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Gut Microbes ; 11(4): 962-978, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167021


Nutrition during pregnancy plays an important role in maternal-neonatal health. However, the impact of specific dietary components during pregnancy on maternal gut microbiota and the potential effects on neonatal microbiota and infant health outcomes in the short term are still limited. A total of 86 mother-neonate pairs were enrolled in this study. Gut microbiota profiling on maternal-neonatal stool samples at birth was carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing using Illumina. Maternal dietary information and maternal-neonatal clinical and anthropometric data were recorded during the first 18 months. Longitudinal Body Mass Index (BMI) and Weight-For-Length (WFL) z-score trajectories using the World Health Organization (WHO) curves were obtained. The maternal microbiota was grouped into two distinct microbial clusters characterized by Prevotella (Cluster I) and by the Ruminococcus genus (Cluster II). Higher intakes of total dietary fiber, omega-3 fatty acids, and polyphenols were observed in Cluster II compared to Cluster I. Higher intakes of plant-derived components were associated with a higher presence of the Christensellaceae family, Dehalobacterium and Eubacterium, and lower amounts of the Dialister and Campylobacter species. Maternal microbial clusters were also linked to neonatal microbiota and infant growth in a birth-dependent manner. C-section neonates from Cluster I showed the highest BMI z-score at age 18 months, along with a higher risk of overweight. Longitudinal BMI and WL z-score trajectories from birth to 18 months were shaped by maternal microbial cluster, diet, and birth mode. Diet was an important perinatal factor in early life that may impact maternal microbiota; in particular, fiber, lipids and proteins, and exert a significant effect on the neonatal microbiome and contribute to infant development during the first months of life. ABBREVIATIONS: NCDs: Non-Communicable Diseases, C-section: Cesarean Section, BMI: Body Mass Index; WL: Weight for length; EPA: Eicosapentanoic Acid; DHA: Docosahexaenoic Acid; DPA: Docosapentaenoic Acid; SCFA: Short Chain Fatty Acids; MD: Mediterranean Diet; FFQ: Food Frequency Questionnaire; CHI: Calinski Harabasz Index.

Semin Fetal Neonatal Med ; 25(2): 101090, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014366


Preterm infants frequently require positive pressure ventilation and oxygen supplementation in the first minutes after birth. It has been shown that the amount of oxygen provided during stabilization, the oxygen load, if excessive may cause hyperoxia, and oxidative damage to DNA. Epidemiologic studies have associated supplementation with pure oxygen in the first minutes after birth with childhood cancer. Recent studies have shown that the amount of oxygen supplemented to preterm infants after birth modifies the epigenome. Of note, the degree of DNA hyper-or hypomethylation correlates with the oxygen load provided upon stabilization. If these epigenetic modifications would persist, oxygen supplied in the first minutes after birth could have long term consequences. Further studies with a robust power calculation and long-term follow up are needed to bear out the long-term consequences of oxygen supplementation during postnatal stabilization of preterm infants.

Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694290


BACKGROUND: Own mother's milk (OMM) is the optimal nutrition for preterm infants. However, pasteurized donor human milk (DHM) is a valid alternative. We explored the differences of the transcriptome in exfoliated epithelial intestinal cells (EEIC) of preterm infants receiving full feed with OMM or DHM. METHODS: The prospective observational study included preterm infants ≤ 32 weeks' gestation and/or ≤1500 g birthweight. Total RNA from EEIC were processed for genome-wide expression analysis. RESULTS: Principal component analysis and unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis revealed two clustered groups corresponding to the OMM and DHM groups that showed differences in the gene expression profile in 1629 transcripts. The OMM group overexpressed lactalbumin alpha gene (LALBA), Cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene (COX1) and caseins kappa gene (CSN3), beta gene (CSN2) and alpha gene (CSN1S1) and underexpressed Neutrophil Cytosolic Factor 1 gene (NCF1) compared to the DHM group. CONCLUSIONS: The transcriptomic analysis of EEIC showed that OMM induced a differential expression of specific genes that may contribute to a more efficient response to a pro-oxidant challenge early in the postnatal period when preterm infants are at a higher risk of oxidative stress. The use of OMM should be strongly promoted in preterm infants.

Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Caseínas/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Lactalbumina/metabolismo , Masculino , Bancos de Leite , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Análise de Componente Principal , Estudos Prospectivos