Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 98
Filtrar
1.
Virol J ; 19(1): 100, 2022 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659687

RESUMO

Recently, The Lancet published a study on the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines and the waning of immunity with time. The study showed that immune function among vaccinated individuals 8 months after the administration of two doses of COVID-19 vaccine was lower than that among the unvaccinated individuals. According to European Medicines Agency recommendations, frequent COVID-19 booster shots could adversely affect the immune response and may not be feasible. The decrease in immunity can be caused by several factors such as N1-methylpseudouridine, the spike protein, lipid nanoparticles, antibody-dependent enhancement, and the original antigenic stimulus. These clinical alterations may explain the association reported between COVID-19 vaccination and shingles. As a safety measure, further booster vaccinations should be discontinued. In addition, the date of vaccination should be recorded in the medical record of patients. Several practical measures to prevent a decrease in immunity have been reported. These include limiting the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including acetaminophen to maintain deep body temperature, appropriate use of antibiotics, smoking cessation, stress control, and limiting the use of lipid emulsions, including propofol, which may cause perioperative immunosuppression. In conclusion, COVID-19 vaccination is a major risk factor for infections in critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lipossomos , Nanopartículas , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação/efeitos adversos
2.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined whether, in adults receiving behavioural support, offering e-cigarettes together with varenicline helps more people stop smoking cigarettes than varenicline alone. METHODS: A two-group, parallel-arm, pragmatic randomised controlled trial was conducted in six English stop smoking services from 2019-2020. Adults enrolled onto a 12-week programme of in-person one-to-one behavioural smoking cessation support (N=92) were randomised to receive either (i) a nicotine e-cigarette starter-kit alongside varenicline or (ii) varenicline alone. The primary outcome was biochemically-verified abstinence from cigarette smoking between weeks nine-to-12 post quit-date, with those lost to follow-up considered not abstinent. The trial was stopped early due to COVID-19 restrictions and a varenicline recall (92/1266 participants recruited). RESULTS: Nine-to-12-week smoking abstinence rates were 47.9% (23/48) in the e-cigarette-varenicline group compared with 31.8% (14/44) in the varenicline-only group, a 51% increase in abstinence among those offered e-cigarettes; however, the confidence interval (CI) was wide, including the possibility of no difference (risk ratio [RR]=1.51, 95%CI=0.91-2.64). The e-cigarette-varenicline group had 43% lower hazards of relapse from continuous abstinence than the varenicline-only group (hazards ratio [HR]=0.57, 95%CI=0.34-0.96). Attendance for 12 weeks was higher in the e-cigarette-varenicline than varenicline-only group (54.2% versus 36.4%; RR=1.49, 95%CI=0.95-2.47), but similar proportions of participants in both groups used varenicline daily for ≥8 weeks after quitting (22.9% versus 22.7%; RR=1.01, 95%CI=0.47-2.20). Estimates were too imprecise to determine how adverse events differed by group. CONCLUSION: Tentative evidence suggests offering e-cigarettes alongside varenicline to people receiving behavioural support may be more effective for smoking cessation than varenicline alone. IMPLICATIONS: Offering e-cigarettes to people quitting smoking with varenicline may help them remain abstinent from cigarettes, but the evidence is tentative because our sample size was smaller than planned - caused by COVID-19 restrictions and a manufacturing recall. This meant our effect estimates were imprecise, and additional evidence is needed to confirm that providing e-cigarettes and varenicline together helps more people remain abstinent than varenicline alone.

3.
Intensive Care Med ; 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676335

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Epidemiologic studies have documented lower rates of active smokers compared to former or non-smokers in symptomatic patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We assessed the efficacy and safety of nicotine administered by a transdermal patch in critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: In this multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in 18 intensive care units in France, we randomly assigned adult patients (non-smokers, non-vapers or who had quit smoking/vaping for at least 12 months) with proven COVID-19 pneumonia receiving invasive mechanical ventilation for up to 72 h to receive transdermal patches containing either nicotine at a daily dose of 14 mg or placebo until 48 h following successful weaning from mechanical ventilation or for a maximum of 30 days, followed by 3-week dose tapering by 3.5 mg per week. Randomization was stratified by centre, non- or former smoker status and Sequential Organ Function Assessment score (< or ≥ 7). The primary outcome was day-28 mortality. Main prespecified secondary outcomes included 60-day mortality, time to successful extubation, days alive and free from mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy, vasopressor support or organ failure at day 28. RESULTS: Between November 6th 2020, and April 2nd 2021, 220 patients were randomized from 18 active recruiting centers. After excluding 2 patients who withdrew consent, 218 patients (152 [70%] men) were included in the analysis: 106 patients to the nicotine group and 112 to the placebo group. Day-28 mortality did not differ between the two groups (30 [28%] of 106 patients in the nicotine group vs 31 [28%] of 112 patients in the placebo group; odds ratio 1.03 [95% confidence interval, CI 0.57-1.87]; p = 0.46). The median number of day-28 ventilator-free days was 0 (IQR 0-14) in the nicotine group and 0 (0-13) in the placebo group (with a difference estimate between the medians of 0 [95% CI -3-7]). Adverse events likely related to nicotine were rare (3%) and similar between the two groups. CONCLUSION: In patients having developed severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring invasive mechanical ventilation, transdermal nicotine did not significantly reduce day-28 mortality. There is no indication to use nicotine in this situation.

4.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 869169, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35722563

RESUMO

Introduction: One of the most challenging aspects of conducting intervention trials among people who experience severe mental illness (SMI) and who smoke tobacco, is recruitment. In our parent "QuitLink" randomized controlled trial (RCT), slower than expected peer researcher facilitated recruitment, along with the impact of COVID-19 pandemic restrictions, necessitated an adaptive recruitment response. The objectives of the present study were to: (i) describe adaptive peer researcher facilitated recruitment strategies; (ii) explore the effectiveness of these strategies; (iii) investigate whether recruitment strategies reached different subgroups of participants; and (iv) examine the costs and resources required for implementing these strategies. Finally, we offer experience-based lessons in a Peer Researcher Commentary. Methods: People were included in the RCT if they smoked at least 10 cigarettes a day and were accessing mental health support from the project's two partnering mental health organizations in Victoria, Australia. The majority of people accessing these services will have been diagnosed with SMI. Recruitment occurred over 2 years. We began with peer facilitated recruitment strategies delivered face-to-face, then replaced this with direct mail postcards followed by telephone contact. In the final 4 months of the study, we began online recruitment, broadening it to people who smoked and were accessing support or treatment (including from general practitioners) for mental health and/or alcohol or other drug problems, anywhere in the state of Victoria. Differences between recruitment strategies on key participant variables were assessed. We calculated the average cost per enrolee of the different recruitment approaches. Results: Only 109 people were recruited from a target of 382: 29 via face-to-face (March 2019 to April 2020), 66 from postcards (May 2020 to November 2020), and 14 from online (November to December 2020 and January to March 2021) strategies. Reflecting our initial focus on recruiting from supported independent living accommodation facilities, participants recruited face-to-face were significantly more likely to be living in partially or fully supported independent living (n = 29, <0.001), but the samples were otherwise similar. After the initial investment in training and equipping peer researchers, the average cost of recruitment was AU$1,182 per participant-~US$850. Face-to-face recruitment was the most expensive approach and postcard recruitment the least (AU$1,648 and AU$928 per participant). Discussion: Peer researcher facilitated recruitment into a tobacco treatment trial was difficult and expensive. Widely dispersed services and COVID-19 restrictions necessitated non-face-to-face recruitment strategies, such as direct mail postcards, which improved recruitment and may be worthy of further research. Clinical Trial Registration: The trial is registered with ANZCTR (www.anzctr.org.au): ACTRN12619000244101 prior to the accrual of the first participant and updated regularly as per registry guidelines. The trial sponsor was the University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

5.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 856689, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35548431

RESUMO

Objectives: This study examines the initiation of prescribed medication treatments for cardiovascular risk (antihypertensives, lipid-lowering drugs, oral anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation, and smoking cessation medications) during the COVID-19 pandemic in the French population. Methods: For each year between 2017 and 2021, we used the French National Insurance Database to identify the number of people with at least one reimbursement for these medications but no reimbursement in the previous 12 months. We computed incidence rate ratios (IRRs) between 2017-2019 and, respectively 2020 and 2021 using Poisson regression adjusted for age and 2017-2019 time trends. We recorded the number of lipid profile blood tests, Holter electrocardiograms, and consultations with family physicians or cardiologists. Results: In 2020, IRR significantly decreased for initiations of antihypertensives (-11.1%[CI95%, -11.4%;-10.8%]), lipid-lowering drugs (-5.2%[CI95%, -5.5%;-4.8%]), oral anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation (-8.6%[CI95%, -9.1%;-8.0%]), and smoking cessation medications (-50.9%[CI95%, -51.1%;-50.7%]) compared to 2017-2019. Larger decreases were found in women compared to men except for smoking cessation medications, with the sex difference increasing with age. Similar analyses comparing 2021 to 2017-2019 showed an increase in the initiation of lipid-lowering drugs (+ 11.6%[CI95%, 10.7%;12.5%]) but even lower rates for the other medications, particularly in women. In addition, the 2020 number of people visiting a family physician or cardiologist decreased by 8.4 and 7.4%. A higher decrease in these visits was observed in those over 65 years of age compared to those under 65 years of age. A greater use of teleconsultation was found in women. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic heavily impacted the initiation of medication treatments for cardiovascular risk in France, particularly in women and people over 65 years.

6.
Addiction ; 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491743

RESUMO

AIM: To measure whether the prevalence of use and real-world effectiveness of different smoking cessation aids has changed in England since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. DESIGN: Representative monthly cross-sectional surveys, January 2015-June 2021. SETTING: England. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 7300 adults (≥18 y) who had smoked within the previous 12 months and had made ≥1 quit attempt during that period. MEASUREMENTS: The independent variable was the timing of the COVID-19 pandemic (pre-pandemic [January 2015-February 2020] vs pandemic [April 2020-June 2021]). We analysed (i) the association between the pandemic period and self-reported use (vs non-use) during the most recent quit attempt of: prescription medication (nicotine replacement therapy [NRT]/varenicline/bupropion), NRT bought over-the-counter, e-cigarettes, traditional behavioural support and traditional remote support (telephone support/written self-help materials/websites) and (ii) the interaction between the pandemic period and use of these cessation aids on self-reported abstinence from quit date to survey. Covariates included age, sex, social grade, level of cigarette addiction and characteristics related to the quit attempt. FINDINGS: After adjustment for secular trends, there was a significant increase from the pre-pandemic to pandemic period in the prevalence of use of traditional remote support by past-year smokers in a quit attempt (OR = 2.18; 95% CI, 1.42-3.33); specifically telephone support (OR = 7.16; 95% CI, 2.19-23.45) and websites (OR = 2.39; 95% CI, 1.41-4.08). There was also an increase in the prevalence of use of prescription medication (OR = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.08-2.00); specifically varenicline (OR = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.09-2.52). There were no significant changes in prevalence of use of other cessation aids after adjustment for secular trends. People who reported using prescription medication (OR = 1.41; 95% CI, 1.09-1.84) and e-cigarettes (OR = 1.87; 95% CI, 1.62-2.16) had greater odds of reporting abstinence than people who did not. There were no significant interactions between the pandemic period and use of any cessation aid on abstinence, after adjustment for covariates and use of the other aids, although data were insensitive to distinguish no change from meaningful modest (OR = 1.34) effects (Bayes factors 0.72-1.98). CONCLUSIONS: In England, the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with an increase in use of remote support for smoking cessation and varenicline by smokers in a quit attempt up to June 2021. The data were inconclusive regarding an association between the pandemic and changes in the real-world effectiveness of popular smoking cessation aids.

7.
J Perinat Med ; 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A greater proportion of non-pregnant smokers attempted to stop smoking during compared to before the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this study was to determine if a greater proportion of pregnant women also attempted to stop smoking during the pandemic rather than before. METHODS: The use of antenatal smoking cessation services and nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) in pregnant women was audited before (2019-2020) and during the COVID pandemic (2020-2021). Anonymised data from January 2019 to March 2021 were analysed from the Lambeth and Southwark smoking cessation service. RESULTS: A total of 252 pregnant women who smoked were referred to their local antenatal smoking cessation service, of which 90 (35.7%) (median age: 31 years [19-52 years]) chose to attend smoking cessation clinics. The COVID-19 pandemic was not associated with an increase in the number of women attending smoking cessation clinics, (2020-2021 n=46 [40.8%] of 110); compared to (2019-2020 n=44 [30.9%] of 142 referred pregnant women pre-pandemic) p=0.061. Eighty-two women utilised NRT to help them stop smoking and the frequency of NRT use did not change during the pandemic (2019-2020 n=39, 2020-2021 n=43; p=0.420). No significant difference in smoking cessation rates between the two periods was observed at either the four-week (p=0.285) or twelve-week follow-up (p=0.829). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation rates in pregnant women and the demand for antenatal smoking cessation services was unchanged during compared to before the COVID-19 pandemic.

8.
Respirology ; 2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35581532

RESUMO

The US Preventive Task Force (USPSTF) has updated screening criteria by expanding age range and reducing smoking history required for eligibility; the International Lung Screen Trial (ILST) data have shown that PLCOM2012 performs better for eligibility than USPSTF criteria. Screening adherence is low (4%-6% of potential eligible candidates in the United States) and depends upon multiple system and patient/candidate-related factors. Smoking cessation in lung cancer improves survival (past prospective trial data, updated meta-analysis data); smoking cessation is an essential component of lung cancer screening. Circulating biomarkers are emerging to optimize screening and early diagnosis. COVID-19 continues to affect lung cancer treatment and screening through delays and disruptions; specific operational challenges need to be met. Over 70% of suspected malignant lesions develop in the periphery of the lungs. Bronchoscopic navigational techniques have been steadily improving to allow greater accuracy with target lesion approximation and therefore diagnostic yield. Fibre-based imaging techniques provide real-time microscopic tumour visualization, with potential diagnostic benefits. With significant advances in peripheral lung cancer localization, bronchoscopically delivered ablative therapies are an emerging field in limited stage primary and oligometastatic disease. In advanced stage lung cancer, small-volume samples acquired through bronchoscopic techniques yield material of sufficient quantity and quality to support clinically relevant biomarker assessment.

9.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 131: 104241, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35489108

RESUMO

The COVID-19 vaccine rollout has had various degrees of success in different countries. Achieving high levels of vaccine coverage is key to responding to and mitigating the impact of the pandemic on health and aged care systems and the community. In many countries, vaccine hesitancy, resistance, and refusal are emerging as significant barriers to immunisation uptake and the relaxation of policies that limit everyday life. Vaccine hesitancy/ resistance/ refusal is complex and multi-faceted. Individuals and groups have diverse and often multiple reasons for delaying or refusing vaccination. These reasons include: social determinants of health, convenience, ease of availability and access, health literacy understandability and clarity of information, judgements around risk versus benefit, notions of collective versus individual responsibility, trust or mistrust of authority or healthcare, and personal or group beliefs, customs, or ideologies. Published evidence suggests that targeting and adapting interventions to particular population groups, contexts, and specific reasons for vaccine hesitancy/ resistance may enhance the effectiveness of interventions. While evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions to address vaccine hesitancy and improve uptake is limited and generally unable to underpin any specific strategy, multi-pronged interventions are promising. In many settings, mandating vaccination, particularly for those working in health or high risk/ transmission industries, has been implemented or debated by Governments, decision-makers, and health authorities. While mandatory vaccination is effective for seasonal influenza uptake amongst healthcare workers, this evidence may not be appropriately transferred to the context of COVID-19. Financial or other incentives for addressing vaccine hesitancy may have limited effectiveness with much evidence for benefit appearing to have been translated across from other public/preventive health issues such as smoking cessation. Multicomponent, dialogue-based (i.e., communication) interventions are effective in addressing vaccine hesitancy/resistance. Multicomponent interventions that encompasses the following might be effective: (i) targeting specific groups such as unvaccinated/under-vaccinated groups or healthcare workers, (ii) increasing vaccine knowledge and awareness, (iii) enhanced access and convenience of vaccination, (iv) mandating vaccination or implementing sanctions against non-vaccination, (v) engaging religious and community leaders, (vi) embedding new vaccine knowledge and evidence in routine health practices and procedures, and (vii) addressing mistrust and improving trust in healthcare providers and institutions via genuine engagement and dialogue. It is universally important that healthcare professionals and representative groups, as often highly trusted sources of health guidance, should be closely involved in policymaker and health authority decisions regarding the establishment and implementation of vaccine recommendations and interventions to address vaccine hesitancy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Idoso , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde
10.
Curr Oncol ; 29(4): 2263-2271, 2022 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35448158

RESUMO

Smoking cessation after a cancer diagnosis can improve health outcomes, but the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic significantly altered healthcare patterns and strained resources, including for smoking cessation support for cancer patients. A Network that included all 13 provinces and territories (jurisdictions) in Canada received funding and coordinated support from a national organization to implement access to smoking cessation support in cancer care between 2016 and 2021, including throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Descriptive analyses of meetings between the organization and jurisdictions between March of 2020 and August of 2021 demonstrated that all jurisdictions reported disruptions of existing smoking cessation approaches. Common challenges include staff redeployment, inability to deliver support in person, disruptions in travel, and loss of connections with other clinical resources. Common adaptations included budget and workflow adjustments, transition to virtual approaches, partnering with other community resources, and coupling awareness of the harms of smoking and COVID-19. All jurisdictions reported adaptations that maintained or improved access to smoking cessation services. Collectively, data suggest coordinated national efforts to address smoking cessation in cancer care could be crucial to maintaining access during an international healthcare crisis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias
11.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a rapid shift to virtual care, with largely unknown consequences for accessibility. The purpose of this study is to examine pandemic-related changes in use of care for smoking cessation. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis 65,565 enrolments in a large smoking cessation program in Ontario, Canada. We used piecewise mixed effects regression to examine how weeks NRT received, as well as counseling provided and visits attended, varied with date of enrolment over three time periods: more than 6M before the pandemic began; the 6M before the pandemic; and the pandemic period itself. We then examined changes in the associations between use of care and participant characteristics by fitting a model including a set of interactions between time and other variables. Based on an omnibus test of these interactions, we then tested individual terms, using the Holm method to control the familywise error rate. RESULTS: From the start of the pandemic in March, 2020, total weeks of NRT provided rose significantly and then declined, while the amount of counseling fell. Associations between NRT use and participant characteristics changed significantly after the pandemic onset. Individual models showed that people with lower income, living in areas of higher marginalization, unable to work, and reporting higher levels of depressive symptoms all received NRT for a longer time during the pandemic period. CONCLUSION: The pandemic led to small but significant changes in the amount of services used per enrolment. The transition to remote care appears to have reduced the effects of socioeconomic and health barriers. IMPLICATIONS: The amount of care used by participants in tobacco cessation treatment is known to be associated with health and sociodemographic characteristics. Most of these associations did not change markedly following the pandemic-related switch to virtual care in 2020; however, the effects of some economic and health barriers seems to have lessened, perhaps due to a likely reduction in transport and time requirements of treatment.

12.
Med J Aust ; 216(7): 357-363, 2022 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35267206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether offering free mailed nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and telephone counselling to smokers on elective surgery waiting lists increases quitting before surgery. DESIGN, SETTING: Randomised, controlled trial at Frankston Hospital, a public tertiary referral hospital in Melbourne. PARTICIPANTS: Adult smokers added to elective surgery waiting lists for operations at least ten days in the future, 1 April 2019 - 3 April 2020. INTERVENTION: In addition to normal care, intervention participants received a brochure on the risks of low frequency smoking, an offer of Quitline call-back registration, and an offer of mailed NRT according to reported daily smoking: 1-9 cigarettes/day, 2 mg lozenges; 10-15/day, 7-14 mg patches [three weeks] and 2 mg lozenges; > 15/day, 7-21 mg patches [five weeks] and 2 mg lozenges. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome: quitting at least 24 hours before surgery, verified by exhaled carbon monoxide testing. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: quitting at least four weeks before surgery, adverse events, and (for those who had quit before surgery) abstinence three months after surgery. RESULTS: Of 748 eligible participants (control, 363; intervention, 385), 516 (69%) had undergone elective surgery when the trial was terminated early (for COVID-19-related reasons) (intervention group, 274; control group, 242). 122 of the 385 intervention participants (32%) had accepted the offer of cessation support. The proportions of intervention participants who quit at least 24 hours before surgery (18% v 9%; odds ratio [OR], 1.97; 95% CI, 1.22-3.15) or at least four weeks before surgery (9% v 4%; OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.08-4.50) were larger than for the control group. Three months after surgery, 27 of 58 intervention (47%) and 12 of 25 control participants (48%) who quit before surgery reported not smoking in the preceding seven days. No major adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: Uptake of free mailed NRT and Quitline support by smokers on elective surgery waiting lists was good, and offering additional support was associated with higher proportions of smokers quitting before surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12619000032156 (prospective).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , Austrália , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco
13.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 16: 17534666221075493, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35234090

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality despite current treatment strategies which focus on smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation, and symptomatic relief. A focus of COPD care is to encourage self-management, particularly during COVID-19, where much face-to-face care has been reduced or ceased. Digital health solutions may offer affordable and scalable solutions to support COPD patient education and self-management, such solutions could improve clinical outcomes and expand service reach for limited additional cost. However, optimal ways to deliver digital medicine are still in development, and there are a number of important considerations for clinicians, commissioners, and patients to ensure successful implementation of digitally augmented care. In this narrative review, we discuss advantages, pitfalls, and future prospects of digital healthcare, which offer a variety of tools including self-management plans, education videos, inhaler training videos, feedback to patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs), exacerbation monitoring, and pulmonary rehabilitation. We discuss the key issues with sustaining patient and HCP engagement and limiting attrition of use, interoperability with devices, integration into healthcare systems, and ensuring inclusivity and accessibility. We explore the essential areas of research beyond determining safety and efficacy to understand the acceptability of digital healthcare solutions to patients, clinicians, and healthcare systems, and hence ways to improve this and sustain engagement. Finally, we explore the regulatory challenges to ensure quality and engagement and effective integration into current healthcare systems and care pathways, while maintaining patients' autonomy and privacy. Understanding and addressing these issues and successful incorporation of an acceptable, simple, scalable, affordable, and future-proof digital solution into healthcare systems could help remodel global chronic disease management and fractured healthcare systems to provide best patient care and optimisation of healthcare resources to meet the global burden and unmet clinical need of COPD.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , COVID-19/terapia , Doença Crônica , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Drug Policy ; 102: 103607, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35180555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking cigarettes worsens COVID-19 outcomes, and news media and health agencies have been communicating about that. However, few studies have examined how these messages affect attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions of people who smoke. These are critical variables that can inform public health campaigns to motivate quitting smoking during the COVID-19 crisis. METHODS: In August 2020, we conducted an online experiment in the U.S. with 1,004 adults who smoke. Participants were randomized to one of four message conditions: COVID-19 risk, smoking risk, combined risk of smoking for COVID-19 severity, or a non-risk control. Outcomes were message reactions (emotions and reactance), attitudes and beliefs (severity, susceptibility, self-efficacy, response efficacy for smoking and COVID-19, and conspiracy beliefs), and behavioral intentions (smoking intentions, COVID-protective intentions, and information-seeking). RESULTS: Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) showed that combined risk messages elicited higher perceived severity of smoking-related disease than control messages. Similarly, the combined risk condition resulted in greater intentions to quit smoking in the next month (vs. COVID-19 risk condition) and intentions to reduce smoking in the next 6 months (vs. smoking risk and control; ps < .05). Multivariate logistic regression found that exposure to the combined risk messages (vs. control as referent) was associated with higher odds of mask-wearing intentions in the next 2 weeks (AOR = 1.97). CONCLUSIONS: Health agencies can possibly use messages that communicate about the combined risk of smoking and COVID-19 as a novel strategy to motivate people who smoke to quit and take protective action for COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Intenção , Fumar/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos
15.
Pneumologie ; 76(2): 126-138, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35176793

RESUMO

Tobacco control, psychosocial and medical assistance regarding tobacco cessation is still a hidden potential within the German health care system. So far doctors rarely talk to their patients about their smoking status and physical and psychological benefits of quitting.This paper focusses on recommended current diagnostic and treatment standards, as well as evidence-based methods to address the topic on how to stop smoking and its association with certain diseases such as COPD, lung cancer and COVID-19 infection. The role of e-cigarettes as a cessation tool and its health related risks are critically examined. Consequences and advice how to implement smoking cessation procedures into daily practice are presented.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos
16.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35166327

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic had reduced access to traditional, in-person smoking cessation treatment. We examined the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of mobile chat messaging in preventing smoking relapse in smokers who have recently quit smoking. METHODS: In this assessor-blinded, pilot randomized controlled trial in 5 cessation clinics, we recruited adult daily smokers who had been receiving cessation treatments and abstained for 3 to 30 days. The intervention group received real-time, personalized chat messaging on relapse prevention via WhatsApp for 3 months. The control group received generic text messaging on the harms of smoking and benefits of quitting for 3 months. The primary outcome was carbon monoxide-validated abstinence at 6 months post-treatment initiation. The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04409496). RESULTS: From June to July 2020, 108 of 130 (83%) eligible subjects were randomized to the intervention (N=54) or control (N=54) groups. The retention rate was 93% at 3 months (end of treatment) and 85% at 6 months. In the intervention group, 80% of participants responded to the chat messages at least once; 43% continuously engaged with the intervention over the 3-month intervention period. By intention-to-treat, validated abstinence at 6 months was higher in the intervention than control group (31% vs 22%), with an RR of 1.72 (95% CI 0.91-3.23; P=0.09) after adjusting for pre-quit nicotine dependence, duration of abstinence and cessation treatment at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot trial showed the feasibility and acceptability of mobile chat messaging for relapse prevention with preliminary evidence on its effectiveness in increasing validated abstinence. IMPLICATIONS: Smoking relapse is the most likely outcome of smoking cessation attempts and an undertreated problem. This pilot trial showed the feasibility and acceptability of personalized chat messaging via WhatsApp for relapse prevention in recent abstainers amid the COVID-19 pandemic. The higher carbon monoxide-validated abstinence rate in participants who received chat messaging than controls showed preliminary evidence on the effectiveness of the intervention. Fully-powered trials are warranted to test the intervention.

17.
Vaccine ; 40(12): 1712-1716, 2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35168840

RESUMO

Given vulnerability to COVID-19 among smokers and vaccine hesitancy among populations disproportionately burdened with COVID-19, it's important to understand concerns about vaccines and the impact of COVID-19 on these subgroups. Among our all African American (AA) sample of smokers (N = 172) enrolled in alargersmoking cessation clinical trial, results demonstrated an intensive burden from COVID-19; 42 (24.4%) lost employment, 56 (32.6%) lost household income, and 66 (38.4%) reportedinability to pay bills and buy food due to COVID. Most, 103 (64.4%), were willing to get vaccinated. Among the vaccine-hesitant, 57 (35.6%), concerns about COVID-19 vaccine development and mistrust in vaccines were primary reasons for unwillingness to get vaccinated. Few identified doctor's advice as most valued in deciding if the vaccine was the best option. Findings highlight high openness to the vaccine among smokers impacted by COVID but reiterate the need for community-engaged versus health system-driven approaches to improve vaccine hesitancy among racial/ethnic minorities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Afro-Americanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Emprego , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Chest ; 161(2): e91-e96, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35131079

RESUMO

CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old South African man with a medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, seizure disorder, OSA, and latent TB presented to the ER with gradually progressive dyspnea over months. He also reported occasional dry cough and fatigue at presentation but denied fever, chills, chest pain, leg swelling, palpitations, or lightheadedness. He was treated with a course of levofloxacin for presumed community-acquired pneumonia as an outpatient without improvement and had tested negative for COVID-19. He denied occupational or environmental exposures or sick contacts, though he had traveled back to South Africa 1 year before presentation. He had complex partial seizures for the past 22 years, which had been well controlled on phenytoin (300 mg daily). His other home medications included dulaglutide, sertraline, and atorvastatin and had no recent changes. He quit smoking 30 years ago after smoking one pack per day for 10 years.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Substituição de Medicamentos/métodos , Lacosamida/administração & dosagem , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Pulmão , Fenitoína , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Biópsia/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Dispneia/etiologia , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/fisiopatologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenitoína/administração & dosagem , Fenitoína/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2 , Convulsões/complicações , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Bloqueadores do Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem/administração & dosagem , Bloqueadores do Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem/efeitos adversos
19.
Vigil. sanit. debate ; 10(1): 34-39, fev. 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362143

RESUMO

Introdução: A pandemia do novo coronavírus teve repercussões no funcionamento dos sistemas de saúde do mundo inteiro. O tabagista foi um grupo diretamente afetado por essas mudanças. Objetivo: Mensurar esse impacto a partir da análise dos dados do Programa Estadual de Controle ao Tabagismo de Pernambuco. Método: Estudo descritivo transversal, utilizando como unidades de análise dados da estratégia de monitoramento do Programa Estadual de Controle ao Tabagismo da Secretaria Estadual de Saúde de Pernambuco (SES-PE), comparando os atendimentos no segundo quadrimestre dos anos de 2019 e 2020. Resultados: Entre maio e agosto de 2019, 3.282 pacientes tabagistas buscaram tratamento para cessação do tabagismo no SUS, em Pernambuco. Em período similar, entre os meses de maio e agosto do ano de 2020, o tratamento para cessação do tabagismo foi procurado por 680 usuários tabagistas, representando uma queda de 79,28%. Além disso, o número de municípios oferecendo tratamento para cessação do tabagismo no SUS caiu de 97 para 36 (62,89%) e o número de unidades de saúde da atenção básica realizando tratamento para cessação do tabagismo no SUS de 277 para 80 (71,11%). Conclusões: A diminuição da oferta do tratamento pelo Programa Estadual de Combate ao Tabagismo é preocupante. Ainda que a sua relação com a COVID-19 não esteja completamente elucidada, a cessação do uso do tabaco traz benefícios já bem estabelecidos. Dessa forma, é necessário incentivar a adoção de novas estratégias e tecnologias, aproveitando a janela de oportunidade que o temor da associação COVID-19/tabagismo criou.


Introduction: The new Coronavirus pandemic has had an impact on health systems worldwide. Smokers were directly affected by these changes. Objective: To measure the new Coronavirus pandemic impact on smoking cessation from the analysis of data from the Pernambuco State Tobacco Control Program. Method: Descriptive cross-sectional study, using data from the monitoring strategy of the State Tobacco Control Program of the State Health Secretariat of Pernambuco (SES-PE) as the unit of analysis, comparing services in the second quarter of 2019 and 2020. Results: Between May and August 2019, 3.282 smoking patients sought treatment for smoking cessation in SUS, in Pernambuco. In a similar period, between the months of May and August of the year 2020, treatment for smoking cessation was sought by 680 smoking users, representing a drop of 79,28%. In addition, the number of municipalities offering treatment for smoking cessation in SUS dropped from 97 to 36 (62,89%) and the number of primary health care units providing treatment for smoking cessation in SUS went from 277 to 80 (71,11%). Conclusions: The decrease in the offer of treatment by the State Program to Combat Smoking is worrying. Although its relation with COVID-19 has not been fully elucidated, the cessation of tobacco use has already established benefts. Thus, it is necessary to encourage the adoption of new strategies and technologies, using the window of opportunity that the fear of COVID-19/smoking association created.

20.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 114: 106689, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35085833

RESUMO

In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, many research and clinical teams have transitioned their projects to a remote-based format, weighing the pros and cons of making such a potentially disruptive decision. One key aspect of this decision is related to the patient population, with underserved populations possibly benefiting from the increased reach of telehealth, while also encountering technology barriers that may limit accessibility. Early in the pandemic, our team shifted a group-based, smoking cessation and alcohol modification treatment trial to a remote-based format. Our population included individuals who concurrently wanted to quit smoking and modify their alcohol use. This paper describes technical and logistical considerations of transitioning from in-person to remote-based delivery for group-based treatment, including the impact upon study staff, group facilitators, participants, and the institution. Remotely-delivered group treatment may be valuable not only in response to pandemic-related restrictions, but it may also offer an alternative treatment-delivery modality with independent benefits in terms of population reach, costs, and pragmatics for clients, staff, and institutions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Telemedicina , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Telemedicina/métodos , Fumar Tabaco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA