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1.
Acta Pharm ; 73(1): 29-42, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36692461

RESUMO

This century's most serious catastrophe, COVID-19, has been dubbed "the most life-threatening disaster ever". Asthmatic persons are even more prone to COVID-19's complex interplay with the underlying inflammatory condition. In order to protect themselves against COVID-19, asthmatic patients must be very vigilant in their usage of therapeutic techniques and drugs (e.g., bronchodilators, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors), which may be accessed to deal with mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 indications. People with asthma may have more severe COVID-19 symptoms, which may lead to a worsening of their condition. Several cytokines were found to be elevated in the bronchial tracts of patients with acute instances of COVID-19, suggesting that this ailment may aggravate asthma episodes by increasing inflammation. The intensity of COVID-19 symptoms is lessened in patients with asthma who have superior levels of T-cells. Several antibiotics, antivirals, antipyretics, and anti-inflammatory drugs have been suggested to suppress COVID-19 symptoms in asthmatic persons. Furthermore, smokers are more likely to have aggravated repercussions in COVID-19 infection. Being hospitalized to critical care due to COVID-19, needing mechanical breathing, and suffering from serious health repercussions, are all possible outcomes for someone who has previously smoked. Smoking damages airways and alveoli, which significantly raises the risk of COVID-19-related health complications. Patients with a previous record of smoking are predisposed to severe COVID-19 disease symptoms that essentially require a combination of bronchodilators, mucolytics, antivirals, and antimuscarinic drugs, to cope with the situation. The present review discusses the care and management of asthmatic and smoker patients in COVID-19 infection.

2.
Tob Induc Dis ; 21: 01, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694668

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to determine the changes in tobacco consumption in Spanish university students during the lockdown in 2020, and to identify vulnerable groups based on gender, age, and living situation. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. From a sample of 1540 Spanish university students, 19.9% (n=306; 77.6% women; mean age=30.9 years; SD=8.3) reported having consumed tobacco. The frequency and average daily consumption of cigarettes and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) before the pandemic and during lockdown were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 97.1% of students consumed only cigarettes, 2.9% only ENDS, and 3.3% were dual consumers. During lockdown, cigarette consumption was significantly reduced (5.3 before; 4.0 during; t(71)=3.6255; p<0.001) in the youngest group (aged 18-24 years). However, women daily users significantly increased their consumption (t(149)= -2.5461; p<0.05) and so did the 35-44 years age group (t(32)= -2.2285; p<0.05). Cigarette consumption significantly increased in those who were living alone (5.6 to 7.2; Z= -2.351; p<0.05) and with a partner (7.2 to 8.0; t(97)= -2.3771; p<0.05), but decreased in those who were living with their parents or other relatives (6.2 to 4.5; t(101)=3.4298; p<0.001). A total of 17.0% ceased consumption during lockdown, mainly women, younger students (aged 18-24 years), and those who lived with their parents. None of the people who used cigarettes daily during the pre-pandemic period stopped smoking during lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: Younger university students and those living with their parents decreased their tobacco use during the lockdown. Potentially vulnerable groups at risk of increasing their consumption were women who consumed tobacco daily before the pandemic and students aged 35-44 years who lived alone or with their partner.

3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1204, 2023 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36681700

RESUMO

Smoking has been linked with both increased and decreased risk of COVID-19, prompting the hypothesis of a protective role of nicotine in the pathogenesis of the disease. Studies of the association between use of smokeless tobacco and COVID-19 would help refining this hypothesis. We analysed data from 424,386 residents in the Stockholm Region, Sweden, with information on smoking and smokeless tobacco (snus) use prior to the pandemic obtained from dental records. Diagnoses of COVID-19 between February and October 2020 were obtained from health-care registers. We estimated the risk of receiving a diagnosis of COVID-19 for current smokers and for current snus users relative to non-users of tobacco, adjusting for potential confounders (aRR). The aRR of COVID -19 was elevated for current snus users (1.09 ;95%CI = 0.99-1.21 among men and 1.15; 95%CI = 1.00-1.33 among women). The risk for women consuming more than 1 can/day was twice as high as among non-users of tobacco. Current smoking was negatively associated with risk of COVID-19 (aRR = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.61-0.75); including hospital admission (aRR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.47-0.76) and intensive care (aRR = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.21-0.89). The hypothesis of a protective effect of tobacco nicotine on COVID-19 was not supported by the findings. The negative association between smoking and COVID-19 remains unexplained.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Feminino , Nicotina , Suécia/epidemiologia , Clínicas Odontológicas , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Tabaco sem Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia
4.
J Drug Issues ; 53(1): 145-158, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36606120

RESUMO

Social networks can enhance behavioral changes or entrench existing patterns of behavior. We aimed to identify how network ties to other e-cigarette users shaped responses to the pandemic and e-cigarette considerations. A national U.S. survey of 562 e-cigarette users was conducted during April 2020. Participants self-reported network ties to other e-cigarette users and pandemic outcomes: receiving expressions of concern about vaping, risk for a bad COVID outcome, changes in e-cigarette risk perceptions, and considerations of quitting. Each additional e-cigarette user tie was associated with a 0.014 unit increase in expressions of concern (p < 0.001), a 0.034 unit increase in perceived risk of a bad outcome (p < 0.05), and 3.9% higher odds of quit considerations (OR = 1.039; p < 0.01). Family ties to e-cigarette users were particularly important. Additional e-cigarette users within a network shaped risk perceptions in response to COVID-19. Network ties to other e-cigarette users have implications for cessation or reduction of e-cigarette use.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673907

RESUMO

Because COVID-19 is a respiratory and cardiovascular disease, understanding behaviors that impact cardiopulmonary health, such as tobacco use, is particularly important. While early studies suggested no change in prevalence of tobacco use as COVID-19 emerged, pandemic fatigue, shifting levels of COVID-19 transmission, and vaccine availability have all changed since the start of the pandemic. The current study examined whether time, COVID-19 surges, and/or vaccination status were associated with likelihood of daily and non-daily tobacco use over the first 24 months of the pandemic. Data were obtained from electronic health records of healthcare visits (n = 314,787) to four Southern California VA healthcare systems. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that the likelihood of reporting both daily and non-daily tobacco use (versus non-use) increased over time. Daily and non-daily tobacco use were less common at visits that occurred during COVID-19 surges, as well as among veterans vaccinated against COVID-19. Our findings provide new insight into changes of tobacco use patterns and correlates across the first two years of this pandemic, and understanding these associations may facilitate understanding of health-related behaviors and inform clinical treatment of tobacco use disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia , COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Vacinação
7.
Tob Prev Cessat ; 8: 45, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36568488

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Changes in daily life related to COVID-19 have impacted e-cigarette use, particularly in young adults. This cross-sectional mixed-methods study explored young adults' perceptions regarding how COVID-19 influenced their e-cigarette use. METHODS: We analyzed Fall 2020 survey data from 726 past 6-month e-cigarette users (mean age=24.15 years, 51.1% female, 35.5% sexual minority, 4.4% Black, 10.2% Asian, 12.1% Hispanic) and Spring 2021 semi-structured interview data among a subset of 40 participants (mean age=26.30 years, 35.0% female, 45.0% sexual minority, 5.0% Black, 22.5% Asian, 12.5% Hispanic). Participants were drawn from 6 metropolitan statistical areas with varied tobacco and cannabis legislative contexts. RESULTS: Among survey participants, 44.4% also smoked cigarettes, 54.0% other tobacco products, and 60.1% used cannabis. They reported various changes in their daily lives, including changes in the nature and/or status of employment (e.g. 15.3% were laid off, 72.8% experienced household income loss). Regarding changes in e-cigarette use since COVID-19, 22.6% tried to cut down and 16.0% tried to quit. Interview participants commonly indicated that they increased their use due to stress, boredom, changes in accessibility, and/or changes to daily environment that made e-cigarette use more feasible. CONCLUSIONS: Results highlight the importance of promoting opportunities for young adults to build relationships to decrease stress, foster a sense of belonging, and increase quality of life (e.g. increasing the accessibility to mental health and social support services, intentionally engaging young adults in pandemic-appropriate community-building and extracurricular activities). This research may help to inform future e-cigarette cessation interventions that consider the unique challenges of societal stressors, such as pandemics.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(12): e2248678, 2022 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36576742

RESUMO

This cohort study estimates state-level changes in cigarette sales in the US during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Produtos do Tabaco , Humanos , Pandemias , Comércio
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 985494, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36504971

RESUMO

Background: We aimed to clarify the relationship between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reinfection and basic disease and smoking status. Methods: The electronic health records of 165,320 patients with COVID-19 from January 1, 2020, to August 27, 2021, were analyzed. Data on age, race, sex, smoking status (never, current, former), and basic disease were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard models. Results: In total, 6,133 patients (3.7%) were reinfected. The overall reinfection rate for never, current, and former smokers was 4.2, 3.5, and 5.7%, respectively. Although the risk of reinfection was highest among former smokers aged ≥65 years (7.7% [422/5,460]), the reinfection rate among current smokers aged ≥65 years was 6.2% (341/5,543). Among reinfected patients, the number of basic diseases was higher in former smokers (2.41 ± 1.16) than in current (2.28 ± 1.07, P = 0.07) and never smokers (2.07 ± 1.05, P < 0.001). Former smokers who are older may have been exposed to factors that increase their risk of symptomatic COVID-19 reinfection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Idoso , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Fumantes , Fumar/epidemiologia
10.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(24)2022 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36559537

RESUMO

The development of recombinant vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A is an important task. The combination of the conserved influenza A antigen, the extracellular domain of the transmembrane protein M2 (M2e), and the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (RBD) provides the opportunity to develop a bivalent vaccine against these infections. The fusion of antigens with bacterial flagellin, the ligand for Toll-like receptor 5 and potent mucosal adjuvant, may increase the immunogenicity of the candidate vaccines and enable intranasal immunization. In this study, we report the transient expression of RBD alone, RBD coupled with four copies of M2e, and fusions of RBD and RBD-4M2e with flagellin in Nicotiana benthamiana plants using the self-replicating potato virus X-based vector pEff. The yields of purified recombinant proteins per gram of fresh leaf tissue were about 20 µg for RBD, 50-60 µg for RBD-4M2e and the fusion of RBD with flagellin, and about 90 µg for RBD-4M2e fused to flagellin. Targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum enabled the production of glycosylated recombinant proteins comprising RBD. Our results show that plant-produced RBD and RBD-4M2e could be further used for the development of subunit vaccines against COVID-19 and a bivalent vaccine against COVID-19 and influenza A, while flagellin fusions could be used for the development of intranasal vaccines.

11.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278888, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508420

RESUMO

The South African government imposed one of the strictest lockdowns in the world as part of measures to curb the spread of COVID-19 in the country, including a ban on the sale of tobacco products. This study explored news media coverage of arguments and activities in relation to the South African lockdown tobacco sales ban. We collected media articles published between 26 March to 17 August 2020, which corresponded to the period of the sales ban. Data were sourced via google search and snowball identification of relevant articles. Thematic analysis of data was conducted with the aid of NVivo. We analysed a total of 305 articles relevant to the South African tobacco sales ban during the lockdown. Six major themes were identified in the data: challenges associated with implementing the ban, litigation, and threats of litigation to remove the ban, governance process and politicization of the ban, pro and anti-tobacco sales ban activities and arguments and reactions to the announcement lifting the ban. The initial reason for placing the ban was due to the non-classification of tobacco products as an essential item. Early findings of a link between tobacco smoking and COVID-19 disease severity led to an extension of the ban to protect South Africa's fragile health system. Pro-sales ban arguments included the importance of protecting the health system from collapse due to rising COVID-19 hospitalization, benefit of cessation, and the need for non-smokers to be protected from exposure to secondhand smoke. Anti-sales ban arguments included the adverse effect of nicotine withdrawal symptoms on smokers, loss of jobs and the expansion of the illicit cigarette markets. Litigation against the ban's legality was a strategy used by the tobacco industry to mobilize the public against the ban while promoting their business through the distribution of branded masks and door-to-door delivery which goes against current tobacco regulations. The media could serve as a veritable tool to promote public health if engaged in productive ways to communicate and promote public health regulations to the general population. Engagement with the media should be enhanced as part of health promotion strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Comércio , Tabaco
12.
Tob Induc Dis ; 20: 108, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36530211

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While most Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries have adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), implementation and enforcement of measures are lacking in some low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in the region. This study aimed to describe: 1) how the tobacco industry has undermined tobacco control efforts and adapted its tactics in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and other external factors, 2) the political factors that hinder progress, and 3) the expert recommendations to overcome challenges of tobacco control in the ASEAN region. METHODS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, qualitative interviews were conducted with tobacco control experts to explore their perspectives and recommendations to address the barriers and challenges of tobacco control in ASEAN LMICs. RESULTS: Eleven tobacco control experts participated in interviews. Five themes emerged from the data: 1) a shift to below-the-line marketing and digital technologies to target youth; 2) industry develops new tactics to undermine tobacco control; 3) cigarette packet branding - the last remaining marketing channel; 4) political factors hindering tobacco control; and 5) broader involvement and collaboration in tobacco control. CONCLUSIONS: The tobacco industry continues to undermine tobacco control in ASEAN LMICs, shifting its marketing, corporate social responsibility (CSR) and lobbying tactics in response to changing regulations, digital technologies, and the COVID-19 pandemic. While lack of government leadership also hinders progress, full adoption of the FCTC and increased collaboration in tobacco control are recommended to overcome these issues.

13.
Int J Ment Health Addict ; : 1-28, 2022 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36530353

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has created a psychoactive substance use crisis in many countries, including México. Remote valid tools to identify high-risk groups in need for treatment are a prerequisite for cost-effective interventions in primary care settings. To determine the validity and correlates of the remote applications of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) with sex, age, and psychological care-seeking, offered remotely in primary settings, during the COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico, a total sample of 19,109 Mexicans, with an average age of 34.38 years (SD = 12.28, range = 18-80), 65.8% of whom were women (n = 12,578), 29.6% in lockdown (5,660), 39.8% in partial lockdown (7,611), 30.60% not in lockdown (5,838), and 14.75% of whom were seeking psychological care (n = 2,819), completed ASSIST through a programmed Web application. The dimensionality of the scale to verify construct validity evidence was achieved through a confirmatory factor analysis model (CFA). We represented the distribution of subjects by sex, age, lockdown condition, and psychological care-seeking, based on their lifetime consumption in 2021. We also compared the total distribution by consumption risk level and recommended type of intervention, psychological care-seeking, and age. The tool included ten dimensions (one for each substance, such as tobacco use), confirmed through the CFA. In general, our findings indicated that men reported high lifetime psychoactive substance use and risky drug use levels. A high percentage of 18 to 19-year-old women reported lifetime tobacco and alcohol use. Additionally, a high number of all-age women reported lifetime sedative and opioid use. Also, a high proportion of partially lockdown participants reported lifetime drug use. Moreover, a high percentage of subjects seeking psychological care were at a moderate and high risk of drug use, which required brief or intensive treatment. Our findings indicate that it was possible to validate the factor structure of the programmed ASSIST for remote use. More men than women reported high lifetime psychoactive substance use and risky levels because of their consumption. At the same time, younger women reported similar and even higher lifetime tobacco, alcohol, and cocaine use than same-age men. More all-age women reported lifetime use of sedatives than all-age men. More all-age partially lockdown participants reported lifetime use of drugs. In general, subjects at greater risk and those requiring psychological care are more likely to seek care. Community and primary care screening will make it possible to implement effective early interventions to reduce the substance use risks associated with health emergencies. Future studies are required to determine the diagnosis of substance use disorders to evaluate the cut-off points in the screening test to discriminate between the presence and absence of symptoms and evaluate the effect of remote psychological care.

14.
Cureus ; 14(11): e31544, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36540541

RESUMO

Thoracic disc herniations (TDHs) are very rare. While most common in the setting of trauma, other etiologies have been documented. Here, we present a case of spontaneous TDHs in the setting of tobacco abuse and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causing acute paraplegia. We review spontaneous TDHs, associated risk factors, and the possible role of COVID-19 in the pathophysiology.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554420

RESUMO

Smoking is considered a major preventable cause of cardiovascular and lung diseases, as well as cancer. During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was extensive discussion about the influence of nicotine use; ultimately, smoking was considered a major risk factor for poor disease progression. Therefore, in April 2021, we conducted an anonymous cross-sectional online survey on smoking and vaping behavior, as well as smoking cessation, in four different countries in Europe (the United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, and Italy). A total of 3605 participants completed a questionnaire on their smoking and vaping behaviors and smoking cessation because of and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Fear of COVID-19 infection, a high percentage of quarantine stays (44.9% Italy and 52.1% Spain), and high infection (75.5% Italy and 52.4% Spain) and death (42% Italy) rates in respondents' personal circles were observed mostly in the surveyed populations of Italy and Spain. Smoking cessation attempts and success were mainly seen in the Italian population and were linked to psychological distress, while the same effects were shown for vaping in Spain. In summary, health anxiety was detected in all cohorts. Despite these findings, smoking as a risk factor for severe outcomes of COVID-19 infection did not lead to a higher rate of smoking cessation attempts.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Transversais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 128: 121-127, 2022 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36563958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are risk factors for severe COVID-19. However, limited literature exists on the effect of COPD and smoking on COVID-19 outcomes. This study examined the impact of smoking exposure in pack-years (PY) and COPD on COVID-19 outcomes among smokers in Japan. METHODS: The study included 1266 smokers enrolled by the Japan COVID-19 task force between February 2020 and December 2021. PY and COPD status was self-reported by patients. Patients were classified into the non-COPD (n = 1151) and COPD (n = 115) groups; the non-COPD group was further classified into <10 PY (n = 293), 10-30 PY (n = 497), and >30 PY (n = 361). The study outcome was the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). RESULTS: The incidence of IMV increased with increasing PY and was highest in the COPD group (<10 PY = 7.8%, 10-30 PY = 12.3%, >30 PY = 15.2%, COPD = 26.1%; P <0.001). A significant association was found for IMV requirement in the >30 PY and COPD groups through univariate (odds ratio [OR]: >30 PY = 2.11, COPD = 4.14) and multivariate (OR: >30 PY = 2.38; COPD = 7.94) analyses. Increasing PY number was also associated with increased IMV requirement in patients aged <65 years. CONCLUSION: Cumulative smoking exposure was positively associated with COVID-19 outcomes in smokers.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360991

RESUMO

The causative agents of COVID-19 are the variants of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) [...].


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Nicotina , Tabaco
18.
Tob Induc Dis ; 20: 98, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419782

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tobacco smokers are at high risk of developing severe COVID-19. Lockdown was a chosen strategy to deal with the spread of infectious diseases; nonetheless, it influenced people's eating and smoking behaviors. The main objective of this study is to determine the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on smoking (waterpipe and cigarette) behavior and its associations with sociodemographic characteristics and body mass index. METHODS: The data were derived from a large-scale retrospective cross-sectional study using a validated online international survey from 38 countries (n=37207) conducted between 17 April and 25 June 2020. The Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO-EMR countries) data related to 10 Arabic countries that participated in this survey have been selected for analysis in this study. A total of 12433 participants were included in the analysis of this study, reporting their smoking behavior and their BMI before and during the COVID-19 lockdown. Descriptive and regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between smoking practices and the participant's country of origin, sociodemographic characteristics, and BMI (kg/m2). RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence rate of smoking decreased significantly during the lockdown from 29.8% to 23.5% (p<0.05). The percentage of females who smoke was higher than males among the studied population. The highest smoking prevalence was found in Lebanon (33.2%), and the lowest was in Oman (7.9%). In Egypt, Kuwait, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia, the data showed a significant difference in the education level of smokers before and during the lockdown (p<0.05). Smokers in Lebanon had lower education levels than those in other countries, where the majority of smokers had a Bachelor's degree. The findings show that the BMI rates in Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, and Saudi Arabia significantly increased during the lockdown (p<0.05). The highest percentages of obesity among smokers before the lockdown were in Oman (33.3%), followed by Bahrain (28.4%) and Qatar (26.4%), whereas, during the lockdown, the percentage of obese smokers was highest in Bahrain (32.1%) followed by Qatar (31.3%) and Oman (25%). According to the logistic regression model, the odds ratio of smoking increased during the pandemic, whereas the odds ratio of TV watching decreased. This finding was statistically significant by age, gender, education level, country of residence, and work status. CONCLUSIONS: Although the overall rates of smoking among the studied countries decreased during the lockdown period, we cannot attribute this change in smoking behavior to the lockdown. Smoking cessation services need to anticipate that unexpected disruptions, such as pandemic lockdowns, may be associated with changes in daily tobacco consumption. Public health authorities should promote the adoption of healthy lifestyles to reduce the long-term negative effects of the lockdown.

19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20335, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36434073

RESUMO

Empirical evidence, primarily based on hospital-based or voluntary samples, suggests that current smokers have a lower risk of COVID-19 infection than never smokers. In this study, we used nationally representative data to examine the association between tobacco use and the risk of having a confirmed COVID-19 case. We explored several forms of tobacco use, contributing to separate the role of nicotine from smoking. We used data from 44,199 participants from three pooled national health surveys in Finland (FinSote 2018-2020). The primary outcome was a confirmed COVID-19 case. We examined current smoking, moist smokeless tobacco (snus), e-cigarettes with and without nicotine and nicotine replacement therapy products. Current daily smokers had a relative risk of 1.12 of a confirmed COVID-19 case (95% CI 0.65; 1.94) in fully adjusted models compared with never smokers. Current snus use was associated with a 68% higher risk of a confirmed COVID-19 case (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.02; 2.75) than never users. We did not find conclusive evidence of associations between e-cigarettes with and without nicotine and nicotine replacement therapy products and the risk of confirmed COVID-19 cases. Our findings suggest that nicotine might not have a protective role in the risk of COVID-19 as previously hypothesized.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Humanos , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Nicotina , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia
20.
Am J Prev Med ; 2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347663

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Shelter-in-place orders altered facilitators and barriers to tobacco use (e.g., outlet closures, restricted social gatherings). This study examined whether the duration of time in shelter in place and compliance with different shelter-in-place orders influenced adolescent cigarette and E-cigarette use and how the use may differ by demographic characteristics. METHODS: Shelter-in-place policy data obtained from government websites were merged with cross-sectional 2020 survey data on adolescents in California. Treatment variables included the proportion of time in shelter in place and self-reported compliance with shelter-in-place orders (for essential businesses and retail spaces and social and outdoor contexts). Multilevel logit models for dichotomous past 6-month cigarette and E-cigarette use and multilevel negative binomial regression models for past 6-month frequency of use were used. Moderation analyses were conducted on demographic measures. The sample included 1,196 adolescents (mean age=15.8 years, age range=13-19 years, 49.2% female, 50.0% White). Analyses were conducted in 2022. RESULTS: No associations were found between the proportion of time in shelter in place and outcomes. Shelter-in-place compliance with essential business and retail space orders was associated with lower odds of using cigarettes and E-cigarettes in the past 6 months. Compliance with social and outdoor context-related orders were associated with lower odds of using E-cigarettes and fewer days using cigarettes and E-cigarettes. Being aged ≥18 years moderated the associations between essential business/retail space and social/outdoor context-related shelter-in-place compliance orders and past 6-month frequency of cigarette smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support tailored interventions for less compliant and older adolescents for future pandemic mitigation measures.

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