Abstract Ferns are often used by indigenous people in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This study was designed to collect the ethnomedicinal and traditional knowledge of these locals about this group of vascular plants. Forty taxa belong to nineteen genera and ten families are used in the treatment of different diseases. The Pteridaceae was the most representative family with twelve taxa (30%), followed by Athyriaceae and Dryopteridaceae with six taxa each (30%), and Thelypteridaceae with five taxa (12.5%). Regarding the genera, Adiantum, Asplenium and Dryopteris ranked first with four taxa each (30%), followed by Aleuritopteris, Diplazium, Pteris and Equisetum with three taxa each (30%), followed by Athyrium, Oeosporangium, Polystichum and Pseudophegopteris with two taxa each (20%). These taxa were commonly used in the treatment of respiratory disorders i.e. asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonia; intestinal ulcer, stomach, urinary ailments and skin disorders by the methods of decoction and infusion. Traditional knowledge about ethnomedicinal plants is a valuable and essential source for the discovery of allopathic, herbal and homeopathic medicines.
Resumo As samambaias são frequentemente usadas pelos indígenas em Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Este estudo foi desenhado para coletar o conhecimento etnomedicinal e tradicional desses moradores sobre este grupo de plantas vasculares. Quarenta táxons pertencem a dezenove gêneros, e dez famílias são utilizadas no tratamento de diferentes doenças. Pteridaceae foi a família mais representativa com doze táxons (30%), seguida por Athyriaceae e Dryopteridaceae com seis táxons cada (30%), e Thelypteridaceae com cinco táxons (12,5%). Em relação aos gêneros, Adiantum, Asplenium e Dryopteris ficaram em primeiro lugar com quatro táxons cada (30%), seguidos por Aleuritopteris, Diplazium, Pteris e Equisetum com três táxons cada (30%), e Athyrium, Oeosporangium, Polystichum e Pseudophegopteris com dois táxons cada (20%). Estes táxons foram comumente usados no tratamento de distúrbios respiratórios, isto é, asma, bronquite, enfisema, pneumonia; úlcera intestinal, estômago, doenças urinárias e doenças da pele pelos métodos de decocção e infusão. O conhecimento tradicional sobre plantas etnomedicinais é uma fonte valiosa e essencial para a descoberta de medicamentos alopáticos, fitoterápicos e homeopáticos.
AssuntosHumanos , Plantas Medicinais , Gleiquênias , Traqueófitas , Paquistão , Fitoterapia , Medicina Tradicional
The study of biologically active substances-secondary metabolites of plants that exhibit geroprotective properties is an actual and popular direction in medicine to prevent early aging. This work aims to select the cultivation parameters for obtaining in vitro cell cultures of meadowsweet containing the largest amount of biologically active substances (BAS) for their further extraction as candidate substances for geroprotectors. To specify the effectiveness of the selected cell culture cultivation parameters, biomass growth for callus and root cultures, growth index, specific growth rate, and viability for suspension cultures was carried out. The study results made it possible to select the nutrient media for the cultivation of cell cultures of meadowsweet. It has been found that the greater the antioxidant activity of the extracts, the greater the antimicrobial properties it exhibits. In this study, cell cultures in vitro and alcohol extracts from the plant Filipendula ulmaria were considered as raw materials rich in candidate substances for geroprotectors. According to the data obtained, the plant is rich in hydroxybenzoic and salicylic acids, spireoside, avicularin, and hyperoside.
O estudo de substâncias biologicamente ativas - metabólitos secundários de plantas que apresentam propriedades geroprotetoras - é uma tendência atual e popular no campo da medicina para a prevenção do envelhecimento precoce. O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar os parâmetros de cultivo para obtenção de culturas celulares in vitro de Ulmária contendo a maior quantidade de substâncias biologicamente ativas (SBA), para sua posterior extração como substâncias candidatas a serem geroprotetoras. Para especificar a eficácia dos parâmetros selecionados de cultivo em cultura de células, foi realizada a análise de crescimento de biomassa para culturas de calos e raízes, índice de crescimento, taxa de crescimento específica e viabilidade para culturas em suspensão. Os resultados do estudo possibilitaram a seleção do meio nutriente para o cultivo de células de Ulmária. Verificou-se que, quanto maior a atividade antioxidante dos extratos, maiores eram as propriedades antimicrobianas exibidas. Neste estudo, culturas celulares in vitro e extratos alcoólicos da planta Filipendula ulmaria foram considerados matérias-primas ricas em substâncias candidatas a serem geroprotetoras. De acordo com os dados obtidos, a planta é rica em ácidos hidroxibenzoico e salicílico, espirosídeo, avicularina e hiperosídeo.
AssuntosPlantas Medicinais/genética , Envelhecimento , Senilidade Prematura , Antioxidantes
Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis is a vine species native to Brazil that is considered an unconventional food plant and a medicinal species whose phenolic compounds exert antioxidant activity. Since the production of metabolites is determined by environmental factors and leaf maturity, it is important to track these changes in order to determine the best time to harvest. This study aimed to verify whether leaf phenology and seasonality cause variations in the amount of phenolic compounds and in the antioxidant activity of this species. The leaves were collected in different seasons between September 2018 and April 2019, and separated according to maturity: young, mature, and senescent. Daily atmospheric temperature and rainfall data were used to characterize the collection period. The total phenolic content (TPC), determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, was significantly higher in the young leaves collected in winter, a season of lower temperatures. These leaves showed 54.4 mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of dry matter (mg GAE 100 g-1DM). Other results averaged 25.6 mg GAE 100 g-1DM. The highest antioxidant activity, assessed via the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, regardless of leaf phenology, was observed in leaves harvested in autumn (73.7%) and winter (71.1%), seasons with lower rainfall. Leaves harvested in summer and spring had lower antioxidant action rates (54.3 e 37.5%, respectively). There was no significant correlation between the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Thus, the phenolic composition of A. cordifolia, and consequently its activity on free radicals, varies seasonally in response to temperature and rainfall, and may or may not interact with the age of the leaves.
Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis é uma trepadeira nativa do Brasil considerada uma planta alimentícia não convencional e uma espécie medicinal, cujos compostos fenólicos exercem ação antioxidante. Como a produção de metabólitos é determinada por fatores ambientais e pela maturidade das folhas, é importante acompanhar essas mudanças a fim de determinar a época de colheita. Neste estudo objetivou-se verificar se a fenologia foliar e a sazonalidade ocasionam variação na quantidade de compostos fenólicos e na ação antioxidante dessa espécie. As folhas foram coletadas em diferentes estações, entre setembro de 2018 e abril de 2019, e separadas conforme a maturidade: jovens, maduras e senescentes. Os dados diários de temperatura atmosférica e pluviosidade foram usados para caracterizar o período de coleta. O conteúdo de fenólicos totais (TPC), determinado pelo método Folin-Ciocalteu, foi significativamente maior nas folhas jovens coletadas no inverno, período caracterizado por temperaturas mais baixas. Estas folhas apresentaram 54,4 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico por 100 g de matéria seca (mg GAE 100 g-1DM) . A média dos outros resultados foi de 25,6 mg GAE 100 g-1DM. A maior ação antioxidante, avaliada pelo método do radical livre 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), foi observada em folhas colhidas no outono (73,7%) e inverno (71,1%), independentemente da fenologia foliar. Nestes períodos a pluviosidade foi menor. Folhas colhidas no verão e na primavera apresentaram menores percentuais de ação antioxidante (54,3 e 37,5%, respectivamente). Não houve correlação significativa entre o conteúdo de fenólicos totais e a atividade antioxidante. Conclui-se que a composição fenólica de A. cordifolia e, consequentemente, sua ação sobre radicais livres, varia sazonalmente em resposta à temperatura e pluviosidade, podendo ou não interagir com a idade das folhas.
AssuntosPlantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Compostos Fenólicos , Antioxidantes
Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) is the foremost reason of progressive hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis, with an elevated risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Medicinal plants have been used for human health benefits for several years, but their therapeutic potential needs to be explored. The main objective of this study was to figure out the in vitro antiviral and anticancer characteristics of total crude protein of Iberis gibraltarica against HCV and HCC. Total crude protein of Iberis gibraltarica was isolated and quantified. The level of cytotoxicity was measured against the HepG2 cell line and it shows no significant cytotoxicity at the concentration of 504µg/ml. The anti-HCV effect was determined by absolute quantification via real time RT-PCR method and viral titer was reduced up to 66% in a dose dependent manner against the total protein of Iberis gibraltarica. The anticancer potential of Iberis gibraltarica was also examined through mRNA expression studies of AFP and GPC3 genes against the total protein of Iberis gibraltarica-treated HepG2 cells. The results show up to 90% of the down-regulation expression of AFP and GPC3. The obtained results indicate the therapeutic potential of total protein of Iberis gibraltarica against HCV and hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro.
A infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C (HCV) é a principal causa de fibrose hepática progressiva e cirrose, com risco elevado de desenvolvimento de carcinoma hepatocelular (HCC). As plantas medicinais vêm sendo utilizadas para benefícios à saúde humana há vários anos, mas seu potencial terapêutico precisa ser explorado. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi descobrir as características antivirais e anticancerígenas in vitro da proteína bruta total de Iberis gibraltarica contra HCV e HCC. A proteína bruta total de Iberis gibraltarica foi isolada e quantificada. O nível de citotoxicidade foi medido contra a linha celular HepG2 e não apresenta citotoxicidade significativa na concentração de 504µg/ml. O efeito anti-HCV foi determinado por quantificação absoluta através do método RT-PCR em tempo real e o título viral foi reduzido em até 66% de forma dose-dependente contra a proteína total de Iberis gibraltarica. O potencial anticancerígeno de Iberis gibraltarica também foi examinado através de estudos de expressão de mRNA dos genes AFP e GPC3 contra a proteína total de células HepG2 tratadas com Iberis gibraltarica. Os resultados mostram até 90% da expressão de regulação negativa de AFP e GPC3. Os resultados obtidos indicam o potencial terapêutico da proteína total de Iberis gibraltarica contra HCV e carcinoma hepatocelular in vitro.
AssuntosPlantas Medicinais , Terapêutica , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico
In order to ensure the timely and uninterrupted supply of medicinal plant raw materials, the methods of cultivation of plant cell cultures, namely, the production of plant root cultures, are relevant. In this paper, the geroprotective potential of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey root cultures is studied. They were cultured under in vitro conditions by transforming the rhizome (H. neglectum) and seed seedlings (P. ginseng) with Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 Swiss. To identify the geroprotective potential, the antimicrobial disc-diffusion method and the antioxidant activity were analyzed by titration of KMnO4 extracts of plant root cultures. The qualitative and quantitative composition was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. In the course of the work, the presence of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of plant root culture extracts was established. Biologically active substances contained in extracts of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb root crops and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey are characterized by geroprotective potential, so they can act as a source of natural antioxidants in the functional nutrition of the geroprotective orientation.
Para garantir o abastecimento em tempo e ininterrupto de matérias-primas de plantas medicinais, são relevantes os métodos de cultivo de culturas de células vegetais, nomeadamente a produção de culturas de raízes vegetais. Neste trabalho, foi estudado o potencial geroprotetor de culturas de raízes de Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb e Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. Eles foram cultivados em condições in vitro pela transformação do rizoma (H. neglectum) e mudas de sementes (P. ginseng) com Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 Swiss. Para identificar o potencial geroprotetor, o método antimicrobiano de difusão em disco e a atividade antioxidante foram analisados por titulação de extratos de KMnO4 de raízes de plantas. A composição qualitativa e quantitativa foi analisada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, cromatografia em camada delgada e cromatografia gasosa com espectrometria de massa. No decorrer do trabalho, foi constatada a presença de atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante dos extratos de raízes de plantas. Substâncias biologicamente ativas contidas em extratos de raízes de H. neglectum Ledeb e P. ginseng C. A. Mey são caracterizadas pelo potencial geroprotetor, podendo atuar como fonte de antioxidantes naturais na nutrição funcional da orientação geroprotetora.
AssuntosPlantas Medicinais , Raízes de Plantas , Panax , Anti-Infecciosos , Antioxidantes
This study aims at reporting the indigenous knowledge of the medicinal flora from the inhabitants of surroundings of the World's largest artificial planted forest "Changa Manga", Pakistan. Data were collected by direct interviews and group meetings from 81 inhabitants including 32 local healers having information regarding the use of indigenous medicinal plants over a period of one year. Different statistical tools were applied to analyze the data including Frequency citation (FC), Relative frequency citation (RFC), Use Value, Factor of informants consensus and fidelity level. This study reported 73 plant species belonging to 37 plant families and 46 genera. The majority of plant species belong to compositae family. The most commonly used medicinal plants were P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L, P. harmala L., P. emblica L., and A. indica A.Juss. The greatest number of species was used to cure gastrointestinal disorders. The highest fidelity level (68.18%) was of E. helioscopia to cure gastrointestinal disorders. Maximum fresh uses (17) were reported by C. dactylon (L.) Pars. While the highest number of species reporting fresh uses in similar number was 13. In this study, five novel plants are being reported for the first time in Pakistan for their ethnomedicinal worth. Our data reflect unique usage of the medicinal plants in the study area. The statistical tools used in the study proved useful in pointing the most important and disease category specific plants. High use value plant and the new reported medicinal plants might prove an important source of the isolation of pharmacologically active compounds.
Este estudo tem como objetivo relatar o conhecimento indígena sobre a flora medicinal dos habitantes do entorno da maior floresta artificial plantada do mundo, a Changa Manga, no Paquistão. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas diretas e reuniões em grupo de 81 habitantes, incluindo 32 curandeiros locais, com informações sobre o uso de plantas medicinais indígenas durante o período de um ano. Diferentes ferramentas estatísticas foram aplicadas para analisar os dados, incluindo citação de frequência (FC), citação de frequência relativa (RFC), valor de uso, fator de consenso dos informantes e nível de fidelidade. Este estudo relatou 73 espécies de plantas pertencentes a 37 famílias de plantas e 46 gêneros. A maioria das espécies de plantas pertence à família Compositae. As plantas medicinais mais utilizadas foram P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L., P. harmala L., P. emblica L. e A. indica A. Juss. O maior número de espécies foi usado para curar distúrbios gastrointestinais. O maior nível de fidelidade (68,18%) foi de E. helioscopia para cura de distúrbios gastrointestinais. Os usos máximos em fresco (17) foram relatados por C. dactylon (L.) Pars. enquanto o maior número de espécies relatando usos frescos em número semelhante foi de 13. Neste estudo, cinco novas plantas estão sendo relatadas pela primeira vez no Paquistão por seu valor etnomedicinal. Nossos dados refletem o uso exclusivo das plantas medicinais na área de estudo. As ferramentas estatísticas utilizadas no estudo mostraram-se úteis para apontar as plantas mais importantes e específicas da categoria de doença. Plantas de alto valor de uso e as novas plantas medicinais relatadas podem ser uma importante fonte de isolamento de compostos farmacologicamente ativos.
AssuntosHumanos , Plantas Medicinais , Florestas , Gastroenteropatias , Povos Indígenas , Medicina Tradicional , Paquistão
Ocimum tenuiflorum L. is found throughout semitropical and tropical parts of Southeast Asia. In Nepal, O. tenuiflorum L. is popular with two variants: Krishna Tulsi consisting of purple-colored leaves and Sri Tulsi consisting of green-colored leaves. O. tenuiflorum L. is considered the queen of herbs and is a traditionally and clinically proven medicinal herb for its application and efficacy. However, no commercial pharmaceutical preparations of O. tenuiflorum L. are available using effervescent vehicles. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare the antioxidant activity of leaves from the two varieties of O. tenuiflorum L. and formulate and evaluate the quality parameters of effervescent granules of the potent extract. The antioxidant activity of O. tenuiflorum L. ethanolic extracts was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging assay at 1, 10, and 100 µg/mL concentrations, where ascorbic acid was used as the positive control. The antioxidant activity of purple-leafed O. tenuiflorum L. was found to be higher than that of green-leafed O. tenuiflorum L. Therefore, effervescent granules of the ethanolic extract of purple-leafed O. tenuiflorum L. were formulated using the pharmaceutical excipients tartaric acid, citric acid, and sodium bicarbonate and the quality parameters of the granules were evaluated. The formulated granules met the quality parameters assessed from the angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Carr's Index, Hausner's ratio, effervescent cessation time, and stability studies. Thus, the formulated effervescent granules of O. tenuiflorum L. can be used for therapeutic purposes or as a functional food.
AssuntosOcimum , Plantas Medicinais , Ocimum sanctum , Antioxidantes , Extratos Vegetais
The present study examined the effect of medicinal plants - ginkgo, tribulus (puncture vine), and yucca - on ovarian functions and their response to the toxic influence of toluene. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of toluene with and without these plant extracts on cultured human ovarian granulosa cells. Cell viability and the release of progesterone, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I), oxytocin, and prostaglandin F (PGF) were analyzed using the trypan blue test, enzyme immunoassay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The ginkgo, tribulus and yucca were able to suppress ovarian cell viability and alter the release of hormones. Toluene suppressed cell viability and the release of PGF, but not of progesterone, IGF-I, or oxytocin. The negative effect of toluene on cell viability was prevented and even reversed by ginkgo and yucca, whereas its effect on PGF was prevented or inverted by all tested plant extracts. These findings (1) demonstrated the direct toxic effect of toluene on ovarian cells, (2) showed the direct effect of some medicinal plants on ovarian cell functions, and (3) demonstrated the ability of these plants to inhibit the effects of toluene and to act as natural protectors against the suppressive effect of toluene on female reproduction.
AssuntosPlantas Medicinais , Feminino , Humanos , Ocitocina , Sobrevivência Celular , Progesterona , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
The panax genus is a widely used medicinal plant with good biological activity. As one of the main active components of the Panax genus, polysaccharides have various pharmacological effects. This review summarizes the latest research reports on ginseng, American ginseng, and Panax notoginseng polysaccharides and compares the differences in extraction, isolation and purification, structural characteristics, and biological activities. The current research mainly focuses on ginseng polysaccharides, and the process of extraction, isolation, and structure analysis of each polysaccharide is roughly the same. Modern pharmacological studies have shown that these polysaccharides have antioxidants, antitumor, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, intestinal protection, skin repair, and other biological activities. This review provides new insights into the differences between the three kinds of ginseng polysaccharides which will help to further study the medicinal value of ginseng in traditional Chinese medicine.
AssuntosPanax notoginseng , Panax , Plantas Medicinais , Panax/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
Ginseng, a medicinal plant of the genus Panax, boasts a rich historical record of usage that dates back to the Paleolithic period. This botanical is extensively acknowledged and consumed in Eastern countries for its therapeutic properties, and, in Western countries, it is becoming increasingly popular as a remedy for fatigue and asthenia. This review provides an update on current research pertaining to ginseng and its isolated compounds, namely, ginsenosides and polysaccharides. The primary focus is on three crucial pharmacological activities, namely, immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. The review encompasses studies on both isolated compounds and various ginseng extracts obtained from the root, leaves, and berries.
AssuntosGinsenosídeos , Panax , Plantas Medicinais , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
The use of medicinal plants as raw material for extracts production and pure substances isolation and subsequence development of new drugs represents a constantly growing area. However, some stages are indispensable before pharmacologically evaluating natural products such as medicines. Toxicity tests in mammalian cells are essential to initiate new drugs development or verify the substance's biocompatibility. Thus, we verified the toxicity of crude extracts and fractions with different polarities obtained from the leaves and stems of eight plant species. The toxic effect was evaluated on macrophages obtained from the bone marrow and peritoneal cavity of a Swiss webster mouse and J774 macrophages. G8 cell lineage. These macrophages were cultured in a 96-well plate, and the compounds were added at a concentration of 100 µg/mL for 24 hours. After this time, the supernatant was removed. The toxicity was evaluated for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay and the resazurin assay, which uses an indicator dye to measure oxidation-reduction reactions. The results showed a difference in the percentage of toxicity when comparing the same extract in different types of macrophages. This outcome indicates that these cells from different origins may exhibit different responses when exposed to the same natural compounds.
AssuntosExtratos Vegetais , Plantas Medicinais , Camundongos , Animais , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Macrófagos , Folhas de Planta , Mamíferos
One bottleneck problem in the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is the accurate identification of easily confused herbal medicines from Chinese patent medicine (CPM). Ginseng products derived from the multiple parts (e.g., root/rhizome, leaf, and flower bud) of multiple Panax species (P. ginseng, P. quinquefolius, P. notoginseng, P. japonicus, and P. japonicus var. major) are globally popular; however, their authentication is very challenging. Using online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC × LC), we propose the concept of a three-dimensional characteristic chromatogram (3D CC) by integrating enhanced LC × LC separation and a contour plot that visualizes the stereoscopic chromatographic peaks and examine its performance in authenticating various ginseng products. Targeted at the resolution of 17 ginsenoside markers, an online LC × LC/UV system with a 56 min analysis time was constructed: a CORTECS UPLC Shield RP 18 column running at 0.1 mL/min for the first-dimensional chromatography and a Poroshell SB-Aq column at 2.0 mL/min in shift gradient mode in the second dimension of separation. In particular, ginsenosides Rg1/Re and Rc/Ra1 were well resolved. According to the presence/absence of stereo peaks consistent with the main ginsenoside markers in the 3D CC and the depth of shade (depending on peak volume), it was feasible to use a single method to identify and distinguish among 12 different ginseng species as the drug materials and the use of ginseng simultaneously from 21 CPMs. Conclusively, a practical solution enabling the accurate identification of easily confused TCMs was provided, covering both the drug materials and the compound preparations.
AssuntosMedicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Ginsenosídeos , Panax , Plantas Medicinais , Panax/química , Ginsenosídeos/análise , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química
Triterpenoids, known for their anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and hypoglycemic properties, are the major bioactive components in Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja. Selecting elite individuals with high triterpenoids content is the basis of C. paliurus industry for medicinal use. In this study, seasonal variation patterns of total triterpenoids and five triterpene monomers accumulation for three groups with different total triterpenoid contents (TTC; H: 59.74-64.03 mg g-1; M: 47.66-57.08 mg g-1, and L: 35.26-42.22 mg g-1) were surveyed. Seasonal expression dynamics of 6 key genes relevant to triterpenoids biosynthesis, including HMGR, DXR, SQS, SE, LUS, and ß-AS, were described by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) for three groups. The expression levels of HMGR, SE, LUS, and ß-AS genes in group H were higher than in groups M and L. In addition, Pearson correlation analysis showed that they were significantly positively correlated with triterpene accumulation, and the expression level of SE gene not only was significantly correlated with downstream genes, but also exhibited a linear relationship with TTC, especially in September. These results suggest that SE gene could serve as an effective make for screening elite individuals with high TTC from the germplasm of C. paliurus for medicinal use. Further testing on randomly selected individuals in next September proved the feasibility and reliability of SE gene in assisted selection. Also, we successfully cloned the full-length cDNA of SE. Thus, our work provides an efficient way to attain superior genotypes to develop medicinal industry of C. paliurus in practice.
AssuntosJuglandaceae , Plantas Medicinais , Triterpenos , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Esqualeno Mono-Oxigenase , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Juglandaceae/genética , Genótipo , Folhas de Planta
In this study, the capacity of eight essential oils (EOs), sage (Salvia officinalis), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), black cumin (Nigella sativa), prickly juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus), geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), oregano (Origanum vulgare) and wormwood (Artemisia herba-alba), on the inhibition of NF-κB activation was screened at concentrations up to 0.25 µL/mL using THP-1 human macrophages bearing a NF-κB reporter. This screening selected coriander, geranium, and wormwood EOs as the most active, which later evidenced the ability to decrease over 50 % IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α and COX-2 mRNA expression in LPS-stimulated THP-1 macrophages. The chemical composition of selected EOs was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The two major constituents (>50 % of each EO) were tested at the same concentrations presented in each EO. It was demonstrated that the major compound or the binary mixtures of the two major compounds could explain the anti-inflammatory effects reported for the crude EOs. Additionally, the selected EOs also inhibit>50 % caspase-1 activity. However, this effect could not be attributed to the major components (except for ß-citronellol/geranium oil, 40 %/65 % caspase-1 inhibition), suggesting, in addition to potential synergistic effects, the presence of minor compounds with caspase-1 inhibitory activity. These results demonstrated the potential use of the EOs obtained from Tunisian flora as valuable sources of anti-inflammatory agents providing beneficial health effects by reducing the levels of inflammatory mediators involved in the genesis of several diseases.
AssuntosÓleos Voláteis , Origanum , Plantas Medicinais , Humanos , Óleos Voláteis/química , NF-kappa B , Macrófagos , Origanum/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Caspases
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Herbal traditional medicine is used by millions of people in Africa for treatment of ailments such as diabetes mellitus, stomach disorders and respiratory diseases. Xeroderris stuhlmannii (Taub.) Mendonca & E.P. Sousa (X. stuhlmannii (Taub.)) is a medicinal plant used traditionally in Zimbabwe to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications. However, there is no scientific evidence to support its inhibitory effect against digestive enzymes (α-glucosidases) that are linked to high blood sugar in humans. AIM OF THE STUDY: This work aims to investigate whether bioactive phytochemicals of crude X. stuhlmannii (Taub.) can scavenge free radicals and inhibit α-glucosidases in order to reduce blood sugar in humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here we examined the free radical scavenging potential of crude aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of X. stuhlmannii (Taub.) using the diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay in vitro. Furthermore, we carried out in vitro inhibition of α-glucosidases (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) by the crude extracts using chromogenic 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid and p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside substrates. We also used molecular docking approaches (Autodock Vina) to screen for bioactive phytochemical compounds targeting the digestive enzymes. RESULTS: Our results showed that phytochemicals in X. stuhlmannii (Taub.) aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts scavenged free radicals with IC50 values ranging from 0.002 to 0.013 µg/mL. Furthermore, crude aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts significantly inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 10.5-29.5 µg/mL (versus 54.1 ± 0.7 µg/mL for acarbose) and 8.8-49.5 µg/mL (versus 161.4 ± 1.8 µg/mL for acarbose), respectively. In silico molecular docking findings and pharmacokinetic predictions showed that myricetin is likely a novel plant-derived α-glucosidase inhibitor. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our findings suggest pharmacological targeting of digestive enzymes by X. stuhlmannii (Taub.) crude extracts may reduce blood sugar in humans with T2DM via inhibition of α-glucosidases.
AssuntosDiabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Plantas Medicinais , Humanos , alfa-Glucosidases/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Glicemia , Acarbose , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Metanol , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , alfa-Amilases/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
In order to study the relationship between medicinal plant Codonopsis pilosula phenotype, secondary metabolites, antioxidant capacity and its rhizosphere soil nutrients, root-related microorganisms under seasonal and geographical changes, high-throughput sequencing technology was used to explore the bacterial community structure and variation in rhizosphere soil and root endosphere from six regions of Dingxi City, Gansu Province during four seasons. Secondary metabolites composition and antioxidant capacities of C. pilosula root collected successively from four seasons were determined. The chemical properties, nutrient content and enzyme activities of rhizosphere of C. pilosula were significantly different under different temporal and spatial conditions. All soil samples were alkaline (pH 7.64-8.42), with water content ranging from 9.53% to 19.95%, and electrical conductivity varied widely, showing obvious time-scale effects. Different time scales were the main reasons for the diversity and structure of rhizosphere bacterial community of C. pilosula. The diversity and richness of rhizosphere bacterial community in autumn and winter were higher than those in spring and summer, and bacterial community structure in spring and summer was more similar to that in autumn and winter. The root length and diameter of C. pilosula showed significant time gradient difference under different spatiotemporal conditions. Nutrition and niche competition lead to significant synergistic or antagonistic interactions between rhizosphere bacteria and endophytic bacteria, which invisibly affect soil properties, abundance of functional bacteria and even yield and quality of C. pilosula. Soil properties, rhizosphere bacteria and endophytic bacteria directly promoted root phenotype, stress resistance and polysaccharide accumulation of C. pilosula.
AssuntosCodonopsis , Plantas Medicinais , Codonopsis/química , Antioxidantes , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Rizosfera , Solo/química , Bactérias , Microbiologia do Solo
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Since ancient times, Teucrium L. species have been among the most commonly used traditional medicinal plants mainly in the Mediterranean region. From tackling gastrointestinal problems to maintaining the healthy functioning of endocrine glands, and from treating malaria to severe dermatological disorders, Teucrium species are known to have extensive therapeutic applications. Teucrium polium L. and Teucrium parviflorum Schreb. are the two members of the genus that have been used in Turkish folk medicine for various medicinal purposes. AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine the phytochemical compositions of the essential oils and ethanol extracts of Teucrium polium and Teucrium parviflorum collected from different locations in Turkiye along with the investigation of in vitro antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial activities, and both in vitro and in silico enzyme inhibitory activities of the extracts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethanol extracts of Teucrium polium aerial parts and roots, and aerial parts of Teucrium parviflorum were prepared. Volatile profiling of the essential oils by GC-MS, phytochemical profiling of the ethanol extracts by LC-HRMS, antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS cation radical scavenging, CUPRAC, and metal chelating activity assays, anticholinesterase, antityrosinase, antiurease, activities by different enzyme inhibitory activity assays, anticancer activity by SRB cell viability assay, and antimicrobial activity against a standard panel of bacteria and fungi by the microbroth dilution technique. Molecular docking studies were performed by Autodock Vina (Ver. 1.1.2). RESULTS: The studied extracts were found to be quite rich in various biologically important volatile and phenolic compounds. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate, which is a molecule renowned for having great therapeutic potential, was the major compound of all extracts. Teucrium polium aerial parts extract was revealed as a great source for naringenin with 16327 ± 685.23 µg/g extract. All extracts exerted significant antioxidant activity by different methods. All extracts demonstrated antibutrylcholinesterase, antityrosinase, and antiurease activities by in vitro and in silico assays. Teucrium polium roots extract stood out with remarkable tyrosinase and urease inhibitory and cytotoxic activities. CONCLUSION: The obtained results from this multi-disciplinary study proves that the traditional use of these two Teucrium species is justified, and the mechanisms behind are enlightened.
AssuntosAnti-Infecciosos , Óleos Voláteis , Plantas Medicinais , Teucrium , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Teucrium/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Etanol
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The cause of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder, remains unclear. Banhasasim-tang (BHSST), a traditional herbal medicines mixture, mainly used to treat GI-related diseases, may have a potential in IBS treatment. IBS is characterized by abdominal pain as the main clinical symptom, which seriously affects the quality of life. AIM OF THE STUDY: We conducted a study to evaluate the effectiveness of BHSST and its mechanisms of action in treating IBS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the efficacy of BHSST in a zymosan-induced diarrhea-predominant animal model of IBS. Electrophysiological methods were used to confirm modulation of transient receptor potential (TRP) and voltage-gated Na+ (NaV) ion channels, which are associated mechanisms of action. RESULTS: Oral administration of BHSST decreased colon length, increased stool scores, and increased colon weight. Weight loss was also minimized without affecting food intake. In mice administered with BHSST, the mucosal thickness was suppressed, making it similar to that of normal mice, and the degree of tumor necrosis factor-α was severely reduced. These effects were similar to those of the anti-inflammatory drug-sulfasalazine-and antidepressant-amitriptyline. Moreover, pain-related behaviors were substantially reduced. Additionally, BHSST inhibited TRPA1, NaV1.5, and NaV1.7 ion channels associated with IBS-mediated visceral hypersensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the findings suggest that BHSST has potential beneficial effects on IBS and diarrhea through the modulation of ion channels.
AssuntosSíndrome do Intestino Irritável , Plantas Medicinais , Camundongos , Animais , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/induzido quimicamente , Qualidade de Vida , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Canal de Cátion TRPA1
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Artemisia sieberi Besser is a medicinal herb that has been traditionally used across the Middle East for the treatment of cancer. Further pharmacological studies on its extracts revealed that they possess cytotoxic activity against certain cancer cells, however, there were no studies conducted on the anticancer potential of Artemisia sieberi essential oil (ASEO). AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the anticancer potential of ASEO, elucidate the oil's mode of action for the first time and investigate its chemical composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Artemisia sieberi was collected from Hail, Saudi Arabia, and its essential oil was obtained via hydrodistillation. The oil's activity against HCT116, HepG2, A549 and MCF-7 cells was assessed using SRB assay, while its anti-metastatic potential was assessed via a migration assay. Cell-cycle analysis and apoptosis assay were conducted via flow cytometry, while protein expression levels were investigated using Western blotting. The oil's chemical constituents were identified using GCMS. RESULTS: ASEO exerted its highest cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 with an IC50 value of 38.7 µg/ml. Further studies showed that the oil inhibited MCF-7 cells' migration, induced S-phase arrest and apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed no change in the expression level of caspase-3 after treatment, indicating the induction of caspase-independent apoptosis-like cell death in MCF-7. Treatment of MCF-7 with the oil resulted in downregulation of the protein expression levels of total ERK and its downstream target, LC3, indicating that any potential activation of the ERK signalling pathway during the cancer cells' growth would be inhibited. Finally, GCMS analysis identified the oil's major components as cis-crysanthenyl acetate (48.56%), davanone (10.28%), 1,8-cineole (6.81%) and caryophyllene diepoxide (5.34%), whereby it is suggested that these compounds might be responsible for the oil's bioactivity. CONCLUSION: ASEO possessed in vitro anticancer activity and modulated the ERK signalling pathway. This is the first study to explore the anticancer potential of ASEO in detail and reflects the significance of investigating essential oils from medicinal plants that have been traditionally used against cancer. This work might pave the way for further in vivo studies that could result in developing the oil into a natural effective anticancer treatment.
AssuntosArtemisia , Neoplasias da Mama , Óleos Voláteis , Plantas Medicinais , Humanos , Feminino , Óleos Voláteis/química , Artemisia/química , Regulação para Baixo , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Caspases/metabolismo
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Spatholobus suberectus vine stem (SSVS) is the dried lianoid stem of the leguminous plant, Spatholobus suberectus Dunn, which is mainly distributed in China and some Southeast Asian countries. Due to its notable effects of promoting blood circulation and tonifying blood, regulating menstruation and relieving pain, this phytomedicine has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for hundreds of years. AIM OF THE STUDY: This review is designed to provide a comprehensive profile of SSVS concerning its botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, quality control, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology and attempts to provide a scientific basis and future directions for further research and development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Related document information was collected with the help of databases such as the Web of Science, Science Direct, PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Flora of China. RESULTS: SSVS is reported to be traditionally used to treat rheumatic arthralgia, numbness and paralysis, blood deficiency, irregular menstruation and other gynecological diseases. Botanical studies have revealed that there are some confusable varieties in some specific locations with a long history. Additionally, 145 chemical constituents have been isolated and identified from SSVS, including flavonoids, organic acids, terpenoids, lignans, and phenolic glycosides. Pharmacological studies have shown that SSVS has a variety of effects, such as nervous system regulation, and antioxidative, antitumor, antiviral, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, in regard to the absorption-distribution-metabolism-elimination-toxicity (ADMET) of SSVS, few studies have been carried out, and few articles have been published. CONCLUSION: With a long history of traditional uses, a variety of bioactive phytochemicals and a wide range of definite pharmacological activities, SSVS is believed to have great potential in clinical applications and further research, development and exploitation. The precise action mechanisms, rational quality control and quality markers, and explicit ADMET routes should be highlighted in the future, which might provide effective help to safely, effectively and sustainably use this herbal medicine.