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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629382

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There has been a paradigm shift in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) over the past decade. With the advent of self-administered targeted oral anticancer agents (OAAs), the treatment of CLL has begun to shift from the infusion clinic to the patient's home. This introduced new challenges including patient non-adherence, class-specific adverse effects, and financial toxicity to treatment. In this paper, we discuss a structured approach to identifying and addressing barriers to optimal patient outcomes. AREAS COVERED: We will ground our discussion using the five dimensions of adherence as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO): therapy factors, health-system factors, condition related factors, social/economic factors, and patient factors. We discuss how each of these domains present in patients with CLL. We will also discuss how we can prevent and address these barriers in through the various phases of treatment. EXPERT OPINION: A multidisciplinary program to support patients on OAAs is critical for patients with CLL. This team should involve pharmacists and social workers in addition to nursing, advanced practitioner and physician colleagues. The program should aim to identify, prevent, and address patient-specific barriers by offering individualized solutions. We describe how such a program can be designed and implemented.

2.
Clin Immunol ; 263: 110204, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: T-ALL is an aggressive hematological tumor that develops as the result of a multi-step oncogenic process which causes expansion of hematopoietic progenitors that are primed for T cell development to undergo malignant transformation and growth. Even though first-line therapy has a significant response rate, 40% of adult patients and 20% of pediatric patients will relapse. Therefore, there is an unmet need for treatment for relapsed/refractory T-ALL to develop potential targeted therapies. METHODS: Pediatric T-ALL patient derived T cells were grown under either nonskewingTh0 or Th1-skewing conditions to further process for ChIP-qPCR, RDIP-qPCR and other RT-PCR assays. Endogenous WASp was knocked out using CRISPR-Cas9 and was confirmed using flow cytometry and western blotting. LC-MS/MS was performed to find out proteomic dataset of WASp-interactors generated from Th1-skewed, human primary Th-cells. DNA-damage was assessed by immunofluorescence confocal-imaging and single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Overexpression of RNaseH1 was also done to restore normal Th1-transcription in WASp-deficient Th1-skewed cells. RESULTS: We discovered that nuclear-WASp is required for suppressing R-loop production (RNA/DNA-hybrids) at Th1-network genes by ribonucleaseH2 (RNH2) and topoisomerase1. Nuclear-WASp is associated with the factors involved in preventing and dissolving R-loops in Th1 cells. In nuclear- WASp-reduced malignant Th1-cells, R-loops accumulate in vivo and are processed into DNA-breaks by transcription-coupled-nucleotide-excision repair (TC-NER). Several epigenetic modifications were also found to be involved at Th1 gene locus which are responsible for active/repressive marks of particular genes. By demonstrating WASp as a physiologic regulator of programmed versus unprogrammed R-loops, we suggest that the transcriptional role of WASp in vivo extends also to prevent transcription-linked DNA damage during malignancy and through modification of epigenetic dysregulations. CONCLUSION: Our findings present a provocative possibility of resetting R-loops as a therapeutic intervention to correct both immune deficiency and malignancy in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients and a novel role of WASp in the epigenetic regulation of T helper cell differentiation in T-ALL patients, anticipating WASp's requirement for the suppression of T-ALL progression.

3.
EJHaem ; 5(2): 369-378, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38633128

RESUMO

BCR::ABL1 fusion is found in < 1% of de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases and confers a poor prognosis. This Japanese nationwide survey analyzed patients with AML (n = 22) and mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) (n = 10) with t(9;22) or BCR::ABL1 who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) between 2002 and 2018. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were 81.3% and 56.0%, respectively (p = 0.15), and leukemia-free survival (LFS) rates were 76.2% and 42.0%, respectively (p = 0.10) in patients with AML and MPAL. The relapse rates were 9.5% and 14.0% (p = 0.93), and the non-relapse mortality (NRM) rates were 14.3% and 44.0%, respectively (p = 0.10) in patients with AML and MPAL. One in 17 patients with AML, with pre-transplant tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), and three in five patients with AML, without pre-transplant TKI, did not achieve complete remission (CR) before allo-HCT (p = 0.024). Among the 20 patients with known disease status after allo-HCT, 95.0% were in hematological or molecular CR. None of the four patients who received post-transplant TKI for prophylaxis or measurable residual disease relapse experienced hematological relapse. In conclusion, our results suggest that pre-transplant TKI could improve disease status before allo-HCT. Moreover, allo-HCT resulted in high OS, high LFS, low relapse, and low NRM rates in patients with AML with BCR::ABL1.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 16(7)2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disease relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is the main challenge for curing acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). We investigated the overall survival (OS) after allo-SCT relapse according to different therapeutic approaches. METHODS: We analyzed 134 patients who relapsed after allo-SCT performed between 2015 and 2021 at Saint-Antoine University Hospital, Paris and Spedali Civili di Brescia, Brescia. Of these, 103 (77%) were treated, comprising 69/103 (67%) who received therapy in overt relapse and 34/103 (33%) who were treated in a pre-emptive manner when molecular/cytogenetics recurrence or mixed chimerism occurred. The treatment was donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI)-based for 40/103 (39%) patients. RESULTS: The 1-, 2-, and 5-year OS of patients treated with DLI (n = 40) was 67%, 34%, and 34%, respectively, for those treated preventively (n = 20) and 43%, 20%, and 20%, respectively, for those treated in overt relapse (n = 20) (p < 0.01). The 1-, 2-, and 5-year OS of patients treated without DLI (n = 63) was 54%, 40%, and 26%, respectively, for those treated preventively (n = 14) and 17%, 5%, and 0%, respectively, for those treated in overt relapse (n = 49) (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Relapse treatment with a pre-emptive strategy was associated with improved outcomes, particularly when DLI was employed.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615143

RESUMO

Post-transplant cyclophosphamide plus calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)(tacrolimus or cyclosporine A) plus mycophenolate mofetil (PTCy/TAC or CSA/MMF) and anti-thymocyte globulin plus CNI (tacrolimus or cyclosporine A) plus methotrexate (ATG/TAC or CSA/MTX) are common graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis regimens. We compared the two regimens in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing allogeneic transplantation from matched siblings or unrelated donors. 402 received PTCy/TAC or CSA/MMF and 5648 received ATG/TAC or CSA/MTX. Patients in the PTCy-based group were younger (48.7 vs. 51.5 years, p = 0.024) and there was a higher frequency of patient cytomegalovirus seropositivity and female donor to male patient combination in this group (77.8% vs. 71.8%, p = 0.009 and 18.4% vs. 14.4%, p = 0.029, respectively). More patients in the PTCy-based group received reduced-intensity conditioning (51.5% vs. 41%, p < 0.0001). No differences were observed in the incidence of acute GVHD grade II-IV and III-IV (21.2% vs. 20.4%, p = 0.92 and 8.1% vs. 6%, p = 0.1) or 2-year total and extensive chronic GVHD (33.7% vs. 30%, p = 0.09 and 10.7% vs. 11.2%, p = 0.81) between the groups. In the multivariate analysis, all transplant outcomes did not differ between the groups. PTCy/CNI/MMF and ATG/CNI/MTX are alternative regimens for GVHD prophylaxis in AML patients.

6.
Toxicol Rep ; 12: 389-396, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590344

RESUMO

Alkylating agents such as N-Ethyl-N-Nitrosourea (ENU) are ubiquitous within living cells and in the environment. This study designed to evaluate the chemopreventive activity of vanillic acid on ENU-induced toxicity and carcinogenesis in mice as an animal model of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The female, Swiss albino mice were divided into three groups each with 7 mice, group I received normal saline, group II, mice received ENU at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight i.p. to induce CLL on the 31th day of the study, and group III, the mice pretreated with vanillic acid at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight/day, i.p. up to 30 days and received ENU. The animals were monitored for weight changes and mortality during 120 days, and then were sacrificed for isolation of lymphocytes, as target cells in CLL. Cellular parameters like reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, malondialdehyde (MDA) production, depletion of glutathione (GSH), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and lysosomal membrane integrity were studied. We found that pretreatment with vanillic acid significantly increased the survival of mice up to 57%, delay in death time (30%) and prevented weight changes after exposure to ENU. In addition, it was found that vanillic acid protected ROS formation, lipid peroxidation mitochondrial dysfunction, and lysosomal membrane destabilization in isolated lymphocytes. These data suggest that vanillic acid exhibited significant protection against ENU-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity, which might be related to the protection of the mitochondria and lysosomes and the reduction of ROS formation and oxidative stress.

7.
Animals (Basel) ; 14(7)2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612290

RESUMO

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a retrovirus distributed worldwide in domestic cats and with different outcomes (progressive, regressive, abortive, focal). The present study reports an epidemiological survey of FeLV frequency and the evaluation of some risk factors and the two main disease outcomes (progressive and regressive) in an urban cat population from Brazil. A total of 366 cats with sociodemographic information and p27 FeLV antigen test performed were included in the study. FeLV DNA (provirus) in the blood samples of all cats was detected via real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Plasma samples from 109 FeLV-positive and FeLV-negative cats were also submitted to reverse transcription (RT-qPCR) to determine the FeLV viral load. The results demonstrated that 112 (30.6%) cats were positive through the p27 antigen and/or qPCR. A risk factor analysis demonstrated that cats without vaccination against FeLV (OR 9.9, p < 0.001), clinically ill (OR 2.9, p < 0.001), with outdoors access (OR 2.7, p < 0.001), and exhibiting apathetic behavior (OR 3.1, p < 0.001) were more likely to be infected with FeLV. FeLV-infected cats were also more likely to present with anemia (OR 13, p < 0.001) and lymphoma (OR 13.7, p = 0.001). A comparative analysis of the different detection methods in a subset of 109 animals confirmed FeLV infection in 58 cats, including 38 (65.5%) with progressive, 16 (27.6%) with regressive, and 4 (6.9%) with probably focal outcome diseases. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a high prevalence of FeLV in this urban cat population from Brazil and highlights the need to establish more effective prevention strategies (such as viral testing, vaccination programs, specific care for FeLV-positive cats) to reduce diseases associated with this virus in Brazil.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612738

RESUMO

Changes in the components, variety, metabolism, and products of microbiomes, particularly of the gut microbiome (GM), have been revealed to be closely associated with the onset and progression of numerous human illnesses, including hematological neoplasms. Among the latter pathologies, there is acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most widespread malignant neoplasm in pediatric subjects. Accordingly, ALL cases present a typical dysfunctional GM during all its clinical stages and resulting inflammation, which contributes to its progression, altered response to therapy, and possible relapses. Children with ALL have GM with characteristic variations in composition, variety, and functions, and such alterations may influence and predict the complications and prognosis of ALL after chemotherapy treatment or stem cell hematopoietic transplants. In addition, growing evidence also reports the ability of GM to influence the formation, growth, and roles of the newborn's hematopoietic system through the process of developmental programming during fetal life as well as its susceptibility to the onset of onco-hematological pathologies, namely ALL. Here, we suggest some therapeutic strategies that can be applied at two levels of intervention to recover the microbiome and consequently prevent/delay ALL or arrest its progression.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Microbiota , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Criança , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Feto
9.
Ann Hematol ; 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real-world data on outcomes of upfront allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) for adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL) patients in first complete remission (CR1) is still lacking. METHODS: A single center retrospective study was conducted from 94 consecutive patients received their first allo-HCT between 2010 and 2021, which include 76 patients received upfront allo-HCT and 18 patients received allo-HCT in non-upfront settings. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in most variables. In the upfront allo-HCT group, 52 (68%) patients achieved CR1 with one cycle of induction regimen. 24 (32%) patients achieved CR1 with more than one cycle. In the non-upfront group, there were 14 patients with active disease and 4 patients in second CR before transplant. The majority of patients received antithymocyte globulin-based graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. Median follow-up time was 51 months for both groups. 5-year overall survival (OS) was 54% in the upfront allo-HCT group. While, in the non-upfront group, 5-year OS were 19% (P = 0.013). 5-year progression free survival in the upfront group was higher than that in the non-upfront group (50% versus 20%, P = 0.02). 5-year cumulative incidence relapse rate was significantly higher in non-upfront group (64% vs. 32%, P = 0.006). While, there was no difference in the 5-year non-relapse mortality (NRM) rate (19% versus 16%, P = 0.56). The most common cause of death was disease progression. In multivariable analysis, non-upfront allo-HCT (hazard ratios (HR) 2.14, P = 0.03) and HCT-CI (≥ 2) (HR 6.07, P = 0.002) were identified to be associated with worse OS. Non-upfront allo-HCT and HCT-CI (≥ 2) were also found to be independent risk factors for higher relapse rate. While, haploidentical-HCT was found to be associated with increased NRM. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated that allo-HCT remains an important curative treatment for adult patients with T-ALL, especially when it was performed in the upfront setting.

10.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38606590

RESUMO

Epigenetic modifications, particularly through methylation of DNA packaging histones, play a pivotal role in controlling gene expression. Aberrant patterns of histone methylation have been associated with the development and progression of hematological malignancies. Unraveling the impact of aberrant histone marks on gene expression and leukemogenesis has spurred a concerted effort to develop clinically effective epigenetic therapies. In malignancies associated with the accumulation of histone H3 lysine trimethylation (H3K27me3), one such intervention involves preventing the deposition of this repressive histone mark by inhibiting the histone-modifying enzymes EZH1 and EZH2. While inhibition of EZH1/2 has demonstrated efficacy in both preclinical studies and clinical trials in various cancers, studies delineating the dynamic effect of EZH1/2 inhibition on H3K27me3 and disease relapse in clinical samples are lacking. In a recent publication, Yamagishi et al. explore how responses of a patient with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma to valemetostat, an EZH1/2 inhibitor, are associated with changes in H3K27me3, chromatin accessibility and gene expression, and how these changes can be circumvented in relapsed disease.

11.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 197: 104347, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583546

RESUMO

Asparaginase is essential in the initial management of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) but frequently leads to venous thromboembolism (VTE). Using anticoagulants for primary VTE prevention has been studied with no consensus. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of science and performed random-effect meta-analysis using Mantel-Haenszel method in RevMan 5.4 to analyze primary pharmacological thromboprophylaxis during asparaginase treatment in early-phase (induction, consolidation, or intensification phase) therapy in patients with ALL with all ages and followed with subgroup analysis by age. Meta-analysis of 13 articles describing the effect of antithrombin supplementation in 1375 patients showed that antithrombin prophylaxis decreases the risk of VTE by 43% (RR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.38 - 0.83; p=0.004), with mild heterogeneity (I2=35%, p=0.10) and moderate certainty by GRADE. 8 articles included for meta-analysis of low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) treatment in 612 patients showed that it decreased the risk of VTE by nearly 40% (RR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.45 - 0.81; p=0.00081), with minimal heterogeneity (I2=14%, p=0.31) but low certainty. Subgroup analysis showed that only prophylaxis with antithrombin supplementation significantly decreased the VTE rate in adult patients with moderate certainty. In pediatric patients, one nonrandomized prospective study showed that LMWH combined with antithrombin has a better thromboprophylaxis effect than antithrombin alone. In the PREVAPIX-ALL trial, prophylaxis with direct factor Xa inhibitor Apixaban did not benefit children younger than 18 years except for cases of obesity. We concluded that thromboprophylaxis with antithrombin is effective in ALL patients older than 18 years during the early phase of therapy, and LMWH combined with antithrombin supplementation might be effective for pediatric patients with ALL. Apixaban is effective in pediatric ALL patients with obesity and needs further study in other high-risk patients.

12.
Acta Med Indones ; 56(1): 76-83, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561886

RESUMO

Incidents of leukemia in pregnancy are infrequent with only one case found from 75,000 to 100,000 pregnancies. The pathophysiological mechanism of leukemia during pregnancy is still unclear. Leukemia which occurs in pregnancy is usually acute and predominantly the myeloid type.A 35-year-old woman in her fourth pregnancy with a gestational age of 38-39 weeks, came to the emergency department (ED) with complaints of contractions since 4.5 hours before admission. The contraction was not accompanied by discharge, mucus, or blood, and fetal movements was still active. She denied complaints of fever, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, shortness of breath, weakness, fatigue, lethargy, and bleeding. Physical examination results, both palpebral conjunctiva were pale. Laboratory examination results of a complete blood count, white blood cell count were 2,930/uL, hemoglobin 8.3 g/dL, Hct 24.10%, erythrocytes 2.78x106/µL, platelets 62,000/µL. Bone Marrow Aspiration (BMA) revealed Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL).APL is a subtype of Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML). Persistent fatigue, recurrent infections, and bleeding are common manifestations of APL. The diagnosis of APL is made by bone marrow aspiration examination, and it is safe for pregnancy. APL therapy in pregnancy uses All-Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA) and Arsenic Trioxide (ATO). ATRA and ATO are highly teratogenic, but recent studies have reported no fetal abnormalities.Accuracy and speed in diagnosing and initiating APL therapy in pregnancy are essential in preventing serious complications.


Assuntos
Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Trióxido de Arsênio/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/complicações , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Tretinoína/uso terapêutico
13.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1359113, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571944

RESUMO

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is the prototype of cancer genomics as it was the first published cancer genome. Large-scale next generation/massively parallel sequencing efforts have identified recurrent alterations that inform prognosis and have guided the development of targeted therapies. Despite changes in the frontline and relapsed standard of care stemming from the success of small molecules targeting FLT3, IDH1/2, and apoptotic pathways, allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) and the resulting graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect remains the only curative path for most patients. Advances in conditioning regimens, graft-vs-host disease prophylaxis, anti-infective agents, and supportive care have made this modality feasible, reducing transplant related mortality even among patients with advanced age or medical comorbidities. As such, relapse has emerged now as the most common cause of transplant failure. Relapse may occur after alloHSCT because residual disease clones persist after transplant, and develop immune escape from GVL, or such clones may proliferate rapidly early after alloHSCT, and outpace donor immune reconstitution, leading to relapse before any GVL effect could set in. To address this issue, genomically informed therapies are increasingly being incorporated into pre-transplant conditioning, or as post-transplant maintenance or pre-emptive therapy in the setting of mixed/falling donor chimerism or persistent detectable measurable residual disease (MRD). There is an urgent need to better understand how these emerging therapies modulate the two sides of the GVHD vs. GVL coin: 1) how molecularly or immunologically targeted therapies affect engraftment, GVHD potential, and function of the donor graft and 2) how these therapies affect the immunogenicity and sensitivity of leukemic clones to the GVL effect. By maximizing the synergistic action of molecularly targeted agents, immunomodulating agents, conventional chemotherapy, and the GVL effect, there is hope for improving outcomes for patients with this often-devastating disease.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/complicações , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Efeito Enxerto vs Leucemia , Recidiva
14.
Cancer Res ; 84(7): 950-952, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558131

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is one of the most prevalent blood cancers, characterized by a dismal survival rate. This poor outcome is largely attributed to AML cells that persist despite treatment and eventually result in relapse. Relapse-initiating cells exhibit diverse resistance mechanisms, encompassing genetic factors and, more recently discovered, nongenetic factors such as metabolic adaptations. Leukemic stem cells (LSC) rely on mitochondrial metabolism for their survival, whereas hematopoietic stem cells primarily depend on glycolysis. Furthermore, following treatments such as cytarabine, a standard in AML treatment for over four decades, drug-persisting leukemic cells exhibit an enhanced reliance on mitochondrial metabolism. In this issue of Cancer Research, two studies investigated dependencies of AML cells on two respiratory substrates, α-ketoglutarate and lactate-derived pyruvate, that support mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) following treatment with the imipridone ONC-213 and the BET inhibitor INCB054329, respectively. Targeting lactate utilization by interfering with monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1 or SLC16A1) or lactate dehydrogenase effectively sensitized cells to BET inhibition in vitro and in vivo. In addition, ONC-213 affected αKGDH, a pivotal NADH-producing enzyme of the TCA cycle, to induce a mitochondrial stress response through ATF4 activation that diminished the expression of the antiapoptotic protein MCL1, consequently promoting apoptosis of AML cells. In summary, targeting these mitochondrial dependencies might be a promising strategy to kill therapy-naïve and treatment-resistant OXPHOS-reliant LSCs and to delay or prevent relapse. See related articles by Monteith et al., p. 1101 and Su et al., p. 1084.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Citarabina/farmacologia , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Lactatos , Recidiva
15.
iScience ; 27(4): 109443, 2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558935

RESUMO

Spliceosome machinery mutations are common early mutations in myeloid malignancies; however, effective targeted therapies against them are still lacking. In the current study, we used an in vitro high-throughput drug screen among four different isogenic cell lines and identified RKI-1447, a Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitor, as selective cytotoxic effector of SRSF2 mutant cells. RKI-1447 targeted SRSF2 mutated primary human samples in xenografts models. RKI-1447 induced mitotic catastrophe and induced major reorganization of the microtubule system and severe nuclear deformation. Transmission electron microscopy and 3D light microscopy revealed that SRSF2 mutations induce deep nuclear indentation and segmentation that are apparently driven by microtubule-rich cytoplasmic intrusions, which are exacerbated by RKI-1447. The severe nuclear deformation in RKI-1447-treated SRSF2 mutant cells prevents cells from completing mitosis. These findings shed new light on the interplay between microtubules and the nucleus and offers new ways for targeting pre-leukemic SRSF2 mutant cells.

16.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622430

RESUMO

A 10-year-old neutered male Maltese dog was presented for an investigation of lymphocytosis. The dog was up-to-date on vaccinations and deworming. Physical examination did not reveal any significant abnormalities. A complete blood cell count (CBC) showed mild leukocytosis with moderate lymphocytosis, basophilia, and moderate neutropenia, but no significant left shift or toxic change. Serum biochemistry and urinalysis were unremarkable. All performed tests for infectious agents common in this geographical region were negative. No significant abnormalities were found on abdominal ultrasound examination. Multiparametric flow cytometry of peripheral blood showed a CD8+ T-cell lymphocytosis, and PCR for antigen receptor rearrangement revealed a clonal expansion of the T-cell receptor gamma chain genes. A clinical diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was made, and follow-up was recommended. On Day 48 post-presentation, the CBC showed mild non-regenerative anemia (NRA), moderate leucocytosis due to moderate to marked lymphocytosis, basophilia, and a marked increase in hyposegmented neutrophils with mild toxic change in the absence of neutrophilia or neutropenia. Treatment with chlorambucil and prednisolone was initiated. On Days 87 and 197 post-presentation, the CBC showed mild NRA, with progressively decreasing numbers of hyposegmented neutrophils. The dog remained without clinical signs. Basophilia and probable pseudo-Pelger-Huët anomaly were possibly secondary to CLL. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of these two hematologic conditions secondary to CLL in dogs. Recognition of a pseudo-Pelger-Huët anomaly is clinically relevant to avoid misinterpretation as a marked left shift due to severe inflammation and prevent unnecessary urgent therapeutic actions.

17.
Leuk Res ; 140: 107485, 2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579483

RESUMO

Over the years, the overall survival of older patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has not significantly increased. Although standard cytotoxic therapies that rapidly eliminate dividing myeloblasts are used to induce remission, relapse can occur due to surviving therapy-resistant leukemic stem cells (LSCs). Hence, anti-LSC strategies have become a key target to cure AML. We have recently shown that previously approved cardiac glycosides and glucocorticoids target LSC-enriched CD34+ cells in the primary human AML 8227 model with more efficacy than normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). To translate these in vitro findings into humans, we developed a mathematical model of stem cell dynamics that describes the stochastic evolution of LSCs in AML post-standard-of-care. To this, we integrated population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) models to investigate the clonal reduction potential of several promising candidate drugs in comparison to cytarabine, which is commonly used in high doses for consolidation therapy in AML patients. Our results suggest that cardiac glycosides (proscillaridin A, digoxin and ouabain) and glucocorticoids (budesonide and mometasone) reduce the expansion of LSCs through a decrease in their viability. While our model predicts that effective doses of cardiac glycosides are potentially too toxic to use in patients, simulations show the possibility of mometasone to prevent relapse through the glucocorticoid's ability to drastically reduce LSC population size. This work therefore highlights the prospect of these treatments for anti-LSC strategies and underlines the use of quantitative approaches to preclinical drug translation in AML.

18.
Int J Hematol ; 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575822

RESUMO

Guidelines recommend rasburicase for high-risk patients to prevent tumor lysis syndrome (TLS). However, little information is available on the incidence and outcome of TLS in AML patients. We analyzed 145 patients with AML who underwent induction therapy before the approval of rasburicase to evaluate the incidence of TLS and the necessity of rasburicase as prophylaxis. Three patients had already developed clinical TLS (CTLS) at diagnosis of AML, and another three developed CTLS after the initiation of chemotherapy. In patients without TLS at diagnosis of AML, the risk for developing TLS was classified as high in 44 patients, intermediate in 41 and low in 57, according to the current guidelines. Allopurinol alone was administered to prevent hyperuricemia in all patients. All three patients who developed CTLS after diagnosis of AML were at high risk of TLS, and had elevated serum creatinine levels and a WBC count greater than 200,000 per microliter at diagnosis of AML. Allopurinol may be insufficient to prevent TLS in high-risk patients with renal dysfunction at diagnosis of AML, especially those with a high tumor burden and a WBC count of 200,000 or more, which indicates that prophylactic administration of rasburicase should be considered.

19.
Cureus ; 16(2): e54154, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38496108

RESUMO

Background and objective Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL Ph+) is quite rare among pediatric patients. Its management has undergone significant changes in the past few years, leading to some variability in how it is approached. At the Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto (IPOP), a tertiary oncological center, the standard of care has been aligned with the guidelines proposed by the European intergroup study of post-induction treatment of ALL Ph+ (EsPhALL). In this study, we aimed to examine the experience and outcomes related to the treatment of pediatric patients with ALL Ph+ at IPOP. Methods This retrospective cohort study involved pediatric patients diagnosed with ALL Ph+ at IPOP between January 2008 and December 2022 and analyzed their outcomes. Results A total of 14 patients were included. IKFZ1 was altered in five patients (out of nine in whom it was searched). Five patients were treated according to EsPhALL 2004, which involved starting imatinib later in a discontinuous manner [resulting in both five-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of 60%]. The EsPhALL 2010 (preconizing a continuous imatinib regimen instead) was employed in three patients, with a five-year OS and PFS of 66.7%. All children mentioned above received cranial irradiation therapy (CRT). Finally, six were treated according to the EsPhALL 2015, which stopped including CRT in its backbone. The five-year OS was 100%, whereas every patient progressed with an increase in BCR::ABL1 levels greater than 1-log. Moreover, until 2015, all patients had been recommended to undergo allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). However, since 2015, alloHSCT has been exclusively reserved for relapsed/refractory (R/R) disease or poor responders with positive measurable residual disease (MRD). In total, alloHSCT was performed in nine patients. Conclusions Although initially associated with a poor prognosis, the ALL Ph+ paradigm is drastically shifting. Further studies will hopefully clarify the outcomes in this population and help understand the role of central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis, alloHSCT, and MRD quantification.

20.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494578

RESUMO

Although granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) reduces the incidence, duration, and severity of neutropenia, its prophylactic use for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains controversial due to a theoretically increased risk of relapse. The present study investigated the effects of G-CSF as primary prophylaxis for AML with remission induction therapy. A detailed literature search for related studies was performed using PubMed, Ichushi-Web, and the Cochrane Library. Data were independently extracted and assessed by two reviewers. A qualitative analysis of pooled data was conducted, and the risk ratio with corresponding confidence intervals was calculated in the meta-analysis and summarized. Sixteen studies were included in the qualitative analysis, nine of which were examined in the meta-analysis. Although G-CSF significantly shortened the duration of neutropenia, primary prophylaxis with G-CSF did not correlate with infection-related mortality. Moreover, primary prophylaxis with G-CSF did not affect disease progression/recurrence, overall survival, or adverse events, such as musculoskeletal pain. However, evidence to support or discourage the use of G-CSF as primary prophylaxis for adult AML patients with induction therapy remains limited. Therefore, the use of G-CSF as primary prophylaxis can be considered for adult AML patients with remission induction therapy who are at a high risk of infectious complications.

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