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1.
Anticancer Res ; 41(10): 4741-4751, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Heat shock protein 105 (HSP105) is overexpressed in various cancers, but not in normal tissues. We investigated the expression levels of HSP105 in cervical cancer and the efficacy of immunotherapy targeting HSP105. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Previously, we established human leukocyte antigen-A*02:01 (HLA-A2) restricted HSP105 peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones from a colorectal cancer patient vaccinated with an HSP105 peptide. Herein, we evaluated the expression of HSP105 in cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Moreover, we tested the effectiveness of an HLA-A2-restricted HSP105 peptide-specific CTL clone against cervical cancer cell lines. RESULTS: HSP105 was expressed in 95% (19/20) of examined cervical cancer tissues. Moreover, the HSP105 peptide-specific CTL clone recognized HSP105- and HLA-A*02:01-positive cervical cancer cell lines and also showed that cytotoxicity against the cervical cancer cell lines depends on HSP105 peptide and HLA class I restricted manners. CONCLUSION: HSP105 could be an effective target for immunotherapy in patients with cervical cancer.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP110/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Antígeno HLA-A2/imunologia , Antígeno HLA-A2/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP110/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/transplante , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
2.
Anticancer Res ; 41(10): 4985-4993, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: There is an increasing use of immunotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The present study analysed the effect of antibiotic use on the outcome of NSCLC patients undergoing treatment with anti-programmed cell death-1 (anti-PD-1) immunotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 69 NSCLC patients. Eighteen out of 69 patients received antibiotics within 21 days before or within 21 days after start of anti-PD-1 therapy. RESULTS: Patients treated with anti-PD-1 antibodies receiving antibiotics had greatly decreased objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) compared to those who did not use antibiotics. Multivariate analysis showed that antibiotic treatment of patients on anti-PD-1 antibody therapy was an independent negative predictive factor of PFS; however, it was not a significant independent predictive factor of OS. CONCLUSION: Use of antibiotics within 21 days before and after anti-PD-1 treatment initiation in patients with NSCLC strongly reduced OS and PFS, suggesting the two treatments should not be combined.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
3.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(9): 10114-10123, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628932

RESUMO

Multidisciplinary treatment, mainly chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy, is preferred in patients with advanced lung cancer who are negative for driver genes and have an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) score of 0-1; in contrast, patients with an ECOG PS score of 3-4 should be managed with supportive treatment and palliative care rather than chemotherapy or other antitumor treatments. In the real-world settings, however, in the Chinese population, a large proportion of patients and their families are willing to take risks to receive benefit from oncological treatments. We encountered a patient who had definite advanced lung adenocarcinoma with multiple metastases and fusion in abdominal lymph nodes. Intestinal obstruction and obstructive jaundice were also observed. Despite the application of gastrointestinal decompression, continuous parenteral nutrition support, common bile duct stenting, and pancreatic duct stenting, no effective antitumor therapy (except in the case of immunotherapy) was attempted due to the high tumor burden and poor ECOG PS score in this patient. After effective communication with the family members, toripalimab was attempted in this patient with great success (the patient did not receive chemotherapy and only received immunotherapy). In the spring of 2019, imported programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) antibodies (pabolizumab and navulizumab) listed in the Chinese market were expensive, and the people could not afford the cost. However, treprizumab was just on the market, with low price and high pharmacoeconomics. Therefore, the drug was selected for treatment.) The patient achieved almost complete remission, with a progression-free survival (PFS) of about 2.5 years. The expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) was high in this patient. Toripalimab monotherapy may be applied in patients with high PD-L1 expression although any potential adverse effects should be closely monitored. To our knowledge, no other data from clinical trials and real-world cases have thus far been reported concerning the application of immunotherapy in ECOG PS 4 patients with advanced lung cancer. The innovation of this article is that although the patient has advanced cancer and ECOG PS 4 is an end-stage patient, immunotherapy is still given and achieved great success.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
4.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 735-739, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622585

RESUMO

In recent years, immunotherapy, as an emerging anti-tumor therapy, has shown great potential in the treatment of both solid and hematologic tumors. There is increasing preclinical and clinical evidence linking the composition of gut microbiome with the efficacy as well as adverse effects of immune checkpoint inhibitor anti-tumor therapy. We summarized in this review the modulatory role of the gut microbiome in antitumor therapy with different immune checkpoint inhibitors. We also discussed the limitations of existing research and prospective development of the further clinical strategies.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Neoplasias , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(9): 3088-3100, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622619

RESUMO

Photoimmunotherapy (PIT) is an emerging tumor-targeted phototherapy that combines the tumor specificity of monoclonal antibodies with the phototoxicity of light absorbers to rapidly and selectively induce the immunogenic death of target tumor cells. PIT has minimal side effects due to its high specificity. The immunogenic cell death induced by PIT results in rapid maturation of immature dendritic cells proximal to dying tumor cells. Subsequently, the mature dendritic cells present the tumor antigens to CD8+ T cells and induce their activation and proliferation, thus enhancing the antitumor immune response of the host. PIT can also improve the anticancer efficacy by enhancing the penetration of nanomedicines into tumor tissues. In view of the excellent application prospects of PIT, this review summarizes the advances in the immune activation mechanism of PIT, the superenhanced permeability and retention effect, and the new strategies for combinatory therapy, providing references for future research and clinical translation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Fototerapia
6.
Elife ; 102021 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558412

RESUMO

Organ-on-chip approaches could help researchers to better predict the toxicity of cancer immunotherapy drugs.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip
7.
Biomater Sci ; 9(19): 6597-6608, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582523

RESUMO

Immunotherapy has emerged as one of the most promising treatments for cancer in recent years. However, it works only for a small proportion of patients, which can in part be attributed to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are the critical components of tumors and play an important role in the development of the immunosuppressive TME. The transition of TAMs from the pro-tumor (M2) phenotype to anti-tumor (M1) phenotype is crucial for the immunotherapy of gastric cancer. Herein, we developed a shear-thinning, injectable hydrogel co-loaded with polyphyllin II (PP2) and resiquimod (R848) (PR-Gel) for potentiating localized immunotherapy of gastric cancer through the repolarization of TAMs. In this work, we evaluate the effects of PR-Gel on TAM repolarization and explored its therapeutic effect for localized immunotherapy. The hydrogels were synthesized through the Schiff base reactions between aldehyde-functionalized polyethylene glycol and the amino group of polylysine. A M2-to-M1 repolarization of TAMs and increased production of TNF-α and IL-6 were observed after treatment with PR-Gel in vitro. The anti-tumor efficacy of PR-Gel in a subcutaneous xenograft model of gastric cancer showed that the hydrogels possess good tumor growth suppression properties after a single injection. Furthermore, an increased iNOS/CD206 ratio in TAMs and enhanced CD8+ T cell infiltration were also observed within the TME after the treatment with PR-Gel. Hence, the biocompatible, shear-thinning, injectable hydrogels are a promising noninvasive drug-delivery platform for the regulation of the immunosuppressive TME and have great potential in localized immunotherapy against gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Polilisina , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Hidrogéis , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor
8.
Biomater Sci ; 9(19): 6381-6390, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582527

RESUMO

Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) and malignant ascites (MA), which are common but serious conditions caused by malignancies, are related to poor quality of life and high mortality. Current treatments, including therapeutic thoracentesis and indwelling pleural catheters or paracentesis and catheter drainage, are largely palliative. An effective treatment is urgently needed. MPE and MA are excellent candidates for intratumoural injections that have direct contact with tumour cells and kill tumour cells more effectively and efficiently with fewer side effects, and the fluid environment of MPE and MA can provide a homogeneous area for drug distribution. The immunosuppressive environments within the pleural and peritoneal cavities suggest the feasibility of local immunotherapy. In this review, we introduce the current management of MPE and MA, discuss the latest advances and challenges in utilizing local biomaterial-assisted antitumour therapies for the treatment of MPE and MA, and discuss further opportunities in this field.


Assuntos
Derrame Pleural Maligno , Pleurodese , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Derrame Pleural Maligno/terapia , Qualidade de Vida
9.
Biomater Sci ; 9(19): 6391-6402, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582540

RESUMO

In cancer immunotherapy, antibodies have acquired rapidly increasing attention due to their sustained immune effect by target specific delivery without any adverse effects. Among many recent strategies, controlled delivery of monoclonal antibodies, check point inhibitor storage and tumor-specific targeted delivery have enabled biodegradable immunotherapeutic delivery via translation of tailored nano-zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) with encapsulated biopharmaceuticals. In addition, a robust antitumor immunity was developed by anti-programmed death ligand-1 (anti-PD-L1) antibody delivery by ZIF-8 with polyethylene glycol (PEG) protection by forming a multiple immunoregulatory system. The unique biorecognition capability of antibodies, encapsulated in ZIFs, was recognized by using growth on different substrates, such as bioconjugates on gold nanorods, to transform them into plasmonic nanobiosensors with sensitivity of the refractive index profile of surface plasmons to track the conjugating antibody. Herein, we have discussed the mechanistic window of antibody delivery-based immunotherapy via the encapsulation of antibodies within ZIFs as an emerging tool for protecting biopharmaceuticals from the complex cellular microenvironment and hyperthermia to enable an antitumor immune response. To fully achieve the potential of antibodies upon ZIF encapsulation, more endeavors should be undertaken in the biodegradable engineering of ZIF-surfaces via forming cellular or polymeric layers to gain higher in vivo circulation time without inhibiting endocytosis by tumor cells. The possible future prognosis for achieving ZIF-protected biocompatible and biodegradable immunotherapeutic antibody delivery systems of therapeutic significance is discussed.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Neoplasias , Zeolitas , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Polímeros , Microambiente Tumoral
10.
Hematology ; 26(1): 709-715, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547987

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to retrospectively assess the role of routine CT scans within the first year of follow-up with a limited surveillance policy prior to Lugano recommendations in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) achieving complete metabolic remission (CMR). We also evaluated the type of relapse detection and exposure to CT scans within the first five years. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with DLBCL who achieved CMR after first-line immunochemotherapy were included. Imaging studies and medical records were thoroughly reviewed. RESULTS: Among 101 DLBCL patients in the first CMR, a total of 19 relapses were identified in the study period (18.8% of DLBCL patients included). Nine patients relapsed within the first year (47.4% of all relapses) but only 3 of them were detected by the 202 surveillance CT scans performed during this first year of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Our real-world data provide clinically applicable results which are in agreement with the Lugano recommendations based on trial data, highlighting the lack of utility of routine CTs in DLBCL patients achieving CMR.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Clin Plast Surg ; 48(4): 561-576, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503717

RESUMO

Despite the ability of immune-based interventions to dramatically increase the survival of patients with melanoma, a significant subset fail to benefit from this treatment, underscoring the need for accurate means to identify the patient population likely to respond to immunotherapy. Understanding how melanoma evades natural or manipulated immune responses could provide the information needed to identify such resistant individuals. Efforts to address this challenge are hampered by the vast immune diversity characterizing tumor microenvironments that remain largely understudied. It is thus important to more clearly elucidate the complex interactions that take place between the tumor microenvironment and host immune system.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Melanoma/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral
12.
Clin Plast Surg ; 48(4): 631-642, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503723

RESUMO

Malignant melanoma is the 5th most common cancer and stage IV melanoma accounts for approximately 4% of new melanoma diagnoses in the United States. The prognosis for regionally advanced disease is poor, but there have been numerous recent advances in the medical management of melanoma in-transit metastases. The goal of this paper is to review currently accepted treatment options for in-transit metastases and introduce emerging therapies. Therapies to be discussed include limb perfusion and infusion, immunotherapy, checkpoint inhibitors, and radiation therapy.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Melanoma/terapia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Estados Unidos
13.
Clin Plast Surg ; 48(4): 713-733, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503732

RESUMO

Great strides in immunotherapy and targeted therapy have revolutionized the management of previously devastating, advanced melanomas. Although these subfields continue to progress, novel approaches in intratumoral oncolytic therapy, adoptive cell therapy, and vaccine therapies are being developed as adjuncts or alternatives. Cytokines, meanwhile, are seeing a resurgence as a viable option as well. The array of effective agents will, in the next few years, provide options for therapy not only in the adjuvant or unresectable settings but also in the neoadjuvant settings. Perhaps, too, in earlier stage melanomas.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Melanoma/terapia , Terapia Neoadjuvante
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 706186, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484202

RESUMO

Background: Sargramostim [recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhu GM-CSF)] was approved by US FDA in 1991 to accelerate bone marrow recovery in diverse settings of bone marrow failure and is designated on the list of FDA Essential Medicines, Medical Countermeasures, and Critical Inputs. Other important biological activities including accelerating tissue repair and modulating host immunity to infection and cancer via the innate and adaptive immune systems are reported in pre-clinical models but incompletely studied in humans. Objective: Assess safety and efficacy of sargramostim in cancer and other diverse experimental and clinical settings. Methods and Results: We systematically reviewed PubMed, Cochrane and TRIP databases for clinical data on sargramostim in cancer. In a variety of settings, sargramostim after exposure to bone marrow-suppressing agents accelerated hematologic recovery resulting in fewer infections, less therapy-related toxicity and sometimes improved survival. As an immune modulator, sargramostim also enhanced anti-cancer responses in solid cancers when combined with conventional therapies, for example with immune checkpoint inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. Conclusions: Sargramostim accelerates hematologic recovery in diverse clinical settings and enhances anti-cancer responses with a favorable safety profile. Uses other than in hematologic recovery are less-well studied; more data are needed on immune-enhancing benefits. We envision significantly expanded use of sargramostim in varied immune settings. Sargramostim has the potential to reverse the immune suppression associated with sepsis, trauma, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and COVID-19. Further, sargramostim therapy has been promising in the adjuvant setting with vaccines and for anti-microbial-resistant infections and treating autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and gastrointestinal, peripheral arterial and neuro-inflammatory diseases. It also may be useful as an adjuvant in anti-cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/imunologia , Humanos , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(34): 2649-2652, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510869

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the malignant tumors with both high morbidity and mortality in China. Immunotherapy is expected to improve its prognosis. Molecular classification of GC based on multiple levels of assessment such as genes and tumor immune microenvironment (TiME), which can precisely screen the population with potential benefit from immunotherapy. It is helpful to make the treatment decision-making, and to further improve the efficacy of immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gástricas , China , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5209, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471106

RESUMO

TGF-ß is secreted in the tumour microenvironment in a latent, inactive form bound to latency associated protein and activated by the integrin αV subunit. The activation of latent TGF-ß by cancer-cell-expressed αV re-shapes the tumour microenvironment, and this could affect patient responses to PD-1-targeting therapy. Here we show, using multiplex immunofluorescence staining in cohorts of anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1-treated lung cancer patients, that decreased expression of cancer cell αV is associated with improved immunotherapy-related, progression-free survival, as well as with an increased density of CD8+CD103+ tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes. Mechanistically, tumour αV regulates CD8 T cell recruitment, induces CD103 expression on activated CD8+ T cells and promotes their differentiation to granzyme B-producing CD103+CD69+ resident memory T cells via autocrine TGF-ß signalling. Thus, our work provides the underlying principle of targeting cancer cell αV for more efficient PD-1 checkpoint blockade therapy.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Integrina alfaV/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos CD , Antígeno B7-H1 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Cadeias alfa de Integrinas , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microambiente Tumoral
17.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 17(8): 1486-1509, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544528

RESUMO

Immunotherapy displays potent potential for clinical cancer management by activating the protective immune response; however, the microenvironment of the immunosuppressive tumor restricts the efficiency of immunotherapies. Along with the complex pathophysiological barrier of the solid tumors, successful immunotherapeutic delivery remains a formidable challenge for conventional nanomedicine. Stimuli-sheddable nano vectors may facilitate the delivery of cargoes to tumors with minimal premature cargo leakage in blood circulation while enhancing the tumor penetration of nanomedicines by deshielding the polyethylene glycol (PEG) corona upon endogenous activity such as acidity, enzymes and glutathione, or external stimuli, such as laser irradiation. Throughout this study, researchers overviewed the recent advances of nanomedicine-based cancer immunotherapy using the stimuli-responsive deshielding nano vectors, which allowed researchers to integrate multiple therapeutic regimens for inducing immunogenic cell death. This aided in blocking the immune checkpoints, repolarizing the macrophages, and regulating the kynurenine metabolism. Furthermore, researchers discussed the critical issues in the development of stimuli-sheddable nanoimmunodulators, primarily aimed at speeding up their clinical translation. Finally, researchers provided novel perspectives for improving cancer management with the stimuli-sheddable nanomedicine.


Assuntos
Nanomedicina , Neoplasias , Humanos , Morte Celular Imunogênica , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Polietilenoglicóis , Microambiente Tumoral
18.
Oncology ; 99(10): 641-651, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515171

RESUMO

AIM: Atezolizumab plus bevacizumab (atezo + bev) shows a good overall survival (OS) in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, the OS of patients with nonviral infection is quite worse than that in those with viral infection. The present study investigated the efficacy and safety of lenvatinib in patients with nonviral infection, who were unlikely to obtain benefit from atezo + bev. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective study that included 139 advanced HCC patients treated with lenvatinib between March 2018 and September 2020. RESULTS: The median age was 72 years, and 116 patients (83.5%) were male. Based on the etiology of liver disease, 84 (60.4%) and 55 patients (39.6%) were assigned to the viral infection and nonviral infection groups, respectively. The significant extents in patient characteristics were not observed in both groups. The objective response rate per mRECIST and progression-free survival (PFS) did not differ significantly between the viral infection and nonviral infection groups (36.0 vs. 33.0%, p = 0.85; and 7.6 vs. 7.5 months, p = 0.94, respectively). The 1-year survival rates were 68.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 57.7-79.7%) in the viral infection group and 59.5% (95% CI 45.2-73.8%) in the nonviral infection group. The viral infection group was not a significant factor associated with the PFS or OS in a multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Lenvatinib shows no significant difference in response between patients with and without viral infection. Treatment strategies based on the etiology of liver disease may lead to good clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/microbiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/microbiologia , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Infecções/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Viroses/diagnóstico
19.
Math Biosci Eng ; 18(5): 6328-6385, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517536

RESUMO

Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers and generally affects women. It is a heterogeneous disease that presents different entities, different biological characteristics, and differentiated clinical behaviors. With this in mind, this literature review had as its main objective to analyze the path taken from the simple use of classical drugs to the application of mathematical models, which through the many ongoing studies, have been considered as one of the reliable strategies, explaining the reasons why chemotherapy is not always successful. Besides, the most commonly mentioned strategies are immunotherapy, which includes techniques and therapies such as the use of antibodies, cytokines, antitumor vaccines, oncolytic and genomic viruses, among others, and nanoparticles, including metallic, magnetic, polymeric, liposome, dendrimer, micelle, and others, as well as drug reuse, which is a process by which new therapeutic indications are found for existing and approved drugs. The most commonly used pharmacological categories are cardiac, antiparasitic, anthelmintic, antiviral, antibiotic, and others. For the efficient development of reused drugs, there must be a process of exchange of purposes, methods, and information already available, and for their better understanding, computational mathematical models are then used, of which the methods of blind search or screening, based on the target, knowledge, signature, pathway or network and the mechanism to which it is directed, stand out. To conclude it should be noted that these different strategies can be applied alone or in combination with each other always to improve breast cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Modelos Teóricos
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e048141, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497081

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The combination of biomarkers and drugs is the subject of growing interest both from regulators, physicians and companies. This study protocol of a systematic review is aimed to describe available literature evidences about the cost-effectiveness, cost-utility or net-monetary benefit of the use of biomarkers in solid tumour as tools for customising immunotherapy to identify what further research needs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic review of the literature will be carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement guidelines. PubMed and Embase will be queried from June 2010 to June 2021. The PICOS model will be applied: target population (P) will be patients with solid tumours treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs); the interventions (I) will be test of the immune checkpoint predictive biomarkers; the comparator (C) will be any other targeted or non-targeted therapy; outcomes (O) evaluated will be health economic and clinical implications assessed in terms of incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, net health benefit, net monetary benefit, life years gained, quality of life, etc; study (S) considered will be economic evaluations reporting cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, net-monetary benefit. The quality of the evidence will be graded according to Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This systematic review will assess the cost-effectiveness implications of using biomarkers in the immunotherapy with ICIs, which may help to understand whether this approach is widespread in real clinical practice. This research is exempt from ethics approval because the work is carried out on published documents. We will disseminate this protocol in a related peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020201549.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Qualidade de Vida , Biomarcadores , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
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