Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 9.237.740
Filtrar
Mais filtros











Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Yale J Biol Med ; 93(1): 187-195, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226347

RESUMO

Certain inflammatory disorders are characterized by macrophage activation and accumulation in tissue; sometimes leading to the formation of granulomas, as in sarcoidosis. These disorders are often difficult to treat and more effective, molecularly targeted therapies are needed. Recent work has shown that overproduction of inflammatory cytokines, such as interferon gamma (IFN-γ) leading to constitutive activation of the JAK-STAT pathway may be a conserved feature of these disorders. Use of JAK inhibitors, which can block these signals, has resulted in dramatic improvement in several patients with sarcoidosis. JAK inhibitors also appear to have activity in other inflammatory disorders with macrophage activation including hemophagocytic lymphohistiocystosis, Crohn's disease, granuloma annulare, and necrobiosis lipoidica. Here, we review the role of JAK dependent cytokines in macrophage activation and granuloma formation and the clinical evidence supporting the use of JAK inhibition in these disorders. Ongoing efforts to evaluate role of JAK inhibitors in these disorders is also discussed.

2.
Yale J Biol Med ; 93(1): 197-206, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226348

RESUMO

Autoimmune diseases of the skin occur when the immune system attacks normal skin. The immune system can be broadly divided into an effector arm responsible for fighting infections and cancer and a regulatory arm that reduces autoreactivity and maintains immune homeostasis. Cutaneous autoimmunity develops when the equilibrium between the effector arm and regulatory arm of the immune system is disrupted. Recent insights into the inflammatory pathways that are overactive in some cutaneous autoimmune diseases have led to therapies targeting the effector arm of the immune system with greater treatment efficacy than previously used broad immunosuppressants. The current paradigm of inhibiting excessive immune activation for treating cutaneous autoimmunity will be discussed including cytokine blockade, cellular depletion, intracellular signaling blockade and costimulatory blockade. Despite the success of this approach many cutaneous autoimmune diseases lack a clearly delineated pathway to target and therefore new strategies are needed. An emerging therapeutic strategy targeting the regulatory arm of the immune system to induce tolerance and disease remission provides new hope for treating cutaneous autoimmunity. Such an approach includes cellular therapy with regulatory T cells and chimeric autoantibody receptor T cells, cytokine therapy with low-dose interleukin-2, immune checkpoint stimulation, tolerogenic vaccines and microbiome biotherapy. This mini-review will discuss the current and emerging therapeutic strategies for cutaneous autoimmune diseases and provide an organizational framework for understanding distinct mechanisms of action.

3.
Yale J Biol Med ; 93(1): 207-213, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226349

RESUMO

Melanoma is a common cancer in both young and older populations in many western countries. Rates of melanoma diagnosis worldwide are increasing. With the introduction of both targeted and immunotherapies there have been dramatic improvements in the care of patients with metastatic melanoma. With these new therapies being increasingly offered to patients with stage III metastatic melanoma and stage IV disease, radiological surveillance of melanoma has become a widely used method of monitoring melanoma patients for early locoregional and distant metastasis. However, concerns have been raised about risk of false positive results, which patients to consider radiological surveillance for, and at what intervals to do so. To date, there are no published review articles on the topic of radiological surveillance in melanoma patients identified in the MEDLINE database. A comprehensive literature review was performed by searching the MEDLINE database to review all published works on this topic. This article aims to present an extensive review of literature surrounding radiological surveillance in melanoma patients, a discussion of controversies, and recommendations for surveillance modalities.

4.
Front Immunol ; 11: 339, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226426

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors target the inhibitory receptors on T cells to reinstate their antitumor ability and have shown significant efficacy in treating various cancers. However, because of tumor heterogeneity and many other uncover reasons, the objective response rate for programmed death 1 and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) blockade is only 20 to 30%; its response rate in solid tumors is relatively low, and different degrees of side effects have occurred. There are still many unknown factors affecting the therapeutic effectiveness of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. Additionally, screening the responding tumor patients accurately and improving the response rate and efficacy are huge challenges for tumor precise treatment. Here, we attempt to summarize the recent progress in response prediction and combined application of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade and briefly discuss the methods and evaluations combined with PD-1/PD-L1 blockade to improve the implementation of precision immunotherapy.

5.
Front Immunol ; 11: 373, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226429

RESUMO

Mutation-derived neoantigens are important targets for T cell-mediated reactivity toward tumors and, due to their unique tumor expression, an attractive target for immunotherapy. Neoepitope-specific T cells have been detected across a number of solid cancers with high mutational burden tumors, but neoepitopes have been mostly selected from single nucleotide variations (SNVs), and little focus has been given to neoepitopes derived from in-frame and frameshift indels, which might be equally important and potentially highly immunogenic. Clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) are medium-range mutational burden tumors with a high pan-cancer proportion of frameshift mutations. In this study, the mutational landscape of tumors from six RCC patients was analyzed by whole-exome sequencing (WES) of DNA from tumor fragments (TFs), autologous tumor cell lines (TCLs), and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs, germline reference). Neopeptides were predicted using MuPeXI, and patient-specific peptide-MHC (pMHC) libraries were created for all neopeptides with a rank score < 2 for binding to the patient's HLAs. T cell recognition toward neoepitopes in TILs was evaluated using the high-throughput technology of DNA barcode-labeled pMHC multimers. The patient-specific libraries consisted of, on average, 258 putative neopeptides (range, 103-397, n = 6). In four patients, WES was performed on two different sources (TF and TCL), whereas in two patients, WES was performed only on TF. Most of the peptides were predicted from both sources. However, a fraction was predicted from one source only. Among the total predicted neopeptides, 16% were derived from frameshift indels. T cell recognition of 52 neoepitopes was detected across all patients (range, 4-18, n = 6) and spanning two to five HLA restrictions per patient. On average, 21% of the recognized neoepitopes were derived from frameshift indels (range, 0-43%, n = 6). Thus, frameshift indels are equally represented in the pool of immunogenic neoepitopes as SNV-derived neoepitopes. This suggests the importance of a broad neopeptide prediction strategy covering multiple sources of tumor material, and including different genetic alterations. This study, for the first time, describes the T cell recognition of frameshift-derived neoepitopes in RCC and determines their immunogenic profile.

6.
Front Immunol ; 11: 429, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226430

RESUMO

The impact of the highly polymorphic Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene cluster on the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCST) is subject of current research. To further understand the involvement of this gene family into Natural Killer (NK) cell-mediated graft-versus-leukemia reactions, knowledge of haplotype structures, and allelic linkage is of importance. In this analysis, we estimate population-specific KIR haplotype frequencies at allele group resolution in a cohort of n = 458 German families. We addressed the polymorphism of the KIR gene complex and phasing ambiguities by a combined approach. Haplotype inference within first-degree family relations allowed us to limit the number of possible diplotypes. Structural restriction to a pattern set of 92 previously described KIR copy number haplotypes further reduced ambiguities. KIR haplotype frequency estimation was finally accomplished by means of an expectation-maximization algorithm. Applying a resolution threshold of ½ n, we were able to identify a set of 551 KIR allele group haplotypes, representing 21 KIR copy number haplotypes. The haplotype frequencies allow studying linkage disequilibrium in two-locus as well as in multi-locus analyses. Our study reveals associations between KIR haplotype structures and allele group frequencies, thereby broadening our understanding of the KIR gene complex.

7.
Front Immunol ; 11: 437, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226432

RESUMO

The hijacking of cellular function through expression of proteins that interfere with the activity of cellular enzymes and regulatory complexes is a common strategy used by viruses to remodel the cell environment in favor of their own replication and spread. Here we report that the ubiquitin deconjugases encoded in the N-terminal domain of the large tegument proteins of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi Sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), but not herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), target an early step of the IFN signaling cascade that involves the formation of a trimolecular complex with the ubiquitin ligase TRIM25 and the 14-3-3 molecular scaffold. Different from other homologs, the HSV-1 encoded enzyme fails to interact with 14-3-3, which correlates with failure to promote the autoubiquitination and sequestration of TRIM25 in cytoplasmic aggregates, and inability to block the activation and nuclear translocation of the IRF3 transcription factor. These findings highlight a key role for 14-3-3 molecular scaffolds in the regulation of innate immune response to herpesvirus infections and points to a possible target for the development of a new type of antivirals with applications in a broad spectrum of human diseases.

8.
Theranostics ; 10(9): 3849-3866, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226524

RESUMO

In the past decade, the study of exosomes, nanosized vesicles (50-150 nm) released into the extracellular space via the fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane, has burgeoned with impressive achievements in theranostics applications. These nanosized vesicles have emerged as key players in homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of diseases owing to the variety of the cargos they can carry, the nature of the molecules packaged inside the vesicles, and the robust interactions between exosomes and target cells or tissues. Accordingly, the development of exosome-based liquid biopsy techniques for early disease detection and for monitoring disease progression marks a new era of precision medicine in the 21st century. Moreover, exosomes possess intrinsic properties - a nanosized structure and unique "homing effects" - that make them outstanding drug delivery vehicles. In addition, targeted exosome-based drug delivery systems can be further optimized using active targeting ligands such as nucleic acid aptamers. Indeed, the aptamers themselves can function as therapeutic and/or diagnostic tools based on their attributes of unique target-binding and non-immunogenicity. This review aims to provide readers with a current picture of the research on exosomes and aptamers and their applications in cancer theranostics, highlighting recent advances in their transition from the bench to the clinic.

9.
Theranostics ; 10(9): 3880-3891, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226526

RESUMO

Prohibitin (PHB, also known as PHB1 or BAP32), is a highly conserved 31kDa protein that expressed in many cellular compartments, such as mitochondria, nucleus, cytosol, and plasma membrane, and plays roles in regulating the transcription of genes, apoptosis, and mitochondrial biogenesis. There is a report that Prohibitin expression is required for the stimulation of pigmentation by melanogenin. However, no studies have been published on the function of PHB in melanocytes, especially in melanosome transport. Methods: Immunofluorescence was performed to confirm the localization of PHB. siRNA transfections, Co-immunoprecipitation, western blotting and proximity ligation assay were performed to find binding state between proteins and demonstrate functions of PHB on melanosome transport. Results: PHB is located in the melanosome and perinuclear aggregation of melanosome is induced when expression of PHB is reduced with no influence on melanin contents. PHB binds directly to Rab27a and Mlph but not Myosin-Va. Rab27a and Mlph bind to specific domains of PHB. Reduced expression of PHB led to the impaired binding affinity between Rab27a and Mlph. Conclusion: PHB regulates melanosome transport by linking to Rab27a and Mlph in melanocytes. Targeting and regulating PHB not only manages pigmentation in melanocytes, but also controls hyperpigmentation in melanoma.

10.
Theranostics ; 10(9): 3939-3951, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226530

RESUMO

Rationale: Loss of DNA damage repair (DDR) in the tumor is an established hallmark of sensitivity to DNA damaging agents such as chemotherapy. However, there has been scant investigation into gain-of-function alterations of DDR genes in cancer. This study aims to investigate to what extent copy number amplification of DDR genes occurs in cancer, and what are their impacts on tumor genome instability, patient prognosis and therapy outcome. Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical, genomics, and pharmacogenomics data from 10,489 tumors, matched peripheral blood samples, and 1,005 cancer cell lines. The key discoveries were verified by an independent patient cohort and experimental validations. Results: This study revealed that 13 of the 80 core DDR genes were significantly amplified and overexpressed across the pan-cancer scale. Tumors harboring DDR gene amplification exhibited decreased global mutation load and mechanism-specific mutation signature scores, suggesting an increased DDR proficiency in the DDR amplified tumors. Clinically, patients with DDR gene amplification showed poor prognosis in multiple cancer types. The most frequent Nibrin (NBN) gene amplification in ovarian cancer tumors was observed in 15 out of 31 independent ovarian cancer patients. NBN overexpression in breast and ovarian cancer cells leads to BRCA1-dependent olaparib resistance by promoting the phosphorylation of ATM-S1981 and homology-dependent recombination efficiency. Finally, integration of the cancer pharmacogenomics database of 37 genome-instability targeting drugs across 505 cancer cell lines revealed significant correlations between DDR gene copy number amplification and DDR drug resistance, suggesting candidate targets for increasing patient treatment response. Principal Conclusions: DDR gene amplification can lead to chemotherapy resistance and poor overall survival by augmenting DDR. These amplified DDR genes may serve as actionable clinical biomarkers for cancer management.

11.
Theranostics ; 10(9): 3952-3966, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226531

RESUMO

Rationale: Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). As a standard-of-care approach for hyperlipidemia, statins only reduce the risk of coronary artery disease by 20-40%, underscoring the importance of identifying molecular pathways for the design of drugs against this disorder. Alterations in microRNA (miRNA) expression have been reported in patients with hyperlipidemia and CVD. This study was designed to determine the mechanism of dysregulated miR-378a-3p under the status of hyperlipidemia and evaluate how miR-378a-3p regulates hepatic secretion of VLDL. Methods: Wild-type mice kept on a high fat diet were injected with miR-378a-3p inhibitor or a mini-circle expression system containing miR-378a precursor to study loss and gain-of functions of miR-378a-3p. Mice were treated with Triton WR1339 and 35S-methionine/cysteine to determine the effect of miR-378a-3p on hepatic secretion of VLDL. Database mining, luciferase assay, and ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) were used to study the mechanism of dysregulated miR-378a-3p biogenesis. Results: miR-378a-3p expression is significantly increased in livers of hyperlipidemic mice. Sort1 (sortilin 1) was identified as a direct target of miR-378a-3p. By inhibiting the function of sortilin 1 as a transmembrane trafficking receptor, miR-378a-3p stabilized ApoB100 and promoted ApoB100 secretion in vitro. Liver-specific expression of miR-378a-3p stabilized ApoB100 and facilitated hepatic secretion of VLDL, which subsequently increased levels of VLDL/LDL cholesterol as well as triglycerides. In contrast, antagonizing miR-378a-3p using its inhibitor increased hepatic expression of Sort1 and reduced hepatic export of VLDL with its consequent effects of serum lipid levels. Additional knockdown of up-regulated Sort1 in livers of mice offset the effects of miR-378a-3p inhibitor, suggesting that Sort1 was indispensable for miR-378a-3p to promote secretion of VLDL and thereby high levels of circulating VLDL/LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Furthermore, oncogenic E2F1 (E2F transcription factor 1) was identified as a transcriptional activator of miR-378a-3p. E2f1 knockdown, through reducing miR-378a-3p, impaired secretion of VLDL and reduced levels of VLDL/LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Conclusions: This study defines a novel pathway of E2F1-miR-378a-3p-SORT1-ApoB100 that controls levels of circulating VLDL/LDL cholesterol and triglycerides by modulating degradation and secretion of ApoB100, and suggests the use of miR-378a-3p as a potential therapeutic target for dyslipidemia.

12.
Theranostics ; 10(9): 3967-3979, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226532

RESUMO

Background: Dysregulated microRNA (miRNA) expression in cancer can act as a key factor that modifies biological processes, including chemoresistance. Our study aimed to identify the miRNAs associated with gemcitabine (GEM) resistance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and to explore the potential mechanisms. Methods: The miRNA microarray was used to identify miRNAs associated with GEM resistance. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to examine miR-146a-5p expression in paired PDAC and adjacent normal tissues. Bioinformatics analysis, luciferase reporter assays, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were used to confirm tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) as a direct target of miR-146a-5p and to explore the potential transcription factor binding and regulation by miR-146a-5p. In vitro and in vivo experiments were performed to investigate the mechanisms. Results: MiR-146a-5p expression was significantly decreased in PDAC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues, and miR-146a-5p expression correlated with prognosis in PDAC patients. Functional studies indicated that miR-146a-5p suppressed PDAC cell proliferation and sensitized PDAC cells to GEM chemotherapy by targeting the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of TRAF6. MiR-146a-5p was also observed to downregulate the TRAF6/NF-κB p65/P-gp axis, which regulates PDAC cell growth and chemoresistance. Conclusions: Taken together, the results indicate that the miR-146a-5p/TRAF6/NF-κB p65 axis drives pancreatic chemoresistance by regulating P-gp, suggesting that miR-146a-5p may be utilized as a new therapeutic target and prognostic marker in PDAC patients.

13.
Theranostics ; 10(9): 3994-4005, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226534

RESUMO

Tumor-positive resection margins are present in up to 23% of head and neck cancer (HNC) surgeries, as intraoperative techniques for real-time evaluation of the resection margins are lacking. In this study, we investigated the safety and potential clinical value of fluorescence-guided imaging (FGI) for resection margin evaluation in HNC patients. We determined the optimal cetuximab-800CW dose by quantification of intrinsic fluorescence values using multi-diameter single-fiber reflectance, single-fiber fluorescence (MDSFR/SFF) spectroscopy. Methods: Five cohorts of three HNC patients received cetuximab-800CW systemically: three single dose cohorts (10, 25, 50 mg) and two cohorts pre-dosed with 75 mg unlabeled cetuximab (15 or 25 mg). Fluorescence visualization and MDSFR/SFF spectroscopy quantification was performed and were correlated to histopathology. Results: There were no study-related adverse events higher than Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade-II. Quantification of intrinsic fluorescence values showed a dose-dependent increase in background fluorescence in the single dose cohorts (p<0.001, p<0.001), which remained consistently low in the pre-dosed cohorts (p=0.6808). Resection margin status was evaluated with a sensitivity of 100% (4/4 tumor-positive margins) and specificity of 91% (10/11 tumor-negative margins). Conclusion: A pre-dose of 75 mg unlabeled cetuximab followed by 15 mg cetuximab-800CW was considered the optimal dose based on safety, fluorescence visualization and quantification of intrinsic fluorescence values. We were able to use a lower dose cetuximab-800CW than previously described, while remaining a high sensitivity for tumor detection due to application of equipment optimized for IRDye800CW detection, which was validated by quantification of intrinsic fluorescence values.

14.
Theranostics ; 10(9): 4017-4029, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226536

RESUMO

Melanogenesis is a critical self-defense mechanism against ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced skin damage and carcinogenesis; however, dysregulation of melanin production and distribution causes skin-disfiguring pigmentary disorders. Melanogenesis is initiated by UVR-induced cAMP generation and ensuing activation of transcription factor CREB, which induces expression of the master melanogenic regulator MITF. Recent studies have demonstrated that recruitment of CRTCs to the CREB transcription complex is also required for UVR-stimulated melanogenesis. Therefore, modulation of cAMP-CRTC/CREB-MITF signaling may be a useful therapeutic strategy for UVR-associated skin pigmentary disorders. Methods: We identified the small-molecule Ro31-8220 from CREB/CRTC activity screening and examined its melanogenic activity in cultured mouse and human melanocytes as well as in human skin. Molecular mechanisms were deciphered by immunoblotting, RT-PCR, promoter assays, tyrosinase activity assays, immunofluorescent examination of CRTC3 subcellular localization, and shRNA-based knockdown. Results: Ro31-8220 suppressed basal and cAMP-stimulated melanin production in melanocytes and human melanocyte co-culture as well as UVR-stimulated melanin accumulation in human skin through downregulation of MITF and tyrosinase expression. Mechanistically, down regulation of MITF expression by Ro31-8220 was due to inhibition of transcriptional activity of CREB, which was resulted from phosphorylation-dependent blockade of nuclear translocation of CRTC3 via JNK activation. The selective JNK activator anisomycin also inhibited melanin production through phosphoinhibition of CRTC3, while JNK inhibition enhanced melanogenesis by stimulating CRTC3 dephosphorylation and nuclear migration. Conclusions: Melanogenesis can be enhanced or suppressed via pharmacological modulation of a previously unidentified JNK-CRTC/CREB-MITF signaling axis. As Ro31-8220 potently inhibits UVR-stimulated melanin accumulation in human skin, suggesting that small-molecule JNK-CRTC signaling modulators may provide therapeutic benefit for pigmentation disorders.

15.
Theranostics ; 10(9): 4030-4041, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226537

RESUMO

Rationale: A cascade, or domino, reaction consists of two, or more, consecutive reactions such that subsequent reactions occur only if some chemical functionality has first been established in the prior step. However, while construction of predesigned and desired molecular domino reactors in a tailored manner is a valuable endeavor, it is still challenging. Methods: To address this challenge, we herein report an aptamer-based photodynamic domino reactor built through automated modular synthesis. The engineering of this reactor takes advantage of the well-established solid-phase synthesis platform to incorporate a photosensitizer into G-quadruplex/ hemin DNAzyme at the molecular level. Results: As a proof of concept, our photodynamic domino reactor, termed AS1411/hemin- pyrochlorophyll A, achieves in vivo photodynamic domino reaction for efficient cancer treatment by using a high concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the tumor microenvironment (TME) to produce O2, followed by consecutive generation of singlet oxygen (1O2) using the pre-produced O2. More specifically, phosphoramidite PA (pyrochlorophyll A) is coupled to aptamer AS1411 to form AS1411-PA ApDC able to simultaneously perform in vivo targeted imaging and photodynamic therapy (PDT). The insertion of hemin into the AS1411 G-quadruplex was demonstrated to alleviate tumor hypoxia by decomposition of H2O2 to produce O2. This was followed by the generation of 1O2 by PA to trigger cascading amplified PDT. Conclusion: Therefore, this study provides a general strategy for building an aptamer-based molecular domino reactor through automated modular synthesis. By proof of concept, we further demonstrate a novel method of achieving enhanced PDT, as well as alleviating TME hypoxia at the molecular level.

16.
Theranostics ; 10(9): 4042-4055, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226538

RESUMO

Rationale: Bone is the most frequent site for breast cancer metastasis, which accounts for the leading cause of death in advanced breast cancer patients. Serious skeletal-related events (SREs) caused by bone metastasis have a decisive impact on the life expectancy of breast cancer patients, making breast cancer almost incurable. Metastatic breast cancer cell induced pathological osteoclastogenesis is a key driver of bone metastasis and osteolytic bone lesions. We previously reported that gold clusters can prevent inflammation induced osteoclastogenesis and osteolysis in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effects of a BSA-coated gold cluster on metastatic breast cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and tumor-induced osteolysis in vivo, and elucidated its possible mechanism. Methods: Breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was used to evaluate the regulatory effects of gold clusters on breast cancer metastasis and tumor induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Cell counting kit-8, transwell, wound-healing and colony formation assays were performed to evaluate the effect of gold clusters on proliferation and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and filamentous-actin rings analysis were used to detect the regulatory effects of gold clusters on MDA-MB-231 cell-conditioned medium (MDA-MB-231 CM) triggered and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMs). A mouse model of breast cancer bone metastasis was used to evaluate the in vivo activity of the gold cluster on the tumor induced osteolysis. Results: The gold clusters suppressed the migration, invasion and colony formation of MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. The gold clusters strongly inhibited both MDA-MB-231 CM triggered and RANKL-induced osteoclast formation from BMMs in vitro. Cell studies indicated that the gold clusters suppressed the expression of osteolysis-related factors in MDA-MB-231 cells and inhibited the subsequent activation of NF-κB pathway in BMMs. Treatment with the clusters at a dose of 10 mg Au/kg.bw significantly reduces the breast cancer cell induced osteolysis in vivo. Conclusion: Therefore, the gold clusters may offer new therapeutic agents for preventing breast cancer bone metastasis and secondary osteolysis to improve patient outcomes.

17.
Theranostics ; 10(9): 4056-4072, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226539

RESUMO

Rationale: CD47 plays a vital role in the immune escape of tumor cells, but its role in regulating immune-unrelated biological processes such as proliferation and metastasis remains unclear. We seek to explore the immune-independent functions of CD47 in colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: The expression of CD47 in CRC was determined by immunohistochemistry. The biological effect of CD47 signaling on tumor cell proliferation and metastasis was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. RNA sequencing analysis was performed to identify pivotal signaling pathways modulated by CD47. The interaction between CD47 and ENO1 was verified by co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP). The effect of CD47 on glycolytic metabolites was analyzed by seahorse XF and targeted metabolomics. Results: The expression of CD47 was upregulated and correlated to poor prognosis in CRC patients. Functional assays revealed that CD47 promoted CRC cell growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Our mechanistic investigations demonstrated that CD47 interacted with ENO1 and protected it from ubiquitin-mediated degradation, subsequently promoting glycolytic activity and phosphorylation of ERK in CRC cells. Inhibition of ENO1 diminished CD47-mediated cell growth and migration. Clinically, the combined expression of CD47 and ENO1 provided reliable predictive biomarkers for the prognosis of CRC patients. Conclusions: CD47 is overexpressed in CRC, and its expression is associated with poor prognosis. Through stabilizing ENO1, CD47 enhances the aerobic glycolysis and ERK activity in CRC cells, thereby promoting the progression of CRC. Our studies reveal an unconventional role of CD47, suggesting that targeting the CD47-ENO1 axis may provide a novel therapeutic avenue for CRC.

18.
Theranostics ; 10(9): 4073-4087, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226540

RESUMO

Uncontrollable cell proliferation and irreversible neurological damage make glioma one of the most deadly diseases in clinic. Besides the multiple biological barriers, glioma stem cells (GSCs) that are responsible for the maintenance and recurrence of tumor tissues also hinder the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy. Therefore, all-stage precisional glioma targeted therapy regimens that could efficiently deliver drugs to glioma cells and GSCs after overcoming multiple barriers have received increasing scrutiny. Methods: A polymeric micelle-based drug delivery system was developed by modifying a "Y-shaped" well-designed ligand of both GRP78 protein and quorum sensing receptor to achieve all-stage precisional glioma targeting, then we evaluated the targeting ability and barrier penetration ability both in vitro and in vivo. In order to achieve all-stage precisional therapy, we need kill both GSCs and glioma related cells. Parthenolide (PTL) has been investigated for its selective toxicity to glioma stem cells while Paclitaxel (PTX) and Temozolomide (TMZ) are widely used in experimental and clinical therapy of glioma respectively. So the in vivo anti-glioma effect of combination therapy was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and immunohistochemical (IHC) examination of tumor tissues. Results: The "Y-shaped" well-designed peptide, termed DWVAP, exhibited excellent glioma (and GSCs) homing and barrier penetration ability. When modified on micelle surface, DWVAP peptide significantly enhanced accumulation of micelles in brain and glioma. In addition, DWVAP micelles showed no immunogenicity and cytotoxicity, which could guarantee their safety when used in vivo. Treatment of glioma-bearing mice with PTL loaded DWVAP modified PEG-PLA micelles plus PTX loaded DWVAP modified PEG-PLA micelles or PTL loaded DWVAP modified PEG-PLA micelles plus TMZ showed improved anti-tumor efficacy in comparison to PTL and PTX loaded unmodified micelles or PTL loaded unmodified micelles plus TMZ. Conclusion: Combination of all-stage targeting strategy and concomitant use of chemotherapeutics and stem cell inhibitors could achieve precise targeted therapy for glioma.

19.
Theranostics ; 10(9): 4088-4100, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226541

RESUMO

Human interleukin (IL)-37 is a member of the IL-1 family with potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Previously, it has been reported that IL-37 suppresses tumor growth and progression. However, the roles of IL-37 in pancreatic cancer development and chemo-resistance remain unknown. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the correlation between IL-37 expression and clinicopathological features of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Western-blot and RT-PCR was used to verify the correlation between IL-37 and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. We performed chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase assays to validate HIF-1α suppression of IL-37 expression. Moreover, gain- and loss-of-function studies in vitro and in vivo were used to demonstrate the biological function of IL-37 on PDAC development and chemo-resistance. Results: Our results showed that IL-37 expression was remarkably decreased in PDAC tissues when compared to adjacent normal pancreatic tissues. Reduced IL-37 expression in PDACs was associated with increased PDAC histological grade, tumor size, lymph node metastasis and vessel invasion. IL-37 low patients also have remarkably shorter relapse-free and overall survival. Importantly, IL-37 expression was positively correlated with Gemcitabine efficacy. Mechanistically, HIF-1α attenuated IL-37 transcription by binding to the hypoxia response elements (HREs) in IL-37 promoter. Conversely, IL-37 suppressed HIF-1α expression through STAT3 inhibition. Functionally, downregulation of IL-37 in PDAC cells promoted chemo-resistance, migration and progression in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions: Collectively, our data uncovered IL-37/ STAT3/ HIF-1α negative feedback signaling drives Gemcitabine resistance in PDAC.

20.
Theranostics ; 10(9): 4101-4115, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226542

RESUMO

Rationale: Chemodynamic therapy (CDT) based on the Fe(II)-mediated Fenton reaction is an emerging tumor treatment strategy. However, the catalytic efficiency in tumors is crucially limited by Fe(II). Herein, an endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) accelerated Fe(III)/Fe(II) transformation and photothermal synergistically enhanced CDT strategy based on ellagic acid-Fe-bovine serum albumin (EA-Fe@BSA) nanoparticles (NPs) was developed for colon tumor inhibition. On the one hand, the Fe(III) with low catalytic activity in the EA-Fe@BSA NPs could be rapidly reduced to the highly active Fe(II) by the abundant H2S in colon cancer tissues. Thus, a rapid Fe(III)/Fe(II) conversion system was established, wherein highly active Fe(II) ions were continuously regenerated to improve the CDT efficiency. On the other hand, the photothermal effect of EA-Fe@BSA NPs also accelerated the production of hydroxyl radicals (•OH), thereby synergistically enhancing the CDT performance and improving the therapeutic efficacy. Methods: The endogenous H2S accelerated Fe(III)/Fe(II) conversion and PTT enhanced CDT were investigated by characterization of the Fe valence state and detection of •OH. T 1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was tested both in vitro and in vivo. The biocompatibility of NPs were examined via MTT assay, hemolysis analysis and routine blood measurements. The enhanced CDT was investigated in HCT116 colon cancer cells by Calcein-AM/PI staining and MTT assay, and tumor inhibition was demonstrated in HCT116 tumor bearing mice. Results: In this work, EA-Fe@BSA NPs were constructed as a CDT theranostic reagent. The H2S accelerated Fe(III)/Fe(II) conversion was confirmed, more degradation of MB and generation of •OH demonstrated the enhanced CDT in vitro. EA-Fe@BSA NPs exhibited good T 1-weighted MRI performance. More importantly, it displayed strong near-infrared (NIR) absorption and excellent photothermal efficiency, further promotes the production of •OH. Hence, the efficacy of CDT was enhanced, and the tumor growth was inhibited efficiently. Conclusion: All results demonstrate that this strategy based on endogenous H2S promoted Fe(III)/Fe(II) transformation together with PTT acceleration permits efficient Fenton-reaction- mediated CDT both in vitro and in vivo, which holds great potential for effective colon cancer theranostics.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA