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1.
Addict Behav ; 112: 106570, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763623

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Progesterone has been implicated as protective against drug taking behaviors, including combustible cigarettes. While prior research indicates higher endogenous progesterone levels are associated with a reduction in smoking intensity (as measured by smoking topography), it is unknown if exogenous delivery of progesterone may have the same effect. METHODS: This double-blind, counterbalanced, cross-over randomized trial enrolled women between the ages of 18 and 40 who smoked at least five cigarettes per day and were currently using oral contraceptives. After overnight abstinence participants attended two topography lab sessions. One lab session was conducted during progesterone (200 mg twice per day) treatment and the other was during placebo treatment. Analyses included linear mixed effect models to examine the effect of exogenous progesterone administration and endogenous progesterone values on topography outcomes. RESULTS: Participants (n = 43) were 23.8 (standard deviation [SD] ± 4.5) years old, smoked 10.5 (SD ± 3.7) cigarettes per day. Compared to placebo administration, progesterone administration reduced cumulative puff volume by 300 mL (95% confidence interval [CI]: -536, -65; p-value = 0.01) with additional trends indicating possible reductions in the number of puffs, average puff volume, and average flow. There were no significant effects of endogenous progesterone on smoking topography outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Progesterone administration has the potential to reduce smoking intensity after overnight abstinence in women of reproductive age. Additional research is needed to explore how this may relate to smoking cessation outcomes in women of reproductive age.

2.
Addict Behav ; 112: 106576, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use often begins or stabilizes in young adulthood. Approximately 90% of young adults use social media and over 80% own a smartphone. Retailers of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) have targeted smartphones and social media with adverting campaigns. Despite evidence of ENDS advertising on social media and smartphones, few studies have examined associations between exposure to vaping advertisements on smartphones, social media use, and ENDS use (i.e., vaping) among young adults. METHODS: College students aged 18-24 from a large public university (N = 1047) completed online surveys about vaping. The survey measured frequency of vaping advertisement exposure, smartphone use, social media use, and vaping behaviors. Hierarchical logistic regression assessed whether demographics, vaping advertisement exposure, smartphone use, and social media use predicted ever vaping compared to never vaping. RESULTS: The four most commonly used platforms (used "daily") were Snapchat (80.0%), Instagram (73.4%), YouTube (59.7%), and Facebook (54.3%). Use of Snapchat, Instagram, and Facebook were all significantly associated with higher rates of vaping advertisement exposure via smartphones. Exposure to vaping advertisements on smartphones was associated with ever vaping (AOR: 1.30, 95% CI = 1.05-1.60). Of the social media platforms examined, only Snapchat use frequency was associated with higher odds of ever vaping (AOR: 1.22, 95% CI = 1.10-1.36). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to advertisements via smartphones and use of Snapchat were associated with higher rates of vaping for young adults. Social media and smartphone use should be further investigated for young adult impact.

3.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 582(Pt A): 22-29, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810690

RESUMO

The influence of l-cysteine, a common aliphatic amino acid, on the zero-valent iron (nZVI)/O2 photo-Fenten degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) was investigated in this study. The oxidation rate of RhB in the nZVI/O2/hv system was 91.2% after 40 min under the illumination and oxygen conditions and pH of 3, but when cysteine was introduced into the system, the oxidization process was inhibited. The removal of RhB was only about 50% after 40 min at a cysteine concentration ≥50 µM. It was shown experimentally that, under dark conditions, only 40.5% and 19.8% RhB was removed by the nZVI/O2 and nZVI/O2/cysteine systems, respectively. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and iron dissolving experiments revealed that the addition of cysteine clearly reduced the production of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and Fe2+ and Fe3+. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) demonstrated that cysteine could form hydrogen bonds on the iron surface. These results indicated that the main inhibition mechanism of cysteine was the alleviation of the oxidation of nZVI to Fe2+ and Fe3+ through wrapping the nZVI particles. Moreover, cystine (the oxidized form of CYS) could partly react with OH to regenerate cysteine, which resulted in competition with RhB for OH. Another possible reason for the inhibitory effect of cysteine was the prevention of light utilization. These findings indicate a non-negligible inhibitory trait for heterogeneous Fenton process in wastewater treatment when amino acids are present.

4.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 582(Pt A): 177-186, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814223

RESUMO

The rapid development of electronic technology generates a great deal of electromagnetic wave (EMW) that is tremendously hazardous to environment and human health. Correspondingly, the high efficient EMW absorption materials with lightweight, high capacity and broad bandwidth are highly required. Herein, a series of three-dimensional (3D) network-like structure formed by silicon coated carbon nanotubes (NW-CNT@SiO2) are massively prepared through an improved sol-gel process. The as-obtained 3D NW-CNT@SiO2 exhibit low densities of about 1.6 ± 0.2 g/cm3. The formation of this special 3D structure can provide high dielectric loss and good impedance matching for EMW absorption. As expected, a minimum reflection loss (RL) of -54.076 dB is obtained when uses the sample prepared by 0.1 g of CNTs and 0.2 mL of tetraethoxysilane as absorbent with a low loading rate of 10 wt% and thin absorber thickness of 1.08 mm. This specific minimum RL value exceeds many other CNT based EMW absorbers reported in previous literature. These findings featured with a green and scalable preparation process provides a facile strategy to design and fabricate high-performance EMW absorption materials, which can be applied to other materials such as carbon fibers and graphene.

5.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 582(Pt A): 301-311, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827955

RESUMO

Fabric-based materials such as textiles and papers are widely used in our daily life. However, most of conventional fabrics are highly combustible and easily stained by water and household liquids, susceptible to fire risks and surface contamination/staining. Herein, a non-fluorinated coating that contains the flame-retardants ammonium polyphosphate/pentaerythrotol (APP/PER) and water-repellent silica nanoparticles-polydimethylsiloxane (SiO2@PDMS) is developed. The coated fabric materials prevent fire propagation and are repellant to water, coffee, milk etc. The heat release rate of the SiO2@PDMS/APP/PER-coated cotton fabric is 46.33% lower than that of pure cotton fabric, and the amount of the char yield is increased by 40.4%. The coatings are durable, resistant to mechanical abrasion and have a long life-time exposure to corrosive liquids and intense UV radiation. The coated fabric materials also exhibit good organic solvent/oil and water separation capability at reduced risks of fire. The facile process can be extended to garment and paper industries to lower the fire risks and resist water stains.

6.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 582(Pt A): 342-352, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827959

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: The application of various hydrophobic/superhydrophobic coatings on the surface of metals has become the hot topic of the recent studies. The corrosion protection effectiveness and environmental issues are two important factors that should be taken into consideration when developing advanced surface coatings. Recently, the rare-earth elements (i.e., samarium) and biopolymers (i.e., polydopamine) have attracted much attention in the metals' corrosion control field. EXPERIMENTS: The Sm(NO3)3 containing solution was sprayed to the steel (St-12) sheets. Then, the Sm-modified plates were post-modified by polydopamine biopolymers that were synthesized by the self-polymerization (using tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane as a buffer), and oxidant-induced (using CuSO4 as an oxidant) approaches. The structural analysis was carried out by different techniques such as contact angle (CA) test. Moreover, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization tests were performed to investigate the anti-corrosion performance of various samples. FINDINGS: The CA test results revealed that by applying the nanostructured Sm-based film, the surface of the metal becomes near superhydrophobic (CA > 140°). EIS results evidenced the significant impact of the post-treatment of the Sm-treated samples by polydopamine (PDA) nanoparticles (NPs) on its corrosion protection ability enhancement. Also, the polarization test results confirmed that all treatments could retard the corrosion of steel via a mixed-type inhibition mechanism.

7.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 40-44, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847717

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diagnosing tuberculous pleurisy is important in Japan because it currently has a moderate tuberculosis prevalence. However, physicians often have difficulty making a diagnosis. It was reported that thoracoscopy under local anesthesia is useful for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy, but there are no reports focusing on elderly patients. METHODS: In this study, the usefulness of thoracoscopy under local anesthesia was evaluated in elderly patients. Among 170 patients who underwent thoracoscopy under local anesthesia at our hospital during 11 years from January 2008 to December 2018, those aged 75 years or older (n = 75) were investigated retrospectively. RESULTS: A total of 55 patients underwent thoracoscopy under local anesthesia for detailed examination of pleural effusion of unknown cause. Of these, 18 were diagnosed as tuberculous pleurisy. The median age was 82 years (range: 75-92 years). The diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy was made in 11 patients in whom Mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected and in four patients whose pathological findings indicated epithelioid granuloma accompanied by caseous necrosis. Clinical diagnosis was made in the remaining three patients based on thoracoscopic findings of the pleural cavity and a high level of adenosine deaminase in pleural fluid. No serious complications attributable to the examination were observed in any patient. CONCLUSIONS: Thoracoscopy under local anesthesia was useful for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy in elderly patients, with useful information being also obtained for the treatment of tuberculosis.

8.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 582(Pt A): 353-363, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858401

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: The combination of polymeric surfactants into mixed micelles is expected to improve properties relevant to their use in drug delivery, such as micellar size, gelation, and toxicity. We investigated synergistic effects in mixtures of D-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS), an FDA-approved PEGylated derivative of vitamin E, and Tetronic surfactants, pH-responsive and thermogelling polyethylene oxide (PEO)-polypropylene oxide (PPO) 4-arm block copolymers. We hypothesized that mixed micelles would form under specific conditions and provide a handle to tune formulation characteristics. EXPERIMENTS: We examined the morphology of the self-assembled structures in mixtures of TPGS with two Tetronic: T1107 and T908, using a combination of dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), NMR spectroscopy (NOESY and diffusion NMR) and oscillatory rheology, over a range of compositions, temperatures and pH. Cell viability was assessed in NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. FINDINGS: The combination of TPGS with either of the two Tetronic produces spherical core-shell micelles that comprise both surfactants in their structure (mixed micelles). T1107 unimers incorporate into TPGS aggregates below the critical micelle temperature of the poloxamine, while mixed micelles only form under limited conditions with T908. At high concentration/temperature, small proportions of TPGS extend the gel phase, more markedly with T1107, with similar elastic moduli (30-50 kPa) and a BCC crystalline structure. Cell viability of NIH/3T3 fibroblasts grown in the hydrogels increases significantly when the poloxamine gels are doped with TPGS, making the combination of poloxamines and TPGS a promising platform for drug delivery.

9.
Addict Behav ; 112: 106610, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain and cigarette smoking are reciprocally related. Domiciled smokers with higher anxiety sensitivity (AS) - the fear of behaviors/sensations associated with the experience of anxiety - consume more cigarettes and report greater tobacco dependence than smokers with lower AS. AS treatment can reduce chronic pain and facilitate smoking cessation. Here, we examine the potentially moderating role of AS in the association between past-month pain (PMP) and heaviness of smoking (HS) among smokers experiencing homelessness. METHODS: Participants (N = 461; 64.9% men, Mage = 43.1 ± 11.8) were smokers recruited from 6 homeless serving agencies in Oklahoma City, OK. Participants self-reported the presence and severity of PMP ("How much bodily pain have you had during the past four weeks?"), HS was measured via the heaviness of smoking index (HSI), and AS was measured via the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-III (ASI-III) and its 3 subscales: physical, cognitive, and social concerns. Linear regressions were used to examine potential ASI moderation controlling for age, sex, race, education, health insurance, perceived stress, and major depression. RESULTS: ASI-III total, cognitive, and physical concerns each significantly moderated associations of PMP and HSI (ps < 0.05), whereas social concerns did not. Individuals with high AS had greater cigarette dependence as PMP values increased. CONCLUSION: Similar to research with domiciled smokers, current results suggest that smokers experiencing homelessness who have high AS may benefit from AS-based interventions to reduce the association between PMP and HS, which may facilitate smoking cessation among this vulnerable group.

10.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 32-39, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868200

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne hemorrhagic fever caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV). The mortality rate of SFTS is pretty high, but no vaccines and antiviral drugs are currently available. METHODS: The antiviral effects of six green tea-related polyphenols, including four catechins and two flavonols, on SFTSV were evaluated to identify natural antiviral compounds. RESULTS: Pretreatment with all polyphenols inhibited SFTSV infection in a concentration-dependent manner. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) were 1.7-1.9 and 11-39 µM, respectively. The selectivity indices of EGCg and EGC were larger than those of the other polyphenols. Furthermore, pretreatment with EGCg and EGC dose-dependently decreased viral attachment to the host cells. Additionally, the treatment of infected cells with EGCg and EGC inhibited infection more significantly at a lower multiplicity of infection (MOI) than at a higher MOI, and this effect was less effective than that of pretreatment. Pyrogallol, a trihydroxybenzene that is the structural backbone of both EGCg and EGC, also inhibited SFTSV infection, as did gallic acid. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that green tea-related polyphenols, especially EGCg and EGC, are useful as candidate anti-SFTSV drugs. Furthermore, the structural basis of their antiviral activity was identified, which should enable investigations of more active drugs in the future.

11.
Appetite ; 156: 104807, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871202

RESUMO

The alarming rise in obesity and relative lack of pharmacotherapies to treat, what is becoming a global epidemic, has necessitated that an increasing number of bariatric procedures be performed. Several surgical techniques have been developed during the last 50 years and the advent of laparoscopic surgery has increased the safety and efficacy of these procedures. Bariatric surgery is by a substantial margin, the most efficacious means of achieving sustained weight loss maintenance in patients with obesity. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) elicits the most favourable metabolic outcomes with attendant benefits for type 2 diabetes and, cardiovascular disease as well as endocrine disorders and cancers in females. RYGB is the most extensively studied bariatric procedure regarding mechanism of action. In this review we catalogue the multiple alterations in secretion of gut hormones (ghrelin, obestatin, cholecystokinin, GLP-1, PYY, GIP, oxyntomodulin, glicentin and GLP-2) occurring after RYGB and summarise evidence indicating that these changes play a role in the reduction of food intake and improvements in glucose homeostasis.

12.
Addict Behav ; 112: 106638, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911350

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: PLWHA who smoke have shown lower cessation rates within placebo-controlled randomized trials of varenicline. Adherence and rate of nicotine metabolism may be associated with quit rates in such clinical trials. METHODS: This secondary analysis of a randomized placebo-controlled trial of varenicline for smoking among PLWHA (N = 179) examined the relationship between varenicline adherence (pill count, ≥80% of pills), nicotine metabolism (based on the nicotine metabolite ratio; NMR) and end-of-treatment smoking cessation (self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence, confirmed with carbon monoxide of ≤ 8 ppm, at the end of treatment; EOT). RESULTS: Combining varenicline and placebo arms, greater adherence (OR = 1.011, 95% CI:1.00-1.02, p = 0.051) and faster nicotine metabolism (OR = 3.08, 95% CI:1.01-9.37, p = 0.047) were related to higher quit rates. In separate models, adherence (OR = 1.009, 95% CI:1.004-1.01, p < 0.001) and nicotine metabolism rate (OR = 2.04, 95% CI:1.19-3.49, p = 0.009) interacted with treatment arm to effect quit rates. The quit rate for varenicline vs. placebo was higher for both non-adherent (19% vs. 5%; χ2[1] = 2.80, p = 0.09) and adherent (35% vs. 15%; χ2[1] = 6.51, p = 0.01) participants, but the difference between treatment arms was statistically significant only for adherent participants. Likewise, among slow metabolizers (NMR < 0.31), the varenicline quit rate was not significantly higher vs. placebo (14% vs. 5%; χ2[1] = 1.17, p = 0.28) but, among fast metabolizers (NMR ≥ 0.31), the quit rate for varenicline was significantly higher vs. placebo (33% vs. 14%; χ2[1] = 4.43, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing varenicline adherence and ensuring that fast nicotine metabolizers receive varenicline may increase quit rates for PLWHA.

13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2194: 1-19, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926358

RESUMO

Translational bioinformatics for therapeutic discovery requires the infrastructure of clinical informatics. In this chapter, we describe the clinical informatics components needed for successful implementation of translational research at a cancer center. This chapter is meant to be an introduction to those clinical informatics concepts that are needed for translational research. For a detailed account of clinical informatics, the authors will guide the reader to comprehensive resources. We provide examples of workflows from Moffitt Cancer Center led by Drs. Perkins and Markowitz. This perspective represents an interesting collaboration as Dr. Perkins is the Chief Medical Information Officer and Dr. Markowitz is a translational researcher in Melanoma with an active informatics component to his laboratory to study the mechanisms of resistance to checkpoint blockade and an active member of the clinical informatics team.

14.
Cancer Lett ; 496: 41-56, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931883

RESUMO

An increasing number of studies have shown that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in malignant tumor initiation and progression; however, many circRNAs are yet unidentified, and the role of circRNAs in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is unclear. Using RNA sequencing, we discovered a novel circRNA, termed circARHGAP12, that was processed from the pre-mRNA of the ARHGAP12 gene. CircARHGAP12 was significantly upregulated in NPC tissues and cell lines and promoted NPC cell migration and invasion. Overexpression or knockdown experiments revealed that circARHGAP12 regulates the expression of cytoskeletal remodeling-related proteins EZR, TPM3, and RhoA. CircARHGAP12 was found to bind directly to the 3' UTR of EZR mRNA and promote its stability; moreover, EZR protein interacted with TPM3 and RhoA and formed a complex to promote NPC cell invasion and metastasis. This study identified the novel circRNA circARHGAP12, characterized its biological function and mechanism, and increased our understanding of circRNAs in NPC pathogenesis. In particular, circARHGAP12 was found to promote the malignant biological phenotype of NPC via cytoskeletal remodeling, thus providing a clue for targeted therapy of NPC.

15.
Addict Behav ; 112: 106616, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the low retention and lack of persistent support by traditional tobacco cessation programs, evidence-based smartphone app-supported interventions can be an important tobacco control component. The objective of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate the types of studies that use smartphone apps for interventions in tobacco cessation. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of PubMed (1946-2019), EMBASE (1974-2019), and PsycINFO (1806-2019) databases with keywords related to smartphone-supported tobacco cessation. Included articles were required to meet 3 baseline screening criteria: 1) be written in English, 2) include an abstract, and 3) be a full, peer-reviewed manuscript. The criteria for the second level of review were: 1) primary outcome of tobacco cessation, 2) intervention study, and 3) smartphone app as primary focus of study. RESULTS: Of 1973 eligible manuscripts, 18 met inclusion criteria. Most studies (n = 17) recruited adult participants (18 + years); one included teens (16 + years). Tobacco cessation was usually self-reported (n = 11), compared to biochemical verification (n = 3) or both (n = 4). There were 11 randomized controlled trials, 4 of which reported statistically significant results, and 7 single-arm trials that reported a mean abstinence rate of 33.9%. DISCUSSION: The majority of studies that use tobacco cessation apps as an intervention delivery modality are mostly at the pilot/feasibility stage. The growing field has resulted in studies that varied in methodologies, study design, and inclusion criteria. More consistency in intervention components and larger randomized controlled trials are needed for tobacco cessation smartphone apps.

16.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128365, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182124

RESUMO

The study of soil potentially toxic elements (PTE) contents and establishment of the geochemical characterization of areas which have never been studied is of great concern. In 2019, soil survey of the Armavir region (Armenia) was conducted in order to investigate the spatial pattern of PTE, reveal PTE geochemical associations and assess the origin-specific health risks. The application of compositional data analysis and geospatial mapping allowed to identify two clusters of samples. The first cluster was spatially located on volcanic rocks and was represented by Fe, Co, Mn, Ti, Zn, Ba, Pb suggesting a natural origin of PTE in these areas. The second cluster was allocated on the alluvial, deluvial, and proluvial sediments and represented by As, Cu, Cr, Ni. Such combination of elements in the same group indicates the anthropogenic introduction of some quantities of PTE. The latter is confirmed by the presence of outliers and extreme values for As, Cu and Ni, as well as by the spatial colocation of Fe, Mn, Co, Pb, Zn outliers and extreme contents. The health risk assessment showed that for children the multi-elemental non-carcinogenic risk was detected, while for the adults the non-carcinogenic risk and carcinogenic risk were below the allowable level. The detailed study of the risk levels showed that in first cluster comparatively higher risk were observed for Pb, V, Ba, Zn while in the second cluster: Fe, Co, Mn, As, Cr, Cu, Ni. The results indicated the necessity of additional in-depth studies with special focus on bioavailability of PTE.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Adulto , Armênia , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Solo/química
17.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128415, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182128

RESUMO

The occurrence, fate and removal of microplastics (MPs) in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Central Italy were investigated together with their potential adverse effects on anaerobic processes. In the influent of the WWTP, 3.6 MPs.L-1 were detected that mostly comprised polyester fibers and particles in the shape of films, ranging 0.1-0.5 mm and made of polyethylene and polypropylene (PP). The full-scale conventional activated sludge scheme removed 86% of MPs, with the main reduction in the primary and secondary settling. MPs particles bigger than 1 mm were not detected in the final effluent and some loss of polymers types were observed. In comparison, the pilot-scale upflow granular anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) + anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) configuration achieved 94% MPs removal with the abatement of 87% of fibers and 100% of particles. The results highlighted an accumulation phenomenon of MPs in the sludge and suggested the need to further investigate the effects of MPs on anaerobic processes. Accordingly, PP-MPs at concentrations from 5 PP-MPs.gTS-1 to 50 PP-MPs.gTS-1 were spiked in the pilot-scale UASB reactor that was fed with real municipal wastewater, where up to 58% decrease in methanogenic activity was observed at the exposure of 50 PP-MPs.gTS-1. To the best of our knowledge, the presented results are the first to report of PP-MPs inhibition on anaerobic processes.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Itália , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Polietileno , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias
18.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128362, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182146

RESUMO

Targeted methods that dominated toxicological research until recently did not allow for screening of all molecular changes involved in toxic response. Therefore, it is difficult to infer if all major mechanisms of toxicity have already been discovered, or if some of them are still overlooked. We used data on 591,084 unique chemical-gene interactions to identify genes and molecular pathways most sensitive to chemical exposures. The list of identified pathways did not change significantly when analyses were done on different subsets of data with non-overlapping lists of chemical compounds indicative that our dataset is saturated enough to provide unbiased results. One of the most important findings of this study is that almost every known molecular mechanism may be affected by chemical exposures. Predictably, xenobiotic metabolism pathways, and mechanisms of cellular response to stress and damage were among the most sensitive. Additionally, we identified highly sensitive molecular pathways, which are not widely recognized as major targets of toxicants, including lipid metabolism pathways, longevity regulation cascade, and cytokine-mediated signaling. These mechanisms are relevant to significant public health problems, such as aging, cancer, metabolic and autoimmune disease. Thus, public health field will benefit from future focus of toxicological research on identified sensitive mechanisms.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Animais , Humanos , Longevidade
19.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127905, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182152

RESUMO

Pot experiments were conducted to study combined effects of Ca and Cd on contents of Cd and Ca, and membrane transporters activities (CC (calcium channel protein), ATPase and CAXs (cationic/H+ antiporter) of two-year old Panax notoginseng with application of different concentrations of Ca2+ (0, 180 and 360 mgkg-1, prepared by Ca(OH)2 and CaCl2, respectively) under Cd2+ (0, 0.6, 6.0, and 12.0 mgkg-1, prepared by CdCl2•2.5H2O) treatments. The results showed that soil available Cd contents decreased with Ca(OH)2 and CaCl2 application. Soil pH value increased with Ca(OH)2 application. The contents of Cd in all parts of P. notoginseng increased with the increase in Cd treatment concentrations. The Cd content of P. notoginseng decreased with Ca(OH)2 and CaCl2 treatments. The activities of CC and ATPase in the main root of P. notoginseng decreased with the increase in Cd treatment concentrations and application of CaCl2. The activities of CC and ATPase increased with Ca(OH)2application. The activity of CAXs in the main root of P. notoginseng increased with the increase of Cd treatment concentration. The results indicate that Ca and Cd should be both related to membrane transporters activities and activities of CC, ATPase and CAXs are promoted by cooperation of Ca2+and OH+, which suggest the Ca(OH)2 application should be better than application of CaCl2 for Cd detoxification.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Cálcio/metabolismo , Panax notoginseng/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Adenosina Trifosfatases/análise , Cádmio/análise , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Panax notoginseng/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2209: 35-52, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201461

RESUMO

RNA helicases are proteins found in all kingdoms of life, and they are associated with all processes involving RNA from transcription to decay. They use NTP binding and hydrolysis to unwind duplexes, to remodel RNA structures and protein-RNA complexes, and to facilitate the unidirectional metabolism of biological processes. Viral, bacterial, and eukaryotic parasites have an intimate need for RNA helicases in their reproduction. Moreover, various disorders, like cancers, are often associated with a perturbation of the host's helicase activity. Thus, RNA helicases provide a rich source of targets for the development of therapeutic or prophylactic drugs. In this review, we provide an overview of the different targeting strategies against helicases, the different types of compounds explored, the proposed inhibitory mechanisms of the compounds on the proteins, and the therapeutic potential of these compounds in the treatment of various disorders.

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