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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e231957, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249251

RESUMEN

Abstract Essential oils from the stems and leaves of Croton doctoris were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, resulting in 22 identified compounds. The effects of these essential oils on the germination, root and shoot growth, total chlorophyll content, potential root respiration, peroxidase activity, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and mitotic index in lettuce and onion were determined. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activity were also investigated. The results revealed that the stem oil consisted of 15 compounds, of which caryophyllene oxide (24.5%) and E-caryophyllene (13.3%) were the major constituents. The leaf oil contained E-caryophyllene (39.6%) and α-humulene (13.2%) as major compounds. The oils inhibited the germination and growth of lettuce and onion seedlings and reduced chlorophyll content, root respiration, and cell division. They also caused oxidative stress, indicated by the increased activity of the evaluated antioxidant enzymes. These abnormal physiological processes contributed to the inhibition of plant growth. The most pronounced phytotoxic effects were observed in the stem oil. The cytotoxicity tests indicated that leaf oil was more active than stem oil, resulting from the presence of biologically active sesquiterpenes that inhibit the growth of cancer cells.


Resumo Os óleos essenciais do caule e da folha de Croton doctoris foram analisados ​​por cromatografia gasosa (GC) e espectrometria de massa (GC-MS) resultando em 22 compostos identificados. Os efeitos dos óleos essenciais na germinação, crescimento de raízes e parte aérea, teor total de clorofila, respiração radicular, atividade de peroxidase, catalase e superóxido de dimetase e índice mitótico foram determinados em alface e cebola. Atividade antioxidante, antimicrobiana e citotóxica também foram investigadas. Os resultados revelaram que o óleo do caule é constituído por 15 compostos, dos quais os principais são o óxido de cariofileno (24,5%) e E-cariofileno (13,3%). O óleo foliar apresentou E-cariofileno (39,6%) seguido de α-humuleno (13,2%) como compostos majoritários. Os óleos inibiram a germinação e o crescimento das plântulas de alface e cebola e reduziram o conteúdo de clorofila, a respiração radicular e a divisão celular. Eles também causaram estresse oxidativo, indicado pelo aumento da atividade das enzimas antioxidantes avaliadas. Esses processos fisiológicos anormais contribuem para a inibição do crescimento das plantas. Os efeitos fitotóxicos mais pronunciados foram observados no óleo do caule. Nos testes de citotoxicidade observou-se que o óleo das folhas foi mais ativo, resultante da presença de sesquiterpenos biologicamente ativos que atuam inibindo o crescimento das células cancerígenas.

2.
Anaerobe ; : 102400, 2021 Jun 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090995

RESUMEN

Smokeless tobacco products possess a complex community of microorganisms. The microbial community ferment compounds present in the smokeless tobacco products and convert them into carcinogens like tobacco-associated nitrosamines. However, the potential of smokeless tobacco products associated bacteriome to manipulate systemic inflammation and other signaling pathways involved in the etiology of oral cancer will be a risk factor for oral cancer. Further, damage to oral epithelial cells causes a leaky oral layer that leads to increased infiltration of bacterial components like lipopolysaccharide, flagellin, and toxins, etc. The consumption of smokeless tobacco products can cause damage to the oral layer and dysbiosis of oral microbiota. Hence, the enrichment of harmful microbes due to dysbiosis in the oral cavity can produce high levels of bacterial metabolites and provoke inflammation as well as carcinogenesis. Understanding the complex and dynamic interrelation between the smokeless tobacco-linked bacteriome and host oral microbiome may help to unravel the mechanism of oral carcinogenesis stimulated by smokeless tobacco products. This review provides an insight into smokeless tobacco product-associated bacteriome and their potential in the progression of oral cancer. In the future, this will guide in the evolution of prevention and treatment strategies against smokeless tobacco products-induced oral cancer. Besides, it will assist the government organizations for better management and cessation policy building for the worldwide problem of smokeless tobacco addiction.

3.
Ann Surg ; 2021 Jun 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091506

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The outcomes associated with receipt of adjuvant radiation in patients following surgery for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to use two registries to compare the outcomes of patients receiving adjuvant radiation or no radiation following definitive surgery for pathologic stage I-III MPM. METHODS: Patients with resected pathologic stage I-III MPM were identified from the Duke University registry (1996-2016) and National Cancer Database (2004-2015). The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Propensity score-matched and landmark subgroup analyses were performed. A total of 212 institutional and 1615 NCDB patients met criteria. In both cohorts, patients who underwent radiation were more likely to have margin-negative resection and more advanced pathologic stage. At a landmark time of 4.4 and 4.7 months from surgery, Duke (HR 1.14; 95%CI 0.62-2.11) and NCDB patients (HR 0.97; 95%CI 0.81-1.17) who received adjuvant radiation did not experience improved survival compared to those who did not receive radiation in multivariable analysis. Duke patients who received radiation had similar incidence of recurrence and time to both overall recurrence and ipsilateral recurrence (HR 0.87; 95%CI 0.43-1.77) compared to those who did not. Duke patients experienced 100 grade 1/2, 21 grade 3/4, and one grade 5 toxicity events during radiation. CONCLUSION: In this dual registry analysis of patients with resected stage I-III MPM, the receipt of adjuvant hemithoracic radiation was not associated with improved survival compared to no radiation.

4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091713

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: 18F-Fluciclovine PET imaging has been increasingly used in the restaging of prostate cancer patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR); however, its clinical utility in patients with low prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels following primary radiation therapy has not been well-studied. This study aims to determine the detection rate and diagnostic accuracy of 18F-fluciclovine PET and the patterns of prostate cancer recurrence in patients with rising PSA after initial radiation therapy, particularly in patients with PSA levels below the accepted Phoenix definition of BCR (PSA nadir +2 ng/mL). METHODS: This retrospective study included patients from two tertiary institutions who underwent 18F-fluciclovine PET scans for elevated PSA level following initial external beam radiation therapy, brachytherapy, and/or proton therapy. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of 18F-fluciclovine PET and associations of PSA kinetic parameters with 18F-fluciclovine PET outcome. RESULTS: One hundred patients were included in this study. The overall detection rate on a patient-level was 79% (79/100). 18F-Fluciclovine PET was positive in 62% (23/37) of cases with PSA below the Phoenix criteria. The positive predictive value of 18F-fluciclovine PET was 89% (95% CI: 80-94%). In patients with PSA below the Phoenix criteria, the PSA velocity had the highest predictive value of 18F-fluciclovine PET outcome. PSA doubling time (PSADT) and PSA velocity were associated with the presence of extra-pelvic metastatic disease. CONCLUSION: 18F-Fluciclovine PET can identify recurrent disease at low PSA level and PSA rise below accepted Phoenix criteria in patients with suspected BCR after primary radiation therapy, particularly in patients with low PSADT or high PSA velocity. In patients with low PSADT or high PSA velocity, there is an increased probability of extra-pelvic metastases. Therefore, these patients are more likely to benefit from PET/CT or PET/MRI than pelvic MRI alone.

5.
Hepatology ; 2021 Jun 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091914

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is no prospective data on stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) as a bridge to liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SBRT as bridging therapy, with comparison to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). APPROACH AND RESULTS: Patients were prospectively enrolled for SBRT under a standardized protocol from July 2015, and compared to a retrospective cohort of patients who underwent TACE or HIFU from 2010. The primary endpoint was tumor control rate at 1-year after bridging therapy. Secondary endpoints included cumulative incidence of dropout, toxicity and post-transplant survival. During the study period, 150 patients were evaluated (SBRT n=40, TACE n=59, HIFU n=51). The tumor control rate at 1-year was significantly higher after SBRT compared to TACE and HIFU(92.3%, 43.5%, and 33.3% respectively, P=0.02). With competing risk analysis, the cumulative incidence of dropout at 1- and 3-year after listing was lower after SBRT(15.1% and 23.3%) compared with TACE(28.9% and 45.8%,P=0.034) and HIFU(33.3% and 45.1%, P=0.032). Time-to-progression at 1- and 3-year was also superior after SBRT(10.8%, 18.5% in SBRT, 45%, 54.9% in TACE and 47.6%, 62.8% in HIFU, P<0.001). The peri-procedural toxicity was similar, without any difference in perioperative complications, and patient and recurrence-free survival rates after transplant. Pathological complete response was more frequent after SBRT compared to TACE and HIFU(48.1% vs. 25% vs. 17.9% respectively, P=0.037). In multivariable analysis, tumor size <3cm, listing AFP <200ng/ml, Child's A and SBRT significantly reduced the risk of dropout. CONCLUSIONS: SBRT was safe, with significantly higher tumor control rate and reduced the risk of waitlist dropout, and should be utilized as an alternative to conventional bridging therapies.

6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091929

RESUMEN

AIMS: Although inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau gene (VHL) on chromosome 3p25 is considered to be the major cause of hereditary endolymphatic sac tumours (ELSTs), the genetic background of sporadic ELST is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of VHL mutations in sporadic ELSTs and compare their characteristics to VHL-disease-related tumours. METHODS: Genetic and epigenetic alterations were compared between 11 sporadic and 11 VHL-disease-related ELSTs by targeted sequencing and DNA methylation analysis. RESULTS: VHL mutations and small deletions detected by targeted deep sequencing were identified in 9/11 sporadic ELSTs (82%). No other cancer-related genetic pathway was altered except for TERT promoter mutations in two sporadic and one VHL-disease-related ELSTs (15%). Loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 3 was found in 6/10 (60%) VHL-disease-related and 10/11 (91%) sporadic ELSTs resulting in biallelic VHL inactivation in 8/10 (73%) sporadic ELSTs. DNA methylation profiling did not reveal differences between sporadic and VHL-disease-related ELSTs, but reliably distinguished ELST from morphological mimics of the cerebellopontine angle. VHL patients were significantly younger at disease onset compared to sporadic ELSTs (29 vs. 52 years, p < 0.0001, Fisher's exact test). VHL-disease status was not associated with an increased risk of recurrence, but the presence of clear cells was found to be associated with shorter progression-free survival (p = 0.0002, log-rank test). CONCLUSION: Biallelic inactivation of VHL is the main mechanism underlying ELSTs, but unknown mechanisms beyond VHL may rarely be involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic ELSTs.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063506

RESUMEN

The review begins with molecular genetics, which hit the field unveiling the involvement of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and uncovering genetic predispositions. Then the notion of molecular phenotypes with different clinical behaviors was introduced and translated in the clinical arena, paving the way to next-generation sequencing that captured previously unrecognized heterogeneity. Among other molecular regulators of CRC progression, the extent of host immune response within the tumor micro-environment has a critical position. Translational sciences deeply investigated the field, accelerating the pace toward clinical transition, due to its strong association with outcomes. While the perturbation of gut homeostasis occurring in inflammatory bowel diseases can fuel carcinogenesis, micronutrients like vitamin D and calcium can act as brakes, and we discuss underlying molecular mechanisms. Among the components of gut microbiota, Fusobacterium nucleatum is over-represented in CRC, and may worsen patient outcome. However, any translational knowledge tracing the multifaceted evolution of CRC should be interpreted according to the prognostic and predictive frame of the TNM-staging system in a perspective of clinical actionability. Eventually, we examine challenges and promises of pharmacological interventions aimed to restrain disease progression at different disease stages.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063570

RESUMEN

Understanding the global metabolic changes during the senescence of tumor cells can have implications for developing effective anti-cancer treatment strategies. Ionizing radiation (IR) was used to induce senescence in a human colon cancer cell line HCT-116 to examine secretome and metabolome profiles. Control proliferating and senescent cancer cells (SCC) exhibited distinct morphological differences and expression of senescent markers. Enhanced secretion of pro-inflammatory chemokines and IL-1, anti-inflammatory IL-27, and TGF-ß1 was observed in SCC. Significantly reduced levels of VEGF-A indicated anti-angiogenic activities of SCC. Elevated levels of tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases from SCC support the maintenance of the extracellular matrix. Adenylate and guanylate energy charge levels and redox components NAD and NADP and glutathione were maintained at near optimal levels indicating the viability of SCC. Significant accumulation of pyruvate, lactate, and suppression of the TCA cycle in SCC indicated aerobic glycolysis as the predominant energy source for SCC. Levels of several key amino acids decreased significantly, suggesting augmented utilization for protein synthesis and for use as intermediates for energy metabolism in SCC. These observations may provide a better understanding of cellular senescence basic mechanisms in tumor tissues and provide opportunities to improve cancer treatment.

9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063610

RESUMEN

Vesicovaginal fistula is the non-physiological connection between the urinary bladder and vagina. This results in continuous urine leakage. In developed countries, the prevalence of this condition is low and affects (mainly) women with a history of gynaecological procedures or radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to present the therapeutic process of a patient with radiation-induced, recurrent vesicovaginal fistula. The thirty-eight-year-old patient underwent radical hysterectomy with follow-up radiotherapy due to cervical cancer. Five years after the therapy, she was diagnosed with vesicovaginal fistula. After two unsuccessful Latzko procedures and two adjuvant platelet-rich plasma injections, a third Latzko reconstructive surgery was performed with additional transposition of the Martius flap-with successful closure of the fistula.

10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064361

RESUMEN

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of leukemia/lymphoma in cattle. It has been found in humans and cattle-derived food products. In humans, it is described as a potential risk factor for breast cancer development. However, the transmission path remains unclear. Here, a molecular epidemiology analysis was performed to identify signatures of genetic flux of BLV among humans, animals, and food products. Sequences obtained from these sources in Colombia were used (n = 183) and compared with reference sequences available in GenBank. Phylogenetic reconstruction was performed in IQ-TREE software with the maximum likelihood algorithm. Haplotype (hap) distribution among the population was carried out with a median-joining model in Network5.0. Recombination events were inferred using SplitsTree4 software. In the phylogenetic analysis, no specific branches were identified for the Colombian sequences or for the different sources. A total of 31 haps were found, with Hap 1, 4, 5 and 7 being shared among the three sources of the study. Reticulation events among the different sources were also detected during the recombination analysis. These results show new insights about the zoonotic potential of BLV, showing evidence of genetic flux between cattle and humans. Prevention and control strategies should be considered to avoid viral dissemination as part of the One Health program policies.

11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064368

RESUMEN

Studies assessing the dose-response relationship for human skin cancer induction by solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) apply a range of methods to quantify relevant UVR doses, but information about the comparability of these datasets is scarce. We compared biologically weighted effectivities applying the most relevant UVR action spectra in order to test the ability of certain UVR detectors to mimic these biological effects at different times during the day and year. Our calculations were based on solar spectra measured at Dortmund, Germany (51.5° N) and at Townsville, Australia (19.3° S), or computed for latitudes 20° S and 50° N. Convolutions with the CIE action spectra for erythema and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and with ICNIRP's weighting function showed comparable solar zenith angle (SZA) dependences with little influence of season or latitude. A different SZA dependence was found with Setlow's action spectrum for melanoma induction. Calculations for a number of UVR detector responsivities gave widely discrepant absolute irradiances and doses, which were nevertheless related to those calculated with both CIE spectra by correction factors largely independent of the SZA. Commonly used detectors can thus provide quite accurate estimates of NMSC induction by solar UVR, whereas they may be inadequate to mimic melanoma induction.

12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065213

RESUMEN

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults in Western countries. Its etiology is largely unknown but increasing incidence rates observed worldwide suggest that lifestyle and environmental factors such as diet might play a role in the development of CLL. Hence, we hypothesized that the consumption of ultra-processed food and drinks (UPF) might be associated with CLL. Data from a Spanish population-based case-control study (MCC-Spain study) including 230 CLL cases (recruited within three years of diagnosis) and 1634 population-based controls were used. The usual diet during the previous year was collected through a validated food frequency questionnaire and food and drink consumption was categorized using the NOVA classification scheme. Logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders were used. Overall, no association was reported between the consumption of UPF and CLL cases (OR per each 10% increase of the relative contribution of UPF to total dietary intake = 1.09 (95% CI: 0.94; 1.25)), independently of the Rai stage at diagnosis. However, when analyses were restricted to cases diagnosed within <1 year (incident), each 10% increment in the consumption of UPF was associated with a 22% higher odds ratio of CLL (95% CI: 1.02, 1.47) suggesting that the overall results might be affected by the inclusion of prevalent cases, who might have changed their dietary habits after cancer diagnosis. Given the low number of cases in the subgroup analyses and multiple tests performed, chance findings cannot totally be ruled out. Nonetheless, positive associations found in CLL incident cases merit further research, ideally in well-powered studies with a prospective design.

13.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 50(5): 402-410, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100517

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Childhood radiation exposure is a known risk factor for thyroid malignancy and dysfunction. However, local data are limited and there is no consensus on the modality and frequency of screening in this high-risk group. METHODS: Retrospective analysis study evaluating patients with childhood radiation exposure in 2006-2016 and minimum of 1-year follow-up. RESULTS: Of the 132 childhood cancer survivors in the study, thyroid malignancy was detected in 2 cases (1.5%) and thyroid nodules in 13 (9.8%). The earliest thyroid malignancy was detected 5 years post-radiotherapy via ultrasound. Of the 84 patients who had screening thyroid function test, 26 (31.0%) were detected with abnormal test results post-radiation, majority being subclinical hypothyroidism. CONCLUSION: Regular screening via clinical examination for thyroid nodules should be performed at least annually. Where feasible and if resources permit, consideration should be given to using ultrasound for thyroid nodule(s) and malignancy screening at 5 years post-radiation therapy. Screening for thyroid dysfunction can be considered from 6-12 months post-radiotherapy.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2021 Jun 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114809

RESUMEN

Recently, we pioneered the application of Cherenkov radiation (CR) of radionuclides for the in situ excitation of discrete Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes. CR is produced by isotopes decaying under emission of charged particles in dielectric media and exhibits a maximum intensity below 400 nm. We have demonstrated that luminescent lanthanide antenna complexes are ideal acceptors for Cherenkov radiation-mediated energy transfer (CRET). Here, we develop and assess peptide-functionalized Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes in conjunction with CRET excitation by the positron emissive radioisotope 18F for simultaneous, multiplexed imaging and in vivo optical imaging. This work demonstrates, for the first time, that the detection of the luminescence emission of a discrete Eu(III) complex in vivo is feasible. Our results open possibilities for discrete luminescent lanthanide complexes to be used as diagnostic, optical tools for the intrasurgical guidance of tumor resection.

15.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(6): e26264, 2021 Jun 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114954

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC), family communication of genetic test results is essential for cascade genetic screening, that is, identifying and testing blood relatives of known mutation carriers to determine whether they also carry the pathogenic variant, and to propose preventive and clinical management options. However, up to 50% of blood relatives are unaware of relevant genetic information, suggesting that potential benefits of genetic testing are not communicated effectively within family networks. Technology can facilitate communication and genetic education within HBOC families. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study are to develop the K-CASCADE (Korean-Cancer Predisposition Cascade Genetic Testing) cohort in Korea by expanding an infrastructure developed by the CASCADE (Cancer Predisposition Cascade Genetic Testing) Consortium in Switzerland; develop a digital health intervention to support the communication of cancer predisposition for Swiss and Korean HBOC families, based on linguistic and cultural adaptation of the Family Gene Toolkit; evaluate its efficacy on primary (family communication of genetic results and cascade testing) and secondary (psychological distress, genetic literacy, active coping, and decision making) outcomes; and explore its translatability using the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance framework. METHODS: The digital health intervention will be available in French, German, Italian, Korean, and English and can be accessed via the web, mobile phone, or tablet (ie, device-agnostic). K-CASCADE cohort of Korean HBOC mutation carriers and relatives will be based on the CASCADE infrastructure. Narrative data collected through individual interviews or mini focus groups from 20 to 24 HBOC family members per linguistic region and 6-10 health care providers involved in genetic services will identify the local cultures and context, and inform the content of the tailored messages. The efficacy of the digital health intervention against a comparison website will be assessed in a randomized trial with 104 HBOC mutation carriers (52 in each study arm). The translatability of the digital health intervention will be assessed using survey data collected from HBOC families and health care providers. RESULTS: Funding was received in October 2019. It is projected that data collection will be completed by January 2023 and results will be published in fall 2023. CONCLUSIONS: This study addresses the continuum of translational research, from developing an international research infrastructure and adapting an existing digital health intervention to testing its efficacy in a randomized controlled trial and exploring its translatability using an established framework. Adapting existing interventions, rather than developing new ones, takes advantage of previous valid experiences without duplicating efforts. Culturally sensitive web-based interventions that enhance family communication and understanding of genetic cancer risk are timely. This collaboration creates a research infrastructure between Switzerland and Korea that can be scaled up to cover other hereditary cancer syndromes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04214210; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04214210 and CRiS KCT0005643; https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/26264.

16.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Jun 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115098

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite the therapeutic efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in a subset of patients, consistent and easily obtainable predictors of efficacy remain elusive. METHODS: This study was conducted on 644 advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with ICI monotherapy between April 2013 and September 2020 at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital. Patient smoking history, clinicopathological characteristics, tumor mutation burden (TMB) by clinical targeted next generation sequencing, and PD-L1 tumor proportion score (TPS) by immunohistochemistry were prospectively collected. The association of smoking history with clinical outcomes of ICI monotherapy in metastatic NSCLC patients was evaluated after adjusting for other potential predictors. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: Of 644 advanced NSCLC patients 105 (16.3%) were never smokers, 375 (58.2%) were former smokers (median pack-years = 28), and 164 (25.4%) were current smokers (median pack-years = 40). Multivariable logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses suggested that doubling of smoking pack-years is statistically significantly associated with improved clinical outcomes of patients treated with ICI monotherapy (objective response rate odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-1.36, P < .001; progression-free survival hazard ratio = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.88-0.95, P < .001; overall survival hazard ratio = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90-0.99, P = .01). Predictive models incorporating pack-years and PD-L1 TPS yielded additional information and achieved similar model performance compared to using TMB and PD-L1 TPS. CONCLUSIONS: Increased smoking exposure had a statistically significant association with improved clinical outcomes in metastatic NSCLC treated with ICI monotherapy independent of PD-L1 TPS. Pack-years may serve as a consistent and readily obtainable surrogate of ICI efficacy when TMB is not available to inform prompt clinical decisions and allow more patients to benefit from ICIs.

17.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2003714, 2021 Jun 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086480

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Adjuvant compared with early salvage radiation therapy (sRT) following radical prostatectomy (RP) has not been shown to reduce progression-free survival in randomized controlled trials. However, these trials might have missed a benefit in men with adverse pathology at RP given that these men were under-represented and immortal time bias might have been present; herein, we investigate this possibility. METHODS: We evaluated the impact of adjuvant versus early sRT on all-cause mortality (ACM) risk in men with adverse pathology defined as positive pelvic lymph nodes (pN1) or pGleason score 8-10 prostate cancer (PC) and disease extending beyond the prostate (pT3/4). We used a treatment propensity score to minimize potential treatment selection bias when estimating the causal effect of adjuvant versus early sRT on ACM risk and a sensitivity analysis to assess the impact that varying definitions of adverse pathology had on ACM risk adjusting for age at RP, PC prognostic factors, site, and the time-dependent use of post-RP androgen deprivation therapy. RESULTS: After a median follow-up (interquartile range) of 8.16 (6.00-12.10) years, of the 26,118 men in the study cohort, 2,104 (8.06%) died, of which 539 (25.62%) were from PC. After excluding men with a persistent prostate-specific antigen, adjuvant compared with early sRT was associated with a significantly lower ACM risk among men with adverse pathology at RP when men with pN1 PC were excluded (0.33 [0.13-0.85]; P = .02) or included (0.66 [0.44-0.99]; P = .04). CONCLUSION: Adjuvant radiation therapy should be considered in men with pN1 or pGleason score 8 to 10 and pT3/4 PC given the possibility that a significant reduction in ACM risk exists.

19.
20.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2100586, 2021 Jun 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086509
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