (P < 0.019), and EVA (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this report show a cognitive and clinical improvement in refractory patients after the administration of amisulpride and quetiapine.


Asunto(s)
Amisulprida/uso terapéutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapéutico , Fumarato de Quetiapina/uso terapéutico , Esquizofrenia/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Amisulprida/administración & dosificación , Antipsicóticos/administración & dosificación , Cognición/efectos de los fármacos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Fumarato de Quetiapina/administración & dosificación , Factores Socioeconómicos
7.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr ; 47(1): 16-22, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724327

RESUMEN

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder1 and consists in a persistent pattern of inattention and / or hyperactivity - impulsivity that interferes with the functioning or development of the person who suffers from it. Because it is a disorder that is present since childhood, the treatment of these patients should be multimodal, and it should include doctors, therapists, teachers and parents2. The choice of a pharmacological treatment adjusted to the specific needs of the patient optimizes the results of the intervention programs. In 1997, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) started the study of multimodal treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (MTA), and this constitutes a landmark in the history of treatment research in child psychopathology. MTA is the largest study of its kind ever undertaken. In the present article we intend to review the existing clinical evidence about the results of the MTA from the nineties to the current date.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/terapia , Niño , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Resultado del Tratamiento
8.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 20(11): 100, 2018 09 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30221318

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extensive research has been conducted on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults; however, less is known about ADHD during the transition from childhood to adulthood. Transitional aged youth (TAY) with ADHD represents a particularly vulnerable population as their newfound independence and responsibility often coincides with the development of comorbid disorders. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of TAY-ADHD. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies discovering ADHD symptoms emerging in TAY call the classification of ADHD as a disorder necessarily developing in childhood into question. TAY-ADHD are also shown to be vulnerable to academic and social impairments, increased risky behavior, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Due to the risk of stimulant diversion in TAY, providers are advised to take precaution when prescribing medication to this population. Recent studies demonstrating the efficacy of psychotherapy in conjunction with non-stimulant or extended release stimulant medication provide a feasible alternative. This review highlights research on the course and evaluation of ADHD, impairments and comorbidities specific to TAY, and treatments tailored to address the unique challenges associated with TAY-ADHD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/diagnóstico , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/terapia , Adolescente , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/psicología , Estimulantes del Sistema Nervioso Central/administración & dosificación , Comorbilidad , Humanos , Psicoterapia , Adulto Joven
9.
BMC Psychiatry ; 18(1): 40, 2018 02 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422022

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental condition in childhood (5.3% to 7.1% worldwide prevalence), with substantial overall financial burden to children/adolescents, their families, and society. The aims of this study were to describe the clinical characteristics of children and adolescents with ADHD in Spain, estimate the associated direct/indirect costs of the disorder, and assess whether the characteristics and financial costs differed between children/adolescents adequately responding to currently available pharmacotherapies compared with children/adolescents for whom pharmacotherapies failed. METHODS: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional, descriptive analysis conducted in 15 health units representative of the overall Spanish population. Data on demographic characteristics, socio-occupational status, social relationships, clinical variables of the disease, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments received were collected in 321 children and adolescents with ADHD. Direct and indirect costs were estimated over one year from both a health care system and a societal perspective. RESULTS: The estimated average cost of ADHD per year per child/adolescent was €5733 in 2012 prices; direct costs accounted for 60.2% of the total costs (€3450). Support from a psychologist/educational psychologist represented 45.2% of direct costs and 27.2% of total costs. Pharmacotherapy accounted for 25.8% of direct costs and 15.5% of total costs. Among indirect costs (€2283), 65.2% was due to caregiver expenses. The total annual costs were significantly higher for children/adolescents who responded poorly to pharmacological treatment (€7654 versus €5517; P = 0.024), the difference being mainly due to significantly higher direct costs, particularly with larger expenses for non-pharmacological treatment (P = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: ADHD has a significant personal, familial, and financial impact on the Spanish health system and society. Successful pharmacological intervention was associated with lower overall expenses in the management of the disorder.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/economía , Costo de Enfermedad , Costos de la Atención en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Cuidadores/economía , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Demografía , Empleo/economía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , España/epidemiología
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 20(5): e205, 2018 05 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29807880

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The contents of traditional communication media and new internet social media reflect the interests of society. However, certain barriers and a lack of attention towards mental disorders have been previously observed. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to measure the relevance of influential American mainstream media outlets for the distribution of psychiatric information and the interest generated in these topics among their Twitter followers. METHODS: We investigated tweets generated about mental health conditions and diseases among 15 mainstream general communication media outlets in the United States of America between January 2007 and December 2016. Our study strategy focused on identifying several psychiatric terms of primary interest. The number of retweets generated from the selected tweets was also investigated. As a control, we examined tweets generated about the main causes of death in the United States of America, the main chronic neurological degenerative diseases, and HIV. RESULTS: In total, 13,119 tweets about mental health disorders sent by the American mainstream media outlets were analyzed. The results showed a heterogeneous distribution but preferential accumulation for a select number of conditions. Suicide and gender dysphoria accounted for half of the number of tweets sent. Variability in the number of tweets related to each control disease was also found (5998). The number of tweets sent regarding each different psychiatric or organic disease analyzed was significantly correlated with the number of retweets generated by followers (1,030,974 and 424,813 responses to mental health disorders and organic diseases, respectively). However, the probability of a tweet being retweeted differed significantly among the conditions and diseases analyzed. Furthermore, the retweeted to tweet ratio was significantly higher for psychiatric diseases than for the control diseases (odds ratio 1.11, CI 1.07-1.14; P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: American mainstream media outlets and the general public demonstrate a preferential interest for psychiatric diseases on Twitter. The heterogeneous weights given by the media outlets analyzed to the different mental health disorders and conditions are reflected in the responses of Twitter followers.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/tendencias , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/tendencias , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología
11.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 37(3): 315-322, 2017 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28383364

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A 12-month, open-label extension study assessed the long-term safety and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in adults with binge eating disorder (BED). METHODS: Adults (aged 18-55 y) with BED who completed 1 of 3 antecedent studies were enrolled in a 52-week, open-label extension study (dose optimization, 4 weeks [initial titration dose, 30-mg LDX; target doses, 50- or 70-mg LDX]; dose maintenance, 48 weeks). Safety evaluations included the occurrence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), vital sign and weight assessments, and Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale responses. RESULTS: Of the 604 enrolled participants, 599 (521 women and 78 men) comprised the safety analysis set, and 369 completed the study. Mean (SD) LDX exposure was 284.3 (118.84) days; cumulative LDX exposure duration was 12 months or longer in 344 participants (57.4%). A total of 506 participants (84.5%) reported TEAEs (TEAEs leading to treatment discontinuation, 54 [9.0%]; severe TEAEs, 42 [7.0%]; serious TEAEs, 17 [2.8%]). Treatment-emergent adverse events reported in greater than or equal to 10% of participants were dry mouth (27.2%), headache (13.2%), insomnia (12.4%), and upper respiratory tract infection (11.4%). Mean (SD) changes from antecedent study baseline in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse, and weight at week 52/early termination (n = 597) were 2.19 (11.043) and 1.77 (7.848) mm Hg, 6.58 (10.572) beats per minute, and -7.04 (7.534) kg, respectively. On the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, there were 2 positive responses for any active suicidal ideations; there were no positive responses for suicidal behavior or completed suicides. CONCLUSIONS: In this 12-month, open-label, extension study, the long-term safety and tolerability of LDX in adults with BED were generally consistent with its established profile for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Atracón/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de Captación de Dopamina/farmacología , Dimesilato de Lisdexanfetamina/farmacología , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Inhibidores de Captación de Dopamina/administración & dosificación , Inhibidores de Captación de Dopamina/efectos adversos , Esquema de Medicación , Femenino , Humanos , Dimesilato de Lisdexanfetamina/administración & dosificación , Dimesilato de Lisdexanfetamina/efectos adversos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
12.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr ; 44(5): 183-92, 2016 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27644100

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch) has been validated in different countries demonstrating that it is an instrument with a correct balance between reliability and duration. Given the shortage of trustworthy instruments of evaluation in our language for infantile population we decide to explore the Spanish version of the TEA-Ch. METHODS: We administered TEA-Ch (version A) to a sample control of 133 Spanish children from 6 to 11 years enrolled in school in the Community of Madrid. Four children were selected at random by course of Primary Education, distributing the sex of equivalent form. Descriptive analysis and comparison by ages and sex in each of the TEA-Ch´s subtests were conducted to establish a profile of the sample. In order to analyze the effect of the age, subjects were grouped in six sub-samples: 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 years-old. RESULTS: This first descriptive analysis demonstrates age exerted a significant effect on each measure, due to an important “jump” in children´s performance between 6 and 7 years-old. The effect of sex was significant only in two visual attention measures (Sky Search & Map) and interaction age and sex exerted a significant effect only in the dual task (Score DT). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the Spanish version of the TEA-Ch (A) might be a useful instrument to evaluate attentional processes in Spanish child population.


Asunto(s)
Atención , Pruebas Psicológicas , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , España
13.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr ; 44(6): 231-43, 2016 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27906414

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood, which is frequently maintained in adolescent and adult age. It presents great clinical heterogeneity, significantly affecting the functioning of those who suffer it. Although drug treatments obtain results by themselves, the approach should be multidisciplinary and be adapted to the specific needs of each patient and his/ her family. Given the variety of drugs currently available to treat ADHD, there are diverse opinions on the most effective way to approach this disorder. The objective of this work is to study the opinion of an expert clinical panel and to know the professional criteria used to define key concepts and therapeutic guidelines of ADHD in Spain. METHODOLOGY: The project was carried out in four phases: 1) Constitution of a Scientific Committee, responsible for the preliminary biographic review and the formulation of the questionnaire; 2) selection of an expert panel of specialists with special interest and/or experience in the treatment of ADHD; 3) Likert type structured survey (online platform) in two rounds with interim processing of opinions; and 4) collection and final analysis of results. RESULTS: The experts’ panel achieved a consensus in 55 of the 58 items making up the questionnaire, finding 3 items in which sufficient unanimity of criteria was not achieved because of the high number of experts were found in positions of non-certainty. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the experts of this study reached a high level of agreement in the criteria proposed in the survey, which could be generalized as indications for the clinical practice in the management of ADHD. Similarly, and given the dispersion of the results in some of the items and the lack of consensus in others, some points remain as object of discussion.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/terapia , Consenso , Técnica Delphi , Humanos , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , España
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 109(48): 19697-702, 2012 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23150562

RESUMEN

Hydra's unlimited life span has long attracted attention from natural scientists. The reason for that phenomenon is the indefinite self-renewal capacity of its stem cells. The underlying molecular mechanisms have yet to be explored. Here, by comparing the transcriptomes of Hydra's stem cells followed by functional analysis using transgenic polyps, we identified the transcription factor forkhead box O (FoxO) as one of the critical drivers of this continuous self-renewal. foxO overexpression increased interstitial stem cell and progenitor cell proliferation and activated stem cell genes in terminally differentiated somatic cells. foxO down-regulation led to an increase in the number of terminally differentiated cells, resulting in a drastically reduced population growth rate. In addition, it caused down-regulation of stem cell genes and antimicrobial peptide (AMP) expression. These findings contribute to a molecular understanding of Hydra's immortality, indicate an evolutionarily conserved role of FoxO in controlling longevity from Hydra to humans, and have implications for understanding cellular aging.


Asunto(s)
Factores de Transcripción Forkhead/fisiología , Hydra/citología , Células Madre/metabolismo , Animales , Animales Modificados Genéticamente , Linaje de la Célula , Factores de Transcripción Forkhead/genética , Silenciador del Gen , Hydra/inmunología , Hydra/metabolismo , Inmunidad Innata , Datos de Secuencia Molecular
15.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr ; 43(1): 16-23, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25665976

RESUMEN

Excess weight and obesity are defined by the WHO (World Health Organization) as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that is unhealthy.1 On the other hand, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined by the presence of attention difficulties, poor motor regulation activity, and low impulse control.2 The association between obesity and ADHD has been systematically investigated for twelve years. In this review article, previous studies that were relevant in establishing this relation are examined. Neurobiological hypotheses about the relation between obesity and ADHD are reviewed, and an association with addictions is considered.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/complicaciones , Obesidad/complicaciones , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/psicología , Conducta Adictiva , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad/psicología
17.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr ; 42 Suppl: 1-16, 2014 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25644658

RESUMEN

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobiological disorders in childhood, and is characterized by inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity and/or impulsiveness, with an estimated prevalence of 5.29%. ADHD can have a negative impact upon all areas of the life of the patient. The main clinical guides accept multimodal treatment, involving both pharmacological and psychological measures, as the best management approach in ADHD (psychoeducational, behavioural and academic). Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a new drug for the treatment of ADHD. A multidiscipline expert document has been developed, compiling the scientific evidence referred to this new molecule. The study also addresses the existing shortcomings in current drug therapy for ADHD and the contributions of LDX to routine clinical practice, in an attempt to help and guide physicians in the use of this new treatment. This document is endorsed by the ADHD and Psychoeducational Development task Group of the Spanish Society of Primary Care Pediatrics (Grupo de TDAH y Desarrollo Psicoeducativo de la Asociación Española de Pediatría de Atención Primaria, AEPap), the Spanish Society of Pediatric Neurology (Sociedad Española de Neurología Pediátrica, SENEP) and the Spanish Society of Out-hospital Pediatrics and Primary Care (Sociedad Española de Pediatría Extrahospitalaria y Atención Primaria, SEPEAP).


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de Captación de Dopamina/uso terapéutico , Dimesilato de Lisdexanfetamina/uso terapéutico , Profármacos/uso terapéutico , Humanos
18.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1342460, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38947344

RESUMEN

Introduction: Tobacco consumption and its impact on health remain high worldwide. Additionally, it is a contentious issue generating significant controversy. Twitter has proven to be a useful platform for evaluating public health topics related to population health behaviors, and tobacco consumption. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze the content of tweets related to tobacco. Moreover, geolocation data will be considered to understand regional differences. Methods: Tweets published between 2018 and 2022, in both English and Spanish, containing the keyword "tobacco," were analyzed. A total of 56,926 tweets were obtained. The tweets were classified into different categories. 550 tweets were manually analyzed, and an automated and computerized classification was performed for the remaining and largest subset of tweets. Results: The analysis yielded 30,812 classifiable tweets. Healthcare professionals were the most frequent contributors to the topic (50.2%), with the most common theme being general information about the toxic effects of tobacco. 57.9% of the tweets discussed the harmful effects of tobacco on health, with fear being the predominant emotion. The largest number of tweets were located in America. Conclusions: Our study revealed a substantial number of tweets highlighting the health risks and negative perceptions of tobacco consumption. Africa showed the lowest percentage of tweets discussing the health risks associated with tobacco, coinciding with the continent having the least developed anti-tobacco policies. Healthcare professionals emerged as the most prominent users discussing the topic, which is encouraging as they play a crucial role in disseminating accurate and scientific health information.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Uso de Tabaco , Humanos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología
19.
Front Psychiatry ; 15: 1282026, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566955

RESUMEN

Introduction: Cocaine abuse represents a major public health concern. The social perception of cocaine has been changing over the decades, a phenomenon closely tied to its patterns of use and abuse. Twitter is a valuable tool to understand the status of drug use and abuse globally. However, no specific studies discussing cocaine have been conducted on this platform. Methods: 111,508 English and Spanish tweets containing "cocaine" from 2018 to 2022 were analyzed. 550 were manually studied, and the largest subset underwent automated classification. Then, tweets related to cocaine were analyzed to examine their content, types of Twitter users, usage patterns, health effects, and personal experiences. Geolocation data was also considered to understand regional differences. Results: A total of 71,844 classifiable tweets were obtained. Among these, 15.95% of users discussed the harm of cocaine consumption to health. Media outlets had the highest number of tweets (35.11%) and the most frequent theme was social/political denunciation (67.88%). Regarding the experience related to consumption, there are more tweets with a negative sentiment. The 9.03% of tweets explicitly mention frequent use of the drug. The continent with the highest number of tweets was America (55.44% of the total). Discussion: The findings underscore the significance of cocaine as a current social and political issue, with a predominant focus on political and social denunciation in the majority of tweets. Notably, the study reveals a concentration of tweets from the United States and South American countries, reflecting the high prevalence of cocaine-related disorders and overdose cases in these regions. Alarmingly, the study highlights the trivialization of cocaine consumption on Twitter, accompanied by a misleading promotion of its health benefits, emphasizing the urgent need for targeted interventions and antidrug content on social media platforms. Finally, the unexpected advocacy for cocaine by healthcare professionals raises concerns about potential drug abuse within this demographic, warranting further investigation.

20.
Eur J Pediatr ; 172(7): 895-906, 2013 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23440479

RESUMEN

This study was a retrospective chart review performed to examine and describe physician practice patterns in managing attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across Europe. Physicians treating ADHD in the UK, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain were recruited. Each physician abstracted medical records of five patients (aged 6-17 years at time of review) with a documented diagnosis of ADHD made between January 2004 and June 2007. Data provided by the physician via the abstraction included (a) physician characteristics, (b) patient characteristics, (c) ADHD diagnosis and (d) ADHD outcomes (adherence, symptom control and satisfaction). A total of 779 patients met study inclusion criteria. In the overall population, patients' mean (SD) age at time of diagnosis was 8.9 (2.6) years. The predominant treatment choice was long-acting methylphenidate, which was prescribed to more than 56 % of patients. According to physicians, only 30.8 % of patients showed 'complete symptom control' on current treatment and only 31.8 % of physicians reported being 'very satisfied' with their patients' current treatment. Physicians' assessments of complete symptom control and physician satisfaction with treatment were low, indicating unmet needs with current ADHD management in Europe.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/terapia , Estimulantes del Sistema Nervioso Central/uso terapéutico , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Metilfenidato/uso terapéutico , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/diagnóstico , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Terapia Conductista , Niño , Preescolar , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Estudios Retrospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Evaluación de Síntomas , Resultado del Tratamiento
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