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1.
Int Braz J Urol ; 482022 Feb 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861538

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The therapeutic role of pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) in prostate cancer (PCa) is unknown due to absence of randomized trials. OBJECTIVE: to present a critical review on the therapeutic benefits of PLND in high risk localized PCa patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search of the literature on PLND was performed using PubMed, Cochrane, and Medline database. Articles obtained regarding diagnostic imaging and sentinel lymph node dissection, PLND extension, impact of PLND on survival, PLND in node positive "only" disease and PLND surgical risks were critically reviewed. RESULTS: High-risk PCa commonly develops metastases. In these patients, the possibility of presenting lymph node disease is high. Thus, extended PLND during radical prostatectomy may be recommended in selected patients with localized high-risk PCa for both accurate staging and therapeutic intent. Although recent advances in detecting patients with lymph node involvement (LNI) with novel imaging and sentinel node dissection, extended PLND continues to be the most accurate method to stage lymph node disease, which may be related to the number of nodes removed. However, extended PLND increases surgical time, with potential impact on perioperative complications, hospital length of stay, rehospitalization and healthcare costs. Controversy persists on its therapeutic benefit, particularly in patients with high node burden. CONCLUSION: The impact of PLND on biochemical recurrence and PCa survival is unclear yet. Selection of patients may benefit from extended PLND but the challenge remains to identify them accurately. Only prospective randomized study would answer the precise role of PLND in high-risk pelvis confined PCa patients.

2.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e47510, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151835

RESUMEN

Objetivo: analisar as expectativas de pacientes internados devido ao diagnóstico de câncer sobre o término do tratamento e a sobrevivência à doença. Método: estudo qualitativo e descritivo realizado com 32 pacientes internados em um hospital universitário. A coleta de dados ocorreu entre abril e junho de 2019 por meio de entrevista semiestruturada e a técnica para tratamento dos dados foi a análise de conteúdo. Resultados: observou-se predomínio de expectativas sobre de autonomia para realizar atividades do cotidiano, relacionando à retomada dos papéis sociais e às mudanças de hábitos após o tratamento. Conclusões: é necessário reconhecer as expectativas do sobrevivente ao câncer para auxiliá-lo em direção ao protagonismo acerca de suas decisões sobre sua vida futura e tratamento, incentivando a autonomia na construção do seu processo de saúde.


Objective: to analyze the expectations of hospital inpatients diagnosed with cancer as to the end of treatment and their surviving the disease. Method: in this qualitative, descriptive study of 32 inpatients at a university hospital, data were collected by semi-structured interview between April and June 2019 and treated by content analysis. Results: expectations for autonomy in performing daily activities predominated, i.e., for resuming social roles and changing habits after treatment. Conclusions: cancer survivors' expectations must be acknowledged in order to assist them towards taking the lead in decisions about their future life and treatment and to encourage autonomy in constructing their health process.


Objetivo: analizar las expectativas de los pacientes hospitalizados debido al diagnóstico de cáncer en cuanto al término del tratamiento y la supervivencia a la enfermedad. Método: estudio cualitativo y descriptivo realizado junto a 32 pacientes ingresados en un hospital universitario. La recolección de datos se realizó entre abril y junio de 2019 a través de entrevista semiestructurada y la técnica para el tratamiento de los datos fue el análisis de contenido. Resultados: Se observó que predominan expectativas sobre tener autonomía para realizar las actividades diarias, relacionado a la reanudación de los roles sociales y a los cambios de hábitos tras el tratamiento. Conclusiones: Es necesario reconocer las expectativas del superviviente al cáncer para asistirlo en el protagonismo sobre sus decisiones en cuanto a su vida futura y su tratamiento, incentivando la autonomía en la construcción de su proceso de salud.

3.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 30(2): 69-80, mayo.-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252326

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Este reporte corresponde al análisis de la calidad de vida de los pacientes que se incluyeron en el ensayo clínico fase III de evaluación de la vacuna CIMAvaxEGF® en cáncer de pulmón de células no pequeñas. La calidad de vida se evaluó empleando los cuestionarios EORTC QLQ-C30 y QLQ-C13, al inicio y cada 3 meses hasta el fallecimiento del paciente a criterio del investigador. Para comparar las medianas entre los dos grupos se utilizó la prueba no paramétrica de Mann-Whitney. Las comparaciones entre el nivel basal y los diferentes tiempos de seguimiento se realizaron a través de la prueba no paramétrica de Wilcoxon. El cuestionario QLQ-C30 evidenció un beneficio en cuanto a calidad de vida para el grupo vacunado con la vacuna CIMAvaxEGF® en las escalas funcionales (global, rol y social), en las escalas de síntomas de la enfermedad y del tratamiento (dolor) se observó que mejora la calidad de los mismos a favor de los pacientes tratados con la vacuna CIMAvaxEGF®. El cuestionario QLQ-C13, también evidenció ventajas para el grupo vacunado desde el punto de vista de beneficio clínico en los síntomas (disnea, disfagia, alopecia y dolor en el pecho). Se señala como significativo que disminuye la hemoptisis y la tos en el grupo vacunado, observándose un empeoramiento en el grupo control.


ABSTRACT This report corresponds to quality of life analysis of patient with non-small cell lung cancer included in the phase III clinical trials Evaluation of CIMAvaxEGF® vaccine in lung cancer. The quality of life was evaluate using the EORTC questionnaires QLQ-C30 y QLQ-C13, at the beginning and every 3 months. To compare the median between two groups the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test was used. To compare the baseline and different follows times the Wilcoxon non-parametric test was used. The QLQ-C30 questionnaire showed a benefit in terms of the quality of life for the CIMAvaxEGF® vaccine group on the functional scores (global, role and social) and symptoms of the disease (pain). The QLQ-LC13 questionnaire showed a benefit in terms of the quality of life for the CIMAvaxEGF® vaccine group on the symptoms scores (dyspnea, dysphagia, alopecia and chest pain). It is noted as significant that the hemoptysis decreases in the group vaccinated as well as the dysphagia, the cough and the dyspnea observing a worsening in the control group.

4.
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 15(1): 8-12, 1/07/2021.
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248004

RESUMEN

Actualmente el cáncer es la segunda causa de muerte en la población chilena; sin embargo, en algunas regiones del país como Arica y Parinacota, Antofagasta, La Serena, Los Lagos y Aysén, en Atacama y La Araucanía ya es la primera (1), inmediatamente apenas por debajo de las afecciones al sistema circulatorio y cardiovascular, y se espera que, al final de la próxima década, llegue a ser la primera causa de muerte en el país (2). Por otra parte, con respecto a los años de vida perdidos en Chile, el cáncer es la primera causa de años de vida perdidos por muerte prematura (175.741 años equivalentes al 22,5% del total de años). Si a lo anterior sumamos los años de vida perdidos por discapacidad, el cáncer es responsable de 221.529 AVISA (Años de vida ajustados por discapacidad), ubicándolo en el séptimo lugar de grupos de causas de carga de enfermedad.(3) Por su incidencia, el cáncer se ha constituido en un problema de salud pública indiscutible e insoslayable, por cuya gravedad demanda al sistema de salud chileno la máxima atención y el mejor de los esfuerzos en las tareas de las pesquisas temprana en toda la población, con el fin de minimizarsusefectos combinados enlasociedad demanera transversal y en cualquier contexto en el que ocurra, debido a la dificultad que significa para el sistema de salud chileno su pesquisa temprana en todos los ciudadanos, sumado a la escasez de recursos tanto humanos como materiales, por lo costos involucrados en su abordaje, es un importante problema social y económico, con repercusión y costos que afectan a laspersonas, sus familiasy comunidades, así como al sistema de salud y al país en su conjunto. (2) A la fecha, en Chile, grandes esfuerzos se han hecho para reducir estas brechas. El mayor de ellos es el programa GES (Garantías explícitas enSalud), mediante el cual los pacientes de acuerdo a su diagnóstico e independientemente de su capacidad de pago o seguro de salud asociado, región geográfica o nivel educacional, son asegurados con una canasta de prestaciones estandarizada, con tiempos de atención antes definidos, asegurando así acceso, oportunidad, protección financiera y calidad delprestador. (4) No obstante luego de 15 años de iniciado elprograma de prestaciones GES, persisten estas diferencias tanto por nivel socioeconómico, y/o educacional, queinfluyen negativamente sobre los estándares de atención de los diferentes prestadores de salud, en razón que diversos estudios se han observado diferencias estadisticamente significativas en las tasas de mortalidad entre el sistema público y privado de 3,12 a 5,8 veces más mortalidad en los pacientes atendidos por FONASA (Fondo nacional de Salud) , respecto a los prestadores privados provenientes de ISAPRES (Instituciones de salud previsional). (5) La ley Nacional del Cáncer recibe el nombre del doctor Claudio Mora a modo de homenaje póstumo, pues él encarnó la dualidad de paciente oncológico y profesional al ser tratado por un cáncer de páncreas, junto al Dr. Jorge Jiménez de la Jara, y la senadora Carolina Goic, quienes fueron grandes impulsores de esta ley, que cuenta con $80 mil millones de pesos anuales ($20 mil millones para infraestructura y $60 mil millones para tratamientos que hoy no son cubiertos por el GES ni por la Ley Ricarte Soto), además de $200 millones anuales por ocho años para la construcción de la Red Nacional Oncológica.(6) La ley nacional del cáncer es un proyecto a largo plazo que requiere de una red oncológica integrada de profesionales y de la coordinación de un equipo interdisciplinario que presenta deficiencias tanto en el número como en la especializaciónde sus equipos médicos. En el presente contexto de la pandemia por coronavirus iniciada en Chile el 1 de marzo de 2020, contrapuesto a lo anterior la disminución de los diagnósticos de cáncer es un hecho, como consecuencia directa de la priorización de camas crítica como camas básicas y de intermedio para atender pacientes infectados por coronavirus, a pesar de lo anterior ha entrado en vigencia la Ley Nacional de Cáncer, es decir, la nueva Ley 21.258, que pretende asegurar que se proporcione un óptimo diagnóstico, tratamiento y seguimiento a los pacientes. (7)

5.
J Mol Biol ; : 167090, 2021 Jun 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090922

RESUMEN

Members of the αv family of integrins regulate activation of transforming growth factor beta (TGFß) and are directly involved in pro-tumorigenic phenotypes. Thus, αv integrins may be therapeutic targets for fibrosis and cancer, yet the isolation of selective inhibitors is currently a challenge. We generated synthetic antibodies selective for αv integrins by phage display selections on cell lines that displayed integrin heterodimers. We identified antibodies that targeted two distinct epitopes on cell-surface αv integrins and partially inhibited cell adhesion mediated by interactions between integrins and the latency-associated peptide, part of the pro-form of TGFß. Using the isolated antibody paratope sequences we engineered a bispecific antibody capable of binding to both epitopes simultaneously; this antibody potently and completely inhibited cell adhesion mediated by integrins αvß1, αvß3 and αvß5. In addition, the bispecific antibody inhibited proliferation and migration of lung carcinoma lines, where the highest and lowest potencies observed correlated with integrin-αv cell surface expression levels. Taken together, our results demonstrate that phage display selections with live cells can yield high quality anti-integrin antibodies, which we used as biparatopic building blocks to construct a bispecific antibody that strongly inhibited integrin function and may be a therapeutic candidate for cancer and fibrosis.

6.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res ; : 119065, 2021 Jun 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090960

RESUMEN

Elabela/toddler is the second endogenous ligand recently identified after Apelin, that binds to the G protein-coupled receptor APJ. Elabela is a 54-amino acid peptide initially identified in fish and human genomes and classified as noncoding. This precursor can be cleaved to shorter sequences (32, 21, and 11 amino acids), which bind and activate APJ, and can be blocked by APJ antagonists. Contrary to Apelin and APJ, widely distributed in organs and tissues, Elabela expression is more restricted, and different studies have revealed the potential role of Elabela in cancers. This review summarizes the current studies focusing on the role of Elabela in different cancers.

7.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 2021 Jun 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090966

RESUMEN

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous and molecularly complex disease, associated with high mortality worldwide, exposing the urgent need for novel therapeutic approaches. Their development and translation to the clinic have been hampered, partially due to the absence of reliable cellular models that resemble key features of the human disease. While traditional 2D models are not able to provide consistent and predictive responses about the in vivo efficiency of the formulation, animal models frequently fail to recapitulate cancer progression and to reproduce adverse effects. On its turn, multicellular 3D systems, by mimicking key genetic, physical and mechanical cues of the tumor microenvironment, constitute a promising tool in cancer research. In addition, they constitute more physiological and relevant environment for anticancer drugs screening and for predicting patient's response towards personalized approaches, bridging the gap between simplified 2D models and unrepresentative animal models. In this review, we provide an overview of CRC 3D models for translational research, with focus on their potential for nanomedicines screening.

8.
Exp Hematol ; 2021 Jun 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090970

RESUMEN

The mRNA-destabilizing proteins ZFP36L1 and ZFP36L2 are described to be mediators of quiescence and play a pivotal role in hematopoietic malignancies. Both genes are mainly classified as tumor suppressor genes as they posttranscriptionally downregulate the expression of oncogenes and contribute to cellular quiescence. Here, we analyzed the role of ZFP36L1 and ZFP36L2 in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We found ZFP36L1 and ZFP36L2 expression to be deregulated in CML patients. By using in vitro models of tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance, an increase in ZFP36L1 and ZFP36L2 expression was detected during the development of imatinib resistance. CRISPR/Cas9-derived knockout of ZFP36L1, but not of ZFP36L2, in imatinib sensitive cells led to decreased proliferation rates in response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. This effect was also observed in untreated ZFP36L1 knockout cells, albeit to a lower extent. Genome-wide gene expression analyses of ZFP36L1 knockout cells revealed differential expression of cell cycle regulators, in particular upregulation of the cell cycle inhibitor CDKN1A. In addition, the 3' UTR of CDKN1A was proven to be a direct target of ZFP36L1. This shows that tumor suppressor genes can also be targeted by ZFP36L1. Hence, ZFP36L1 cannot unambiguously be regarded as tumor suppressor genes.

9.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; : 103390, 2021 Jun 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090998

RESUMEN

The introduction of checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treatment landscape, resulted in improvements in overall survival (OS) in metastatic patients. Brain metastases (BMs) are a specific metastatic site of interest representing a predictive factor of poor prognosis. Patients with BMs were usually excluded from prospective clinical trials in the past. Despite recent evidence suggest the efficacy and safety of ICIs, the BMs treatment remains a challenge; the immunotherapy responsiveness seems to be multifactorial and dependent on several factors, such as the genetic intratumor heterogeneity and the immunosuppressive role of the brain tumor microenvironment. This review, starting from the immunological background in RCC BMs, provide an overview of the upcoming evidence from clinical trials, address the issues related to the neuroradiological immunotherapy response evaluation and, with a look to the future, describes how the epigenetic modulation of immune evasion could represent a background for new therapeutic strategies.

10.
Semin Cancer Biol ; 2021 Jun 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090999

RESUMEN

Cancer cells release a variety of factors that contribute to the alteration of proximal and distal tissues to promote metastasis. Recent studies have demonstrated that aggressive cancer cells release extracellular vesicles with higher protein content and in excess than extracellular vesicles isolated from patients with less aggressive disease or healthy individuals. We found that melanoma tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (TEV) downregulate type I interferon receptor subunit 1 (IFNAR1), suppress expression of the interferon stimulated gene cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H). Loss of CH25H is observed in the leukocytes from melanoma patients, which correlated with metastasis and poor survival. Similarly, mice also exhibit loss of IFNAR1 following TEV administration. Moreover, loss of CH25H increased TEV uptake and TEV-induced pre metastatic niche and lung metastasis. Use of the anti-hypertensive drug, reserpine, mimicked the effects of the CH25H product 25-hydroxycholesterol to suppress TEV uptake and TEV-mediated tumor growth, pre-metastatic niche formation, and lung metastasis. These results suggest the importance of CH25H in suppressing TEV mediate cancer progression and importance of developing strategies to suppress TEV uptake and TEV-mediated disease progression.

11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091014

RESUMEN

Lung cancer screening with annual Low-Dose CT (LDCT) reduces lung cancer death by 20-26%. However, potential harms of screening include false positive results, procedures from false positives, procedural complications and failure to adhere to follow-up recommendations. In diverse, underserved populations, it is unknown if benefits of early lung cancer detection outweigh harms. We conducted a prospective observational study of lung cancer screening participants in an urban, safety-net institution from September 2014 to June 2020. We measured benefits of screening in terms of cancer diagnosis, stage and treatment. We measured harms of screening by calculating false positive rate, procedures as a result of false positive screens, procedural complications and failure to follow-up with recommended care. Of patients with 3-year follow up, we measured these same outcomes in addition to compliance with annual screening. Of 1509 participants, 55.6% were African American, 35.2% White, 8.1% Hispanic and 0.5% Asian. Screening resulted in cancer detection and treatment in 2.8%. False positive and procedure as a result of a false positive occurred in 9.2% and 0.8% of participants, respectively with no major complications from diagnostic procedures or treatment. Adherence to annual screening was low, 18.7%, 3.7% and 0.4% at 1, 2 and 3 years after baseline screening respectively. Multidisciplinary lung cancer screening in a safety-net institution can successfully detect and treat lung cancer with few harms of false positive screens, procedure after false positive screens and major complications. However, adherence to annual screening is poor.

13.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2021 Jun 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091050

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Brain metastasis (BM) is one of the most common metastases from primary lung cancer (PLC). Recently, the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated the efficacy of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening on LC mortality reduction. However, it remains unknown if early detection of PLC through LDCT may be potentially beneficial in reducing the risk of subsequent metastases. Our study aimed to investigate the impact of LDCT screening for PLC on the risk of developing BM after PLC diagnosis. METHODS: We used NLST data to identify 1,502 participants who were diagnosed with PLC in 2002-2009 and have follow-up data for BM. Cause-specific competing risk regression was applied to evaluate an association between BM risk and the mode of PLC detection-i.e., LDCT screen-detected versus non-LDCT screen-detected. Subgroup analyses were conducted in early-stage PLC patients and those who underwent surgery for PLC. RESULTS: Of 1502 participants, 41.4% had PLC detected through LDCT-screening versus 58.6% detected through other methods, e.g., chest X-Ray or incidental detection. Patients whose PLC was detected with LDCT-screening had a significantly lower 3-year incidence of BM (6.5%) versus those without (11.9%), with a cause-specific hazard ratio (HR) of 0.53 (p=0.001), adjusting for PLC stage, histology, diagnosis age and smoking status. This significant reduction in BM risk among PLCs detected through LDCT-screening persisted in subgroups of early-stage PLC participants (HR 0.47, p=0.002) and those who underwent surgery (HR 0.37, p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Early detection of PLC using LDCT-screening is associated with lower risk of BM after PLC diagnosis based on a large population-based study.

14.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091080

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Breast cancer is the leading cancer in women worldwide with about 2 million new cases and 685,000 deaths each year. Mammography is the most widely used screening and diagnostic method. Currently, digital technologies advances facilitate the development of connected and portable devices. To overcome some of the disadvantages of mammography (breast compression, difficulty in analyzing dense breasts, radiation, limited accessibility in some countries, etc.), portable devices, conventionally known as connected bras (CB), have been created to offer an alternative method to mammography. The objective of our review was to list all the published CBs in order to know their main characteristics, their potential indications and their possible limitations. METHOD: A bibliographical search in the PUBMED database selecting only articles written in French or English, between 2011 and 2020, found 7 CBs under development. RESULTS: These CBs use thermal, ultrasonic and impedance sensors. Their advantages are an absence of irradiation, an absence of breast compression and a flexibility of use (outside an X-ray cabinet). Mammary gland analysis times vary, depending on the device, between 30 minutes and 24 hours. They are all connected to data transmission systems and models that analyze the results. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: These CBs are mostly still undergoing clinical validation (only [iTBra] has been evaluated in a clinical trial) and require evaluation steps that will eventually allow their future use for breast cancer detection in high-risk women, particularly in women with dense breasts and in women between screening waves.

15.
Sex Med ; 9(3): 100350, 2021 Jun 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091242

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Patients with prostate cancer (PC) who undergo radical prostatectomy (RP) experience impaired sexual and urinary function. AIM: To compare the effect of early couple counseling and pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) with usual care for sexual and urinary dysfunction after RP. METHODS: The ProCan study was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with two parallel treatment arms and 1:1 allocation. Between January 2016 and December 2017, candidates for RP were invited to a longitudinal questionnaire study and provided baseline measures before surgery. Patients who underwent RP, had a female partner, and were sexually active were invited to the ProCan RCT. Couples who provided informed consent were allocated to usual care or usual care and up to six couple counseling sessions, up to three instructions in PFMT and a video home-training program. All couples filled in follow-up questionnaires at 8 and 12 months and non-participants provided 12 months' follow-up. Linear mixed-effect models and 95% confidence intervals were used to measure effects of the intervention. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Primary outcome was erectile function, measured with The International Index of Erectile Function, at 8 and 12 months follow-up. Secondary outcomes were sexual and urinary function and use of treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED) by patients; sexual function in female partners; and relationship function, health-related quality of life, anxiety, depression, and self-efficacy in both patients and female partners. RESULTS: Thirty-five couples were randomized. No significant effect of the intervention was found on erectile function at 8 months (estimated difference in change, 1.41; 95% CI; -5.51 ; 8.33) or 12 months (estimated difference in change, 0.53; 95% CI; -5.94; 6.99) or in secondary outcomes, except for significantly increased use of ED treatment at 8 months. CONCLUSION: We found no effect of early couple counseling and PFMT, possibly because of the limited number of participants. Karlsen RV, Bidstrup PE, Giraldi A, et al. Couple Counseling and Pelvic Floor Muscle Training for Men Operated for Prostate Cancer and for Their Female Partners. Results From the Randomized ProCan Trial. Sex Med 2021;9:100350.

16.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 52: 101981, 2021 May 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091407

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to determine whether adequate research evidence exists to support utilizing multimedia technology in the preoperative education of adult cancer patients. METHODS: A systematic search of Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases from 2010 through September 24, 2020, was performed. The review included quantitative studies that examined whether education delivered by multimedia impacted levels of anxiety, knowledge acquisition, satisfaction, and compliance. The research quality was evaluated using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tool specific to the study design. RESULTS: The database search identified 529 scientific articles, of these nine studies met the eligibility criteria (n = 5 randomized controlled trials; n = 4 quasi-experimental studies). The education interventions included a variety of researcher-developed, multimedia modalities, consisting of video (n = 7), a computer program (n = 1), and a tablet application (n = 1). The methodological rigor varied among these studies. Multimedia patient education resulted in decreased anxiety and improved knowledge acquisition within groups; however, there was no significant difference when compared to traditional methods. Patients were also similarly satisfied and compliant with both education methods. CONCLUSIONS: In all studies, the healthcare provider played a prominent role in both multimedia and traditional interventions, revealing the strong influence of the interpersonal connection in the delivery of preoperative education. Future research is needed to investigate whether more interactive technology could improve patient outcomes.

17.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 2021 Jun 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091475

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI) on overall survival, freedom from distant metastases, rates of therapeutic intervention (TI), and quality of life (QOL) in active surveillance (AS) prostate cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred forty consecutive, prospectively evaluated AS patients underwent a staging transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy before AS enrollment and were stratified by BMI (<25, 25 to 29.9, 30 to 34.9, and >35 kg/m2). Evaluated outcomes included overall survival, freedom from distant metastases, TI, QOL to include urinary, bowel, sexual function and depression and serial postvoid residual urine measurements. The relationship between BMI and anterior prostate cancer distribution was evaluated. Repeat biopsy was based on prostate specific antigen kinetics, abnormal digital rectal examination and patient preference. RESULTS: Of the 340 patients, 323 (95%) were Gleason 3+3 and 17 patients (5.0%) were Gleason 3+4. The median follow-up was 5.2 years (range: 1 to 14 y). At 10 years, TI was instituted in 4.7%, 2.2%, 9.5%, and 25.0% of patients in BMI cohorts <25, 25 to 29.9, 30 to 34.9, and ≥35 (P=0.075). No patient has developed distant metastases. The median time to TI was 4.86 years. In multivariate analysis, TI was most closely predicted by prostate specific antigen density (P=0.071). At 8 years, no statistical differences in urinary function, bowel function, depression or postvoid residual were noted. However, a trend for erectile dysfunction was identified (P=0.106). CONCLUSION: At 10 years, BMI did not statistically predict for TI, geographic distribution of prostate cancer or QOL parameters.

18.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 2021 Jun 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091476

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic colitis (EoC) is a rare form of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease characterized by diffuse eosinophilic infiltration in the deep lamina propria of colonic mucosa. The pathophysiology is unclear, but EoC has been associated with multiple known risk factors. AIM: The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical characteristics and disease course of patients with EoC at a major cancer center. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed colonic samples obtained between January 2000 and December 2018 from our institutional database and included cases with significant colonic eosinophilia. Baseline clinical data and EoC-related clinical course and outcomes were documented. RESULTS: Forty-one patients were included. One fourth had coexisting autoimmune conditions. Seventy-eight percent had a cancer diagnosis. Half the patients received chemotherapy, with a median duration of 180 days between chemotherapy and EoC onset. Symptoms were present in 76% of patients. Diarrhea was more prevalent in patients who received chemotherapy (85% vs. 42%). Median duration of EoC symptoms was 30 days in patients with cancer and 240 days in those without cancer (P=0.03). Most patients (88%) had normal colonoscopy findings. Fifteen percent of patients required hospitalization. All-cause mortality was 37%, mostly related to underlying malignancy and organ failure. CONCLUSIONS: EoC in cancer patients appears to have more diarrhea-predominant symptoms, particularly in patients receiving chemotherapy, but a shorter disease duration compared with patients without cancer. Hospitalization can be required for serious cases. Treatment may be reserved for patients requiring symptom management, as most patients with EoC have good clinical outcomes regardless of treatment.

19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091482

RESUMEN

Laparoscopic transhiatal approach to esophagectomy with mediastinal lymphadenectomy usually involves hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery. However, a totally laparoscopic approach can decrease the size of the abdominal wound and curtail the impact on respiration. We present a novel, totally laparoscopic transhiatal technique that may reduce respiratory complications following thoracoscopic esophagectomy. We performed a series of combined, thoracoscopic and laparoscopic, McKeown esophagectomies via a neck-abdominal first approach. Middle and lower mediastinal lymphadenectomy, subtracheal lymph node removal, and esophageal mobilization were performed via a totally laparoscopic transhiatal approach. Subsequently, upper mediastinal lymph nodes were dissected using a thoracoscopic approach. Finally, an esophagogastric anastomosis was constructed in the neck. For the 36 patients in this series, the median values of the total operative duration and the thoracoscopic portion were 499 minutes (range, 315 to 678 min) and 106 minutes (range, 67 to 243 min), respectively. Postoperative pneumonia occurred in 3 (8.3%) patients. Totally laparoscopic transhiatal approach is feasible for esophageal surgery with acceptable short-term outcomes.

20.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 2021 Jun 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091484

RESUMEN

Most gastric cancers (GCs) are thought to develop via gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM)-dysplasia-carcinoma pathway. Patients with extensive and/or incomplete GIM have been reported to have a higher risk of GC. GIM can also display dysplasia-like cytoarchitectural atypia limited to the bases of gastric pits without surface involvement. However, only a small proportion of GIM patients will develop gastric neoplasia, and it remains questionable if GIM is a direct precursor. A cohort of 82 GC patients with GIM who underwent gastrectomy were analyzed. DNA flow cytometry was performed on 109 GIM samples (including 88 predominantly complete GIM and 21 predominantly incomplete GIM subclassified based on morphology) obtained from adjacent mucosa of the 82 GCs. Only 2 (2%) of the 109 GIM samples demonstrated aneuploidy, both from 2 minority patients (Asian and Hispanic) with limited and complete GIM and no cytoarchitectural atypia. The remaining 107 GIM samples showed mild to focally moderate basal gland (metaplastic) atypia limited to the bases of gastric pits, but they all demonstrated normal DNA content regardless of anatomic location, histologic GIM subtype, or varying degrees of basal gland atypia. In conclusion, the vast majority of the GIM samples (98%) lack the aneuploidy that is characteristic of gastric dysplasia or cancer. This indicates that aneuploidy usually occurs after the development of gastric dysplasia rather than at the stage of GIM. The finding also suggests that the presence of GIM alone may not be sufficient to suggest an increased risk for GC and that the inclusion of other high-risk features (ie, extensive GIM, dysplasia, racial minorities, and/or family history of GC in a first-degree relative) and/or aneuploidy ought to play a role in the selection of GIM patients who may warrant endoscopic surveillance. Finally, GIM with mild to focally moderate basal gland atypia is likely to represent metaplastic atypia in most cases.

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