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1.
Plant Cell Rep ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399879

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Production of ORF8 protein from SARS-CoV-2 in tobacco BY-2 cells.

2.
Thorax ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between current tobacco smoking, the risk of developing symptomatic COVID-19 and the severity of illness is an important information gap. METHODS: UK users of the Zoe COVID-19 Symptom Study app provided baseline data including demographics, anthropometrics, smoking status and medical conditions, and were asked to log their condition daily. Participants who reported that they did not feel physically normal were then asked by the app to complete a series of questions, including 14 potential COVID-19 symptoms and about hospital attendance. The main study outcome was the development of 'classic' symptoms of COVID-19 during the pandemic defined as fever, new persistent cough and breathlessness and their association with current smoking. The number of concurrent COVID-19 symptoms was used as a proxy for severity and the pattern of association between symptoms was also compared between smokers and non-smokers. RESULTS: Between 24 March 2020 and 23 April 2020, data were available on 2 401 982 participants, mean (SD) age 43.6 (15.1) years, 63.3% female, overall smoking prevalence 11.0%. 834 437 (35%) participants reported being unwell and entered one or more symptoms. Current smokers were more likely to report symptoms suggesting a diagnosis of COVID-19; classic symptoms adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.14 (1.10 to 1.18); >5 symptoms 1.29 (1.26 to 1.31); >10 symptoms 1.50 (1.42 to 1.58). The pattern of association between reported symptoms did not vary between smokers and non-smokers. INTERPRETATION: These data are consistent with people who smoke being at an increased risk of developing symptomatic COVID-19.

3.
Am J Hypertens ; 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ACE2 has been identified as the entry receptor for coronaviruses into human cells, including SARS-COV-2 that causes COVID-19. Since hypertension is a leading comorbidity in non-survivors of COVID-19, we tested for association between ACE2 gene and hypertension in interaction with specific pre-existing conditions known to be associated with COVID-19 severity. METHODS: Genetic analysis of ACE2 gene was conducted in French-Canadian and British populations. RESULTS: In French-Canadian individuals, the T allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2074192 of ACE2 gene was a risk factor for hypertension in adult obese males [odds ratio (OR)=1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.83)] and even more so in obese males who smoked (OR=1.67, CI: 1.24-2.55), but not in lean males, non-smoker males or females. The T allele was significantly associated with severity of hypertension and with earlier penetrance of hypertension in obese smoking males. Significant interaction between the T allele and obesity was present in both sexes. The association of ACE2 (rs233575) genotype with blood pressure was also seen in adolescents but the interaction with obesity was present only in females. Several variants in ACE2 gene were found to be associated with hypertension in obese, smoking males in British individuals of the UK Biobank. In addition, we observed more severe outcomes to COVID-19 in association with ACE2 risk alleles in obese, smoking males. CONCLUSION: This is the first report that ACE2 variants are associated with earlier penetrance and more severe hypertension and with more severe outcomes of COVID-19 in obese smoking males.

4.
Int J Clin Pract ; : e14012, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411384

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aims to evaluate the changes in smoking addiction levels during the on-going Covid-19 pandemic. METHODS: This study included 104 participants ≥18 years old who were previous patients of family health clinics for a variety of reasons in the months preceding the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic. The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence was administered to these patients as part of their initial intakes. The participants were asked to complete a questionnaire related to socio-demographic information and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence after obtaining agreement to participate during the pandemic period. In addition, written informed consent was obtained. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 20, was used to analyse the acquired data. RESULTS: The participants were 48.1% and 51.9% females and males, respectively. The pre-pandemic and Covid-19 pandemic mean smoking addiction scores were 5.03 and 5.6, respectively. The smoking addiction levels before and during the Covid-19 pandemic significantly differed (p < 0.001). Of the individuals with low smoking addiction levels before the pandemic, 17.6% and 29.4% became moderately and highly addicted, respectively. Of the individuals with moderate smoking addiction level, 6.3% and 43.9% became lowly and highly addicted, respectively. CONCLUSION: The smoking addiction level may change based on various factors including behavioural changes. While increases in smoking addiction during the pandemic can be observed due to behavioural changes and anxieties that may arise due to the pandemic, a decrease in addiction levels and even smoking cessation can also be observed during these times due to the more progressive course of Covid-19 in smokers. Health institutions should therefore take advantage of this period and focus more efforts on the cessation of smoking and other substance abuse issues.

5.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420786

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preliminary reports indicated that smokers could be less susceptible to the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which causes Covid-19. However, once infected an increased risk of severe disease is reported. We investigated the association between smoking and COVID-19 during an outbreak of the disease on a naval vessel. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study on the 1769 sailors of a same navy aircraft carrier at sea exposed at the same time to SARS-CoV2 to investigate the link between tobacco consumption and Covid-19. RESULTS: Among the 1688 crewmembers (87% men; median age= 28 (IQR 23-35)) included, 1279 (76%) developed Covid-19 (1038 (62%) RT-PCR-positive and 241 (14%) with only clinical signs). One hundred and seven patients were hospitalized. The univariable analysis odds ratio (OR) for Covid-19 infection was 0.59 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.45-0.78; P<0.001) for current smokers vs. former and nonsmokers; sex, body mass index or blood group had no significant impact. Crewmembers >50 years old had an increased risk of contracting Covid-19 (OR, 2.84 [95% CI, 1.30-7.5]; P=0.01). Multivariable analysis retained the lower risk of current smokers becoming infected (OR, 0.64 [0.49-0.84]; P<0.001) and age >50 years was significatively associated with Covid-19 (OR, 2.6 [1.17-6.9]; P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Current smoking status was associated with a lower risk of developing Covid-19 but cannot be considered as an efficient protection against infection. Mechanism of the lower susceptibility of smokers to SARS-CoV-2 requires further research. IMPLICATIONS: Recent epidemiologic data suggest a paradoxical link between smoking and Covid-19. Among the 1688 crewmembers (with an attack rate of 76% and exposed at the same time in the same place to SARS-CoV2), we found a significant lower risk for developing COVID-19 in current smokers (71%) versus former and non smokers (80%). This finding strongly supports the need for further research on nicotine physiological pathway and its impact on COVID-19 infection whilst emphasizing that tobacco smoking should not be considered as an efficient protection against COVID-19.

6.
J Pathol ; 253(1): 17-30, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991738

RESUMO

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identified as the functional receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and a target for disease prevention. However, the relationship between ACE2 expression and its clinical implications in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis remains unknown. Here, we explored the location and expression of ACE2, and its correlation with gender, age, and cigarette smoke (CS), in a CS-exposed mouse model and 224 non-malignant lung tissues (125 non-smokers, 81 current smokers, and 18 ex-smokers) by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, the correlations of ACE2 with CS-induced oxidative stress-related markers, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) were investigated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays identified the cause of ACE2 overexpression in human primary lung epithelial cells. We demonstrated that ACE2 was predominantly overexpressed on the apical surface of bronchial epithelium, while reduced in alveolar epithelium, owing to the dramatically decreased abundance of alveolar type II pneumocytes in CS-exposed mouse lungs. Consistent with this, ACE2 was primarily significantly overexpressed in human bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells in smokers regardless of age or gender. Decreased ACE2 expression was observed in bronchial epithelial cells from ex-smokers compared with current smokers, especially in those who had ceased smoking for more than 10 years. Moreover, ACE2 expression was positively correlated with the levels of HIF-1α, iNOS, and 4-HNE in both mouse and human bronchioles. The results were further validated using a publicly available dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and our previous integrated data from Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 microarray (AE-meta). Finally, our results showed that HIF-1α transcriptionally upregulates ACE2 expression. Our results indicate that smoking-induced ACE2 overexpression in the apical surface of bronchial epithelial cells provides a route by which SARS-CoV-2 enters host cells, which supports clinical relevance in attenuating the potential transmission risk of COVID-19 in smoking populations by smoking cessation. © 2020 The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares/enzimologia , Brônquios/enzimologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/virologia , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(1): e24859, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users might be more vulnerable to COVID-19 infection and could develop more severe symptoms if they contract the disease owing to their impaired immune responses to viral infections. Social media platforms such as Twitter have been widely used by individuals worldwide to express their responses to the current COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to examine the longitudinal changes in the attitudes of Twitter users who used e-cigarettes toward the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as compare differences in attitudes between e-cigarette users and nonusers based on Twitter data. METHODS: The study dataset containing COVID-19-related Twitter posts (tweets) posted between March 5 and April 3, 2020, was collected using a Twitter streaming application programming interface with COVID-19-related keywords. Twitter users were classified into two groups: Ecig group, including users who did not have commercial accounts but posted e-cigarette-related tweets between May 2019 and August 2019, and non-Ecig group, including users who did not post any e-cigarette-related tweets. Sentiment analysis was performed to compare sentiment scores towards the COVID-19 pandemic between both groups and determine whether the sentiment expressed was positive, negative, or neutral. Topic modeling was performed to compare the main topics discussed between the groups. RESULTS: The US COVID-19 dataset consisted of 4,500,248 COVID-19-related tweets collected from 187,399 unique Twitter users in the Ecig group and 11,479,773 COVID-19-related tweets collected from 2,511,659 unique Twitter users in the non-Ecig group. Sentiment analysis showed that Ecig group users had more negative sentiment scores than non-Ecig group users. Results from topic modeling indicated that Ecig group users had more concerns about deaths due to COVID-19, whereas non-Ecig group users cared more about the government's responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that Twitter users who tweeted about e-cigarettes had more concerns about the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings can inform public health practitioners to use social media platforms such as Twitter for timely monitoring of public responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and educating and encouraging current e-cigarette users to quit vaping to minimize the risks associated with COVID-19.

11.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 218: 108438, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking may increase the risk of COVID-19 complications, reinforcing the urgency of smoking cessation in populations with high smoking prevalence such as individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD). Whether the COVID-19 pandemic has altered perceptions, motivation to quit, or tobacco use among cigarette smokers and nicotine e-cigarette vapers with OUD is unknown. METHODS: A telephone survey was conducted in March-July 2020 of current cigarette smokers or nicotine vapers with OUD who were stable on buprenorphine treatment at five Boston (MA) area community health centers. The survey assessed respondents' perceived risk of COVID-19 due to smoking or vaping, interest in quitting, quit attempts and change in tobacco consumption during the pandemic. RESULTS: 222/520 patients (43 %) completed the survey, and 145 were asked questions related to COVID-19. Of these, 61 % smoked cigarettes only, 13 % vaped nicotine only, and 26 % were dual users. Nearly 80 % of participants believed that smoking and vaping increased their risk of COVID-19 infection or complications. Smokers with this belief reported an increased interest in quitting (AOR 4.6, 95 % CI:1.7-12.4). Overall, 49 % of smokers and 42 % of vapers reported increased interest in quitting due to the pandemic; 24 % and 20 %, respectively, reported attempting to quit since the pandemic. However, 35 % of smokers and 27 % of vapers reported increasing smoking and vaping, respectively, during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients with OUD believed that smoking and vaping increased their vulnerability to COVID-19, half reported increased interest in quitting, but others reported increasing smoking and vaping during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Atitude , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/psicologia , Pandemias , Vaping/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Boston , Estudos Transversais , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto Jovem
12.
Addict Behav ; 113: 106692, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099250

RESUMO

Despite a growing body of research examining correlates and consequences of COVID-19, few findings have been published among military veterans. This limitation is particularly concerning as preliminary data indicate that veterans may experience a higher rate of mortality compared to their civilian counterparts. One factor that may contribute to increased rates of death among veterans with COVID-19 is tobacco use. Indeed, findings from a recent meta-analysis highlight the association between lifetime smoking status and COVID-19 progression to more severe or critical conditions including death. Notably, prevalence rates of tobacco use are higher among veterans than civilians. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to examine demographic and medical variables that may contribute to likelihood of death among veterans testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, we examined the unique influence of lifetime tobacco use on veteran mortality when added to the complete model. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted on 440 veterans (80.5% African American/Black) who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (7.3% deceased) at a large, southeastern Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital between March 11, 2020 and April 23, 2020, with data analysis occurring from May 26, 2020 to June 5, 2020. Older age, male gender, immunodeficiency, endocrine, and pulmonary diseases were positively related to the relative risk of death among SARS-CoV-2 positive veterans, with lifetime tobacco use predicting veteran mortality above and beyond these variables. Findings highlight the importance of assessing for lifetime tobacco use among SARS-CoV-2 positive patients and the relative importance of lifetime tobacco use as a risk factor for increased mortality.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/epidemiologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitais de Veteranos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Telemed J E Health ; 27(1): 20-29, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649266

RESUMO

Background: The (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in sudden disruption of routine clinical care necessitating rapid transformation to maintain clinical care while safely reducing virus contagion. Introduction: Memorial Sloan Kettering (MSK) experienced a rapid evolution from delivery of in-person cessation counseling services to virtual telehealth treatments for our tobacco-dependent cancer patients. Aim: To examine the effect of rapid scaling of tobacco treatment telehealth on patient engagement, as measured by attendance rates for in-person counseling visits versus remote telehealth counseling visits. We also describe the patient, clinician, and health care system challenges encountered in rapid expansion of individual and group tobacco telehealth services. Methods: Data collected from the electronic medical record during the first 4 months of the COVID-19 pandemic were examined for tobacco treatment counseling. Results: From January 1, 2020 to March 30, 2020, markedly improved patient engagement was observed in ambulatory tobacco treatment services with greater attendance at scheduled telehealth visits than in-person visits, 75% versus 60.3%, odds ratio 1.84 (confidence interval: 1.26-2.71; p < 0.001). In addition, bedside hospital counseling visits were transformed into inpatient telephone visits with high levels of sustained patient engagement. Lastly, group telehealth services were launched rapidly to increase capacity and provide greater psychosocial support for cancer patients struggling with tobacco dependence. Discussion: Clinical, Information Technology (IT), and hospital system barriers were successfully addressed for most cancer patients seeking individual telehealth treatment. Group telehealth services were found to be feasible and acceptable. Conclusions: MSK's rapid leap into virtual care delivery mitigated disruption of tobacco treatment services and demonstrated strong feasibility and acceptance for managing complex tobacco-dependent patients.

14.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 1045-1056, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749705

RESUMO

Various comorbidities represent risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The impact of smoking on COVID-19 severity has been previously reported in several meta-analyses limited by small sample sizes and poor methodology. We aimed to rigorously and definitively quantify the effects of smoking on COVID-19 severity. MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, and Web of Science were searched between 1 December 2019 and 2 June 2020. Studies reporting smoking status of hospitalized patients with different severities of disease and/or at least one clinical endpoint of interest (disease progression, intensive care unit admission, need for mechanical ventilation, and mortality) were included. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. This study was registered on PROSPERO: CRD42020180920. We analyzed 47 eligible studies reporting on 32 849 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, with 8417 (25.6%) reporting a smoking history, comprising 1501 current smokers, 5676 former smokers, and 1240 unspecified smokers. Current smokers had an increased risk of severe COVID-19 (risk ratios [RR]: 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-2.85; P = .012), and severe or critical COVID-19 (RR: 1.98; CI: 1.16-3.38; P = .012). Patients with a smoking history had a significantly increased risk of severe COVID-19 (RR: 1.31; CI: 1.12-1.54; P = .001), severe or critical COVID-19 (RR: 1.35; CI: 1.19-1.53; P < .0001), in-hospital mortality (RR: 1.26; CI: 1.20-1.32; P < .0001), disease progression (RR: 2.18; CI: 1.06-4.49; P = .035), and need for mechanical ventilation (RR: 1.20; CI: 1.01-1.42; P = .043). Patients with any smoking history are vulnerable to severe COVID-19 and worse in-hospital outcomes. In the absence of current targeted therapies, preventative, and supportive strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality in current and former smokers are crucial.

15.
Addict Behav ; 115: 106783, 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360444

RESUMO

We examined tobacco use changes in young adult college students in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on smoking and vaping. First, we evaluated changes in tobacco use from pre to post campus closure focusing on smoking and electronic nicotine vaping frequency (days) and quantity (cigarettes/cartridges per day). Also, given the potential protective effects of pausing (temporarily or permanently discontinuing) smoking or vaping, we evaluated its predictors. We hypothesized that generalized anxiety and moving home would increase the odds of pausing. We also explored effects of COVID-related news exposure and seeking on tobacco use. We re-contacted young adults two years after they completed a study on alcohol and marijuana co-use. A subset (N = 83; 26.6% of the 312 respondents) were enrolled in college and reported use of cigarettes (n = 35) and/or e-cigarettes (n = 69) in the week prior to their campus closing (PC). Paired sample t-tests compared smoking and vaping frequency and quantity PC to past-week use since closing (SC). Multivariate logistic regression models were fit to examine predictors of pausing. Both smoking and vaping frequency decreased from PC to SC; however, decreased frequency did not correspond to reduced quantity. Twenty-four participants (28.9%) paused past-week use SC. Higher anxiety and moving home (versus living independently) were related to increased odds of pausing, whereas COVID-19 related news exposure and seeking were related to decreased odds of pausing. Characterizing COVID-19 related tobacco use change provides insights into how college students respond to novel health threats and informs potential interventions.

16.
Molecules ; 26(1)2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379366

RESUMO

(1) Background: Nicotine is implicated in the SARS-COV-2 infection through activation of the α7-nAChR and over-expression of ACE2. Our objective was to clarify the role of nicotine in SARS-CoV-2 infection exploring its molecular and cellular activity. (2) Methods: HBEpC or si-mRNA-α7-HBEpC were treated for 1 h, 48 h or continuously with 10-7 M nicotine, a concentration mimicking human exposure to a cigarette. Cell viability and proliferation were evaluated by trypan blue dye exclusion and cell counting, migration by cell migration assay, senescence by SA-ß-Gal activity, and anchorage-independent growth by cloning in soft agar. Expression of Ki67, p53/phospho-p53, VEGF, EGFR/pEGFR, phospho-p38, intracellular Ca2+, ATP and EMT were evaluated by ELISA and/or Western blotting. (3) Results: nicotine induced through α7-nAChR (i) increase in cell viability, (ii) cell proliferation, (iii) Ki67 over-expression, (iv) phospho-p38 up-regulation, (v) EGFR/pEGFR over-expression, (vi) increase in basal Ca2+ concentration, (vii) reduction of ATP production, (viii) decreased level of p53/phospho-p53, (ix) delayed senescence, (x) VEGF increase, (xi) EMT and consequent (xii) enhanced migration, and (xiii) ability to grow independently of the substrate. (4) Conclusions: Based on our results and on evidence showing that nicotine potentiates viral infection, it is likely that nicotine is involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity.

17.
J Pathol ; 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368245

RESUMO

Due to the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, the world is currently facing high morbidity and mortality rates as well as severe disruption to normal societal and social structures. SARS-CoV-2 uses the ACE2 receptor for cellular entry. In a recent publication of The Journal of Pathology, Liu and coworkers highlight the effects of cigarette smoking on ACE2 expression in the respiratory epithelium. The authors studied the effects of acute cigarette smoke exposure in a murine model and confirmed their findings in human lung tissues and gene expression datasets. Their findings demonstrate that cigarette smoking increases ACE2 expression specifically at the apical surface of the airway epithelium. Smoking cessation resulted in lower ACE2 expression, with implications for attenuating the risk of transmission of the virus. The role of ACE2 expression in the development of COVID-19 symptoms is still under investigation, with conflicting results from experimental models on the role of ACE2 expression in SARS-CoV-2-induced lung injury. In this commentary, we highlight the implications and limitations of the study of Liu et al. as well as future therapeutic strategies directed towards ACE2. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

19.
J Intern Med ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a new pneumonia. It has been hypothesized that tobacco smoking history may increase severity of this disease in the patients once infected by the underlying coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 because smoking and COVID-19 both cause lung damage. However, this hypothesis has not been tested. OBJECTIVE: Current study was designed to focus on smoking history in patients with COVID-19 and test this hypothesis that tobacco smoking history increases risk for severe COVID-19 by damaging the lungs. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a single-site, retrospective case series study of clinical associations, between epidemiological findings and clinical manifestations, radiographical or laboratory results. In our well-characterized cohort of 954 patients including 56 with tobacco smoking history, smoking history increased the risk for severe COVID-19 with an odds ratio (OR) of 5.5 (95% CI: 3.1-9.9; P = 7.3 × 10-8 ). Meta-analysis of ten cohorts for 2891 patients together obtained an OR of 2.5 (95% CI: 1.9-3.3; P < 0.00001). Semi-quantitative analysis of lung images for each of five lobes revealed a significant difference in neither lung damage at first examination nor dynamics of the lung damage at different time-points of examinations between the smoking and nonsmoking groups. No significant differences were found either in laboratory results including D-dimer and C-reactive protein levels except different covariances for density of the immune cells lymphocyte (P = 3.8 × 10-64 ) and neutrophil (P = 3.9 × 10-46 ). CONCLUSION: Tobacco smoking history increases the risk for great severity of COVID-19 but this risk is achieved unlikely by affecting the lungs.

20.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(12 Suppl 2): S93-S95, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320258

RESUMO

IMPLICATIONS: This commentary addresses the state of the evidence on tobacco products, nicotine, and COVID-19. The evidence of the effects of smoking on respiratory infections and the immune system in general are examined and the current understanding of tobacco products and risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and the course of COVID-19 is addressed.


Assuntos
/complicações , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Humanos
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