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1.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 30(2)mayo.-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1252326

RESUMO

Este reporte corresponde al análisis de la calidad de vida de los pacientes que se incluyeron en el ensayo clínico fase III de evaluación de la vacuna CIMAvaxEGF® en cáncer de pulmón de células no pequeñas. La calidad de vida se evaluó empleando los cuestionarios EORTC QLQ-C30 y QLQ-C13, al inicio y cada 3 meses hasta el fallecimiento del paciente a criterio del investigador. Para comparar las medianas entre los dos grupos se utilizó la prueba no paramétrica de Mann-Whitney. Las comparaciones entre el nivel basal y los diferentes tiempos de seguimiento se realizaron a través de la prueba no paramétrica de Wilcoxon. El cuestionario QLQ-C30 evidenció un beneficio en cuanto a calidad de vida para el grupo vacunado con la vacuna CIMAvaxEGF® en las escalas funcionales (global, rol y social), en las escalas de síntomas de la enfermedad y del tratamiento (dolor) se observó que mejora la calidad de los mismos a favor de los pacientes tratados con la vacuna CIMAvaxEGF®. El cuestionario QLQ-C13, también evidenció ventajas para el grupo vacunado desde el punto de vista de beneficio clínico en los síntomas (disnea, disfagia, alopecia y dolor en el pecho). Se señala como significativo que disminuye la hemoptisis y la tos en el grupo vacunado, observándose un empeoramiento en el grupo control(AU)


This report corresponds to quality of life analysis of patient with non-small cell lung cancer included in the phase III clinical trials Evaluation of CIMAvaxEGF® vaccine in lung cancer. The quality of life was evaluate using the EORTC questionnaires QLQ-C30 y QLQ-C13, at the beginning and every 3 months. To compare the median between two groups the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test was used. To compare the baseline and different follows times the Wilcoxon non-parametric test was used. The QLQ-C30 questionnaire showed a benefit in terms of the quality of life for the CIMAvaxEGF® vaccine group on the functional scores (global, role and social) and symptoms of the disease (pain). The QLQ-LC13 questionnaire showed a benefit in terms of the quality of life for the CIMAvaxEGF® vaccine group on the symptoms scores (dyspnea, dysphagia, alopecia and chest pain). It is noted as significant that the hemoptysis decreases in the group vaccinated as well as the dysphagia, the cough and the dyspnea observing a worsening in the control group(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/epidemiologia , Vacinas Anticâncer
2.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 30(2)mayo.-ago. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1252323

RESUMO

En diciembre de 2019 en Wuhan, provincia China de Hubei, se notificó un caso de neumonía de etiología desconocida. Con posterioridad se diagnosticó como un síndrome agudo respiratorio severo (SARS, por sus siglas en inglés) causado por un coronavirus denominado SARS-CoV-2.1 A principios de marzo de 2020, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) notificó casi 100.000 casos positivos y 3.880 víctimas mortales en 47 países, convirtiéndose en pandemia la enfermedad COVID-19 que ha afectado al mundo hasta la actualidad.2 La pandemia de la COVID-19 ha tenido un gran impacto en la vida de las personas y la sociedad en su conjunto y ha causado perjuicios a la economía mundial, afectándose sectores como turismo, recreación, viajes internacionales, educación, entre otros. Para la salud humana, ha tenido repercusión en términos de enfermedad, discapacidad y elevado número de muertes, así como en las complejas interrogantes impuestas a la ciencia para contener el impacto de la misma. La implementación de una estrategia dirigida a mitigar la dispersión de la enfermedad incluye numerosas acciones de salud pública, entre ellas: la higiene de las manos, el uso extendido y obligatorio de la mascarilla, el distanciamiento social y la vacunación.3 Una vacuna contra la COVID-19, esperada ansiosamente por el mundo, debe ser una vacuna segura y eficaz que permita poder reanudar un estilo de vida normal, libre de las medidas de restricción recomendadas y que evite que se saturen los servicios de salud. La carrera por la invención y desarrollo de una vacuna contra la COVID-19 no tiene precedentes en la era moderna y ha comprometido como nunca antes a la ciencia, llevando a la movilización e intercambio de datos en un período muy corto; a la coordinación acelerada, a nivel mundial, de los procesos regulatorios para el desarrollo de vacunas y fármacos; así como a la creación de marcos de colaboración internacional donde se incluyen, junto a la OMS, la Alianza Global para las Vacunas (GAVI), la Coalición para la Promoción de Innovaciones en pro de la Preparación ante Epidemias (CEPI) y el Fondo de Acceso Global para Vacunas COVID-19 (COVAX, por su siglas en inglés).4 El proceso de desarrollar un nuevo producto farmacéutico es caro e implica una inversión considerable de tiempo. Como promedio, se precisan 10 años desde el momento en que se descubre una molécula hasta que se comercializa el producto, con un costo de millones de dólares. Acortar los tiempos de este proceso es de los retos más importantes, donde la etapa de desarrollo clínico es la que se ve más presionada en todo momento.1 El desarrollo clínico de una vacuna implica un número de fases por las que debe transcurrir el producto farmacéutico. En el caso particular de las vacunas contra la COVID-19, las fases se han ido llevando a cabo simultáneamente, bajo aprobaciones rápidas. Varias vacunas ya han recibido autorizaciones para el uso de emergencia y se están utilizando para inmunizar a las personas.5) Desafortunadamente, acortar el tiempo para que las vacunas estén disponibles, puede conllevar a problemas éticos relacionados con la investigación, el desarrollo y aquellos que se puedan presentar en las etapas de distribución y acceso equitativo a las mismas.6 Para que la investigación en seres humanos que sea éticamente justificada, debe haber un balance favorable de beneficios para el sujeto y la sociedad, sobre los riesgos a los que el individuo se expone. Entre los dilemas éticos a los que se enfrentan los investigadores, uno de los más complejos en el caso de las vacunas contra la COVID-19, es el empleo de grupo control o placebo en los estudios clínicos, si tenemos en cuenta que esta es una enfermedad nueva, con limitaciones de las opciones de tratamiento y de elevada mortalidad, todo lo cual implica un alto riesgo para este grupo. Según el diseño del estudio, los participantes incluidos en el grupo placebo podrían infectarse en dependencia del tiempo de permanencia en dicho grupo, la tasa de transmisión local donde se realiza el ensayo clínico y las medidas preventivas adoptadas por cada uno de los participantes.7 Uno de los escenarios que puede afrontar el investigador cuando se usa placebo, es que el tratamiento (fármaco o vacuna) resulte efectivo, entonces, una parte de los participantes perdería la oportunidad de recibir ese beneficio, lo cual nos llevaría a decidir que todos los voluntarios reciban la profilaxis y sacrificar el conocimiento y valor social que aportan los estudios con grupos placebo.8) Actualmente, algunos desarrolladores de vacunas han esbozado la obligación ética de ofrecer la vacuna a participantes que hayan recibido placebo en los ensayos clínicos, para que queden protegidos contra la COVID- 19 y, además, para la contribución a la investigación.8 Otro tema de discusión global y que compete a la bioética relacionada a las vacunas contra la COVID-19, es la distribución justa dentro de una población una vez que las vacunas están disponibles en el mercado. ¿Qué criterios deben utilizarse? ¿Qué personas deben recibirla primero dentro de una población? ¿Quiénes tienen prioridad, y por qué? Es un criterio general entre los especialistas, que el personal de salud que se encuentra en la primera línea de batalla contra la COVID-19, debe ser el primero en acceder a la vacuna, lo cual previene el daño directo e indirecto a los mismos, al prevenir la propagación del SARS-CoV-2 en las instalaciones médicas, protegiendo de este modo a los grupos de pacientes que acuden con mayor frecuencia a los hospitales con diagnóstico de cáncer o con tratamiento de hemodiálisis.6 La crisis sanitaria mundial causada por el SARS-CoV-2 no tiene precedentes y el acceso a la vacuna se ha mostrado difícil desde el inicio. Es un hecho que los países desarrollados se han apresurado desde antes de la comercialización a adquirir y contratar cantidades suficientes de la vacuna para su población, siendo entonces el panorama aún más sombrío para los países de bajos ingresos.6 Debido a la pandemia, las operaciones logísticas de las vacunas también se ven afectadas por lo que se convierten en obstáculos para garantizar la distribución mundial de manera coordinada e interconectada (fabricación, distribución de la cadena de suministro, cadena de frío, almacenamiento, etc.). De ahí, el llamado constante de la OMS a lograr y mantener el compromiso de los gobiernos a garantizar un acceso equitativo y a colaborar en planes multinacionales como COVAX, CEPI y GAVI para asegurar la fabricación y distribución de vacunas contra la COVID-19.4 Con el fin de hacer el bien para todos y ante la premura de obtener resultados terapéuticos eficaces para enfrentar y mitigar la pandemia, no se deben sacrificar las normas científicas, la integridad y trasparencia del proceso de revisión de las vacunas y se debe cumplir con los principios éticos fundamentales que se exigen en las investigaciones en humanos(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Ética , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico
3.
J Surg Oncol ; 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considering the pandemic's mode of transmission, the impact on quality of life (QOL) is likely to be exaggerated among healthcare workers (HCWs) who treat head and neck diseases (hHCWs). METHODS: A cross-sectional self-reported QOL assessment was undertaken between July and September 2020 using the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument sent out to hHCWs. Factors that predicted a poorer QOL were identified using regression models and mediation analysis. RESULTS: Responses from 979 individuals across 53 countries were analyzed with 62.4% participation from low- and middle-income countries. The physical domain had the highest mean scores of 15 ± 2.51, while the environmental domain was the lowest (14.17 ± 2.42). Participants from low- and middle-income countries had a significantly worse physical (p < 0.001) and environmental (p < 0.001) domains, while a low coronavirus disease 2019-related mortality significantly impacted the environmental domain (p-0.034). CONCLUSION: QOL-related issues among hHCWs are a vexing problem and need intervention at an individual and systems level in all parts of the world.

4.
Acta Oncol ; : 1-8, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Being an informal caregiver (IC) of a cancer patient is often associated with psychological distress. We have recently, in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), demonstrated efficacy of Emotion Regulation Therapy for ICs (ERT-C), evidenced as lower levels of psychological distress. Such efficacy demonstration is important, but a crucial step in improving treatments for the IC population is the identification of moderators (i.e., for whom the treatment works) and mediators (i.e., the drivers of the detected effect). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a sample of 65 psychologically distressed ICs (combining participants who received immediate and delayed treatment in the RCT); we investigated age, gender, and homework completion as moderators of treatment outcome. Proposed mediators were derived from the ERT model and included mindfulness, emotion regulation dysfunction, decentering, and cognitive reappraisal. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The strongest moderation effect was found for homework completion, predicting improvements on psychological distress. Correlational mediation analyses generally supported the ERT model. However, temporal precedence was only established for the association between decentering and worry, where a bidirectional relation was revealed. Homework thus emerged as an important aspect of ERT-C and, albeit a bidirectional relationship, changes in decentering may precede changes in worry. Future trials should ensure the robustness of these results, hone the specificity of process measures, and further investigate the causal timeline of change.

5.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 691, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with Philadelphia-negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN) suffer from numerous symptoms and decreased quality of life. Smoking is associated with an increased symptom burden in several malignancies. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between smoking and MPN-related symptom burden and explore MPN patients' opinions on smoking. METHODS: A total of 435 patients with MPN participated in a cross-sectional internet-based survey developed by the Mayo Clinic and the Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Quality of Life Group. Patients reported their demographics, disease characteristics, tobacco use, and opinions on tobacco use. In addition, MPN-related symptoms were reported via the validated 10-item version of the Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Symptom Assessment Form. RESULTS: Current/former smokers reported worse fatigue (mean severity 5.6 vs. 5.0, p = 0.02) and inactivity (mean severity 4.0 vs. 3.4, p = 0.03) than never smokers. Moreover, current/former smokers more frequently experienced early satiety (68.5% vs. 58.3%, p = 0.03), inactivity (79.9% vs. 71.1%, p = 0.04), and concentration difficulties (82.1% vs. 73.1%, p = 0.04). Although not significant, a higher total symptom burden was observed for current/former smokers (mean 30.4 vs. 27.0, p = 0.07). Accordingly, overall quality of life was significantly better among never smokers than current/former smokers (mean 3.5 vs. 3.9, p = 0.03). Only 43.2% of the current/former smokers reported having discussed tobacco use with their physician, and 17.5% did not believe smoking increased the risk of thrombosis. CONCLUSION: The current study suggests that smoking may be associated with increased prevalence and severity of MPN symptoms and underscores the need to enhance patient education and address tobacco use in the care of MPN patients.

6.
Vet Pathol ; : 3009858211020675, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114529

RESUMO

Growth anomalies (GAs) are a morphologically diverse and poorly understood group of lesions affecting corals. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and morphology of GAs affecting the faviid corals Diploria labyrinthiformis, Pseudodiploria strigosa, Psudodiploria clivosa, and Colpophyillia natans on St. Kitts. Three gross morphological variants of GAs (exophytic, nodular, and ruminate) were equally prevalent, together affecting 7.8% of corals surveyed across 5 reefs. Prevalence varied by reef and coral species, being highest in C. natans (35.7%). Median colony diameter was larger in corals with GAs relative to those without (Mann-Whitney U test, P < .001). Histopathological examination of exophytic GAs consistently showed corallite and polyp gigantism (n = 7), characterized by polyp enlargement and retained microanatomical structures. In contrast, nodular GAs (n = 9) were consistently hyperplasia of the basal body wall with skeletal dystrophy, composed of micronodular skeletal deposits with abundant hyaline lamellae, bordered by calicoblastic epithelial hyperplasia, interspersed with distorted gastrovascular canals and islands of mesoglea. Endolithic organisms, particularly fungi and algae, were common among GA and apparently healthy biopsies. While pathogenesis of these lesions remains uncertain, a neoplastic basis for GAs on Caribbean faviids could not be established using diagnostic criteria conventionally applied to tumors of vertebrate taxa, in line with other recent observations of coral GAs.

7.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; : 1-6, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The NCCN Guidelines for Older Adult Oncology recommend that, when possible, older adults with cancer undergo a geriatric assessment (GA) to provide a comprehensive health appraisal to guide interventions and appropriate treatment selection. However, the association of age with GA-identified impairments (GA impairments) remains understudied and the appropriate age cutoff for using the GA remains unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We designed a cross-sectional study using the Cancer and Aging Resilience Evaluation (CARE) registry of older adults with cancer. We included adults aged ≥60 years diagnosed with gastrointestinal malignancy who underwent a patient-reported GA prior to their initial consultation at the gastrointestinal oncology clinic. We noted the presence of GA impairments and frailty using Rockwood's deficit accumulation approach. We studied the relation between chronologic age and GA impairments/frailty using Spearman rank correlation and chi-square tests of trend. RESULTS: We identified 455 eligible older adults aged ≥60 years with gastrointestinal malignancies; the median age was 68 years (range, 64-74 years) and colorectal (33%) and pancreatic (24%) cancers were the most common cancer type. The correlation between chronologic age and number of geriatric impairments was weak and did not reach statistical significance (Spearman ρ, 0.07; P=.16). Furthermore, the prevalence of domain-specific impairments or frailty was comparable across the 3 age groups (60-64 years, 65-74 years, ≥75 years) with the exception of comorbidity burden. Notably, 61% of patients aged 60 to 64 years had ≥2 GA impairments and 35% had evidence of frailty, which was comparable to patients aged 65 to 74 years (66% and 36%, respectively) and ≥75 years (70% and 40%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Using chronologic age alone to identify which patients may benefit from GA is problematic. Future studies should identify screening tools that may identify patients at high risk of frailty and GA impairments.

8.
Eur J Cancer ; 152: 204-214, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119924

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of Dutch adult childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and to identify risk factors of impaired HRQOL. METHODS: Adult CCS (age >18, diagnosed <18, ≥5 years since diagnosis) from the Dutch LATER registry completed the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) to measure HRQOL and provided sociodemographic characteristics. Age-adjusted mean SF-36 scale scores of CCS were compared to the Dutch general population for men and women separately using t-tests, with effect size d. Multivariate logistic regression models were built to identify sociodemographic and cancer-related risk factors for impaired physical and mental HRQOL. RESULTS: Both male and female CCS (N = 2301, mean age = 35.4 years, 49.6% female) reported significantly (p ≤ .005) worse HRQOL than the general population on almost all scales of the SF-36 (-.11 ≤ d ≤ -.56). Largest differences were found on vitality and general health perceptions. Significant risk factors (p ≤ .05) for impaired physical HRQOL were female sex, older age at diagnosis, not having a partner, low educational attainment, disease recurrence and exposure to radiotherapy, specifically to lower extremity radiation. Odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 1.6 to 3.7. Significant risk factors for impaired mental HRQOL were age 26-35 years, male sex, not having a partner and low educational attainment. ORs ranged from 1.3 to 2.0. CONCLUSION: Adult CCS had worse HRQOL than the general population. CCS most at risk were those with low educational attainment and without a partner. Adult CCS could benefit from routine surveillance of their HRQOL. Special attention for CCS' vitality and health perceptions and beliefs is warranted.

11.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(6): 454-457, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measuring quality of life and factors influencing it such as pain and anxiety is a major part of the overall assessment of cancer patients. There are different clinical settings aimed at satisfying the needs of this patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the different perceptions of quality of life in cancer patients in integrated home oncological care (ADI) and hospice. METHODS: We invited to participate all subjects suffering from oncological pathology followed with home care activities at ANT, ODO Bat-Bari Nord and inpatients at the hospice "Mons. Aurelio Marena" in Bitonto (BA) from 15/10/2019 to 15/07/2020. During the 4 collection phases, BPI, STAI-Y 1-2, EORTC were administered. RESULTS: 80 subjects were consecutively enrolled, divided in the same proportion in ADI and hospice. At the end of the study the pain intensity in subjects in ADI was significantly lower than baseline (p=0.02) and the level shown by subjects hospitalized in hospice (p=0.01). No differences in anxiety were found between the settings; lower levels were found among ADI subjects (p=0.03) and those living with families (p=0.01). The EORTC QLC-30 scores trend shows a progressive worsening of the quality of life, in particular in the subjects in hospice (p=0.021). DISCUSSION: The research suggests that time at home (ADI) compared to hospice can impact on pain perception, quality of life and anxiety levels. In addition, the presence of the family and therefore the closer ties that have always been with us, seems to be a determining factor of support for the individual able to positively affect the levels of anxiety. It is desirable to investigate the prognostic value of the quality of life perceived by patients.

12.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(6): 458-464, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128938

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The adherence to recognized guidelines and the constant monitoring of performance throughout quality indicators (QIs) are strategic tools to improve the quality of care. The study is aimed to assess the effect of the EUSOMA (European Society of Breast Cancer Specialists) certification process on the quality of breast cancer care of an EUSOMA certified Breast Unit (BU) of Northern Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen mandatory and recommended EUSOMA QIs, based on 594, were analysed for the years 2015-2018. Univariate logistic regression models were performed to compare QIs performance in the years before and after obtaining the EUSOMA certification (2015-6 vs. 2017-8). RESULTS: Compared to the years 2015-6, the second period of BU activity showed a higher number of QIs achieving both the minimum standard (15 vs. 11) and the 100% of completeness (6 vs. 1). There was a significant improvement of the two QIs evaluating the proportion of Ductal Carcinoma in situ receiving just an operation (from 76% to 95.2%; p=0.033) and the completeness of the prognostic characterisation of invasive cancers (from 94.6% to 99.5%; p=0.022). Conversely, the QI related to the endocrine-sensitive invasive carcinoma receiving adjuvant hormonal therapy dropped from 92.1% to 85.9% (p=0.042) and was significantly lower for patients over 74 compared to those aged ≤54 (73.8% vs. 94.7%; p<0.0001 Fisher's exact test). CONCLUSIONS: The EUSOMA certification process enhanced the clinical practice, promoting a tailored-patient primary systemic or adjuvant therapy and avoiding unnecessary invasive surgical and local-regional treatments.

13.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 901-916, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129359

RESUMO

The effective implementation of locally adapted cancer care solutions in low- and middle-income countries continues to be a challenge in the face of fragmented and inadequately resourced health systems. Consequently, the translation of global cancer care targets to local action for patients has been severely constrained. City Cancer Challenge (C/Can) is leveraging the unique value of cities as enablers in a health systems response to cancer that prioritizes the needs of end users (patients, their caregivers and families, and health care providers). C/Can's City Engagement Process is an implementation framework whereby local stakeholders lead a staged city-wide process over a 2- to 3-year period to assess, plan, and execute locally adapted cancer care solutions. Herein, the development and implementation of the City Engagement Process Framework (CEPF) is presented, specifying the activities, outputs, processes, and indicators across the process life cycle. Lessons learned on the application of the framework in the first so-called Key Learning cities are shared, focusing on the early outputs from Cali, Colombia, the first city to join C/Can in 2017. Creating lasting change requires the creation of a high-trust environment to engage the right stakeholders as well as adapting to local context, leveraging local expertise, and fostering a sustainability mindset from the outset. In the short term, these early learnings inform the refinement of the approach in new cities. Over time, the implementation of this framework is expected to validate the proof-of-concept and contribute to a global evidence base for effective complex interventions to improve cancer care in low- and middle-income countries.

14.
15.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 917-924, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129368

RESUMO

Diagnostic pathology services for oncology health systems are essential; yet, surveys, observations, and hard data from across low- and middle-income countries have revealed that these services are almost always lacking adequate quality and often missing completely. The City Cancer Challenge Foundation (C/Can), the American Society for Clinical Pathology, and C/Can partner cities undertook intense analysis of their existing pathology services as part of a year-long assessment process including the specific formation of a pathology-focused team. Internal and external expert assessments identified sustainable solutions adapted to the local context and level of resources and created specific local implementation projects. Through local leadership, capacity development, and collaboration, services were improved city-wide in three cities: Cali, Colombia; Asunción, Paraguay; and Yangon, Myanmar. Common problems identified across cities included deficiencies in personnel training, equipment, reagents, processes, quality, and coordination. Specific solutions included quality training, standard process development and regulation, implementation of new services, and public-private collaboration. As the first cities joining the C/Can initiative, Cali, Asunción, and Yangon demonstrate the success of the approach and the value of local expertise in identifying problems and solutions. The additional value of international partners' expertise created opportunities for growth through mentorship and technical support. Importantly, the power of healthcare programs with strong political support is emphasized.

16.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252814, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129643

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The end-of-life symptom prevalence of non-cancer patients have been described mostly in hospital and institutional settings. This study aims to describe the average symptom trajectories among non-cancer patients who are community-dwelling and used home care services at the end of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective, population-based cohort study of non-cancer patients who used home care services in the last 6 months of life in Ontario, Canada, between 2007 and 2014. We linked the Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care (RAI-HC) (standardized home care assessment tool) and the Discharge Abstract Databases (for hospital deaths). Patients were grouped into four non-cancer disease groups: cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and renal (not mutually exclusive). Our outcomes were the average prevalence of these outcomes, each week, across the last 6 months of life: uncontrolled moderate-severe pain as per the Pain Scale, presence of shortness of breath, mild-severe cognitive impairment as per the Cognitive Performance Scale, and presence of caregiver distress. We conducted a multivariate logistic regression to identify factors associated with having each outcome respectively, in the last 6 months. RESULTS: A total of 20,773 non-cancer patient were included in our study, which were analyzed by disease groups: cardiovascular (n = 12,923); neurological (n = 6,935); respiratory (n = 6,357); and renal (n = 3,062). Roughly 80% of patients were > 75 years and half were female. In the last 6 months of life, moderate to severe pain was frequent in the cardiovascular (57.2%), neurological (42.7%), renal (61.0%) and respiratory (58.3%) patients. Patients with renal disease had significantly higher odds for reporting uncontrolled moderate to severe pain (odds ratio [OR] = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.34) than those who did not. Patients with respiratory disease reported significantly higher odds for shortness of breath (5.37; 95% CI, 5.00 to 5.80) versus those who did not. Patients with neurological disease compared to those without were 9.65 times more likely to experience impaired cognitive performance and had 56% higher odds of caregiver distress (OR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.43 to 1.71). DISCUSSION: In our cohort of non-cancer patients dying in the community, pain, shortness of breath, impaired cognitive function and caregiver distress are important symptoms to manage near the end of life even in non-institutional settings.

17.
Urology ; 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the general health status of infertile men in the United States using a nationally representative sample of men. METHODS: Using the National Survey for Family Growth from 2011 to 2017, infertile subgroups were created using a range of inclusion criteria. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted comparing these men to fertile men. RESULTS: Using population estimates, 6.5 million men with reduced fertility potential were compared to 26 million fertile men. After controlling for demographic and healthcare utilization factors, these groups did not have significantly different rates of key medical co-morbidities, including cancer, obesity, and overall disability. Looking at the subset of men who had received a specific infertility diagnosis, estimated as a population of nearly 600,000 men, this pattern held, in that there were no significant differences in the rates of medical co-morbidities. Notably, the rate of male infertility evaluation among potentially infertile men was only 50%. These findings also persisted after a propensity-matched analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, there was no significant relationship between infertility and specific medical co-morbidities. We must consider the influence of sample selection as we continue to investigate the relationship between medical co-morbidities and reduced fertility potential. Given the persistent low rates of infertility evaluation, even among men who seek medical advice to conceive, we must continue to search for ways to characterize the infertile male population while simultaneously working to improve access.

18.
Clin Nutr ; 40(6): 3815-3826, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation has been proposed as a potential therapy for cancer-related malnutrition, which affects up to 70% of patients with cancer. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effects of oral omega-3 PUFA supplementation on muscle maintenance, quality of life, body weight and treatment-related toxicities in patients with cancer. METHODS: Randomised controlled trials in patients with cancer aged ≥18 years were retrieved from 5 electronic databases: MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL (via EBSCOhost), and Web of Science, from database inception until 31st of December 2019. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Trials supplementing ≥600 mg/d omega-3 PUFA (oral capsules, pure fish oil or oral nutritional supplements) compared with a control intervention for ≥3 weeks were included. Meta-analyses were performed in RevMan to determine the mean differences (MD) in muscle mass, quality of life and body weight, and odds ratio (OR) for the incidence of treatment-related toxicities between omega-3 PUFA and control groups with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and I2 for heterogeneity. RESULTS: We included 31 publications in patients with various types of cancers and degrees of malnutrition. The Cochrane risk of bias tool graded most trials as 'unclear' or 'high' risk of bias. Meta-analyses showed no significant difference between omega-3 PUFA supplements and control intervention on muscle mass, quality of life and body weight. Oral omega-3 PUFA supplements reduced the likelihood of developing chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (OR: 0.20; 95% CI: 0.10-0.40; p < 0.001; I2 = 0%). CONCLUSION: This systematic review and meta-analysis indicates that oral omega-3 PUFA supplementation does not improve muscle maintenance, quality of life or body weight in patients with cancer, but may reduce the incidence of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Well-designed large-scale randomised controlled trials in homogenous patient cohorts are required to confirm these findings.

19.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(2): 413-426, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130383

RESUMO

This retrospective study of neoplasia in nondomestic felids in human care presents the cases diagnosed at Northwest ZooPath (NWZP), Monroe, Washington, from 1998 to 2017 in conjunction with a scoping literature review. The 554 neoplasms identified in 20 species in the NWZP archive were combined with the 984 neoplasms identified in those same species in the published literature. Some of the cases identified in the literature were from the NWZP archive. Based on this review, mammary adenocarcinoma (183/1,483, 12.3%), lymphoma (89/1,483, 6.0%), squamous cell carcinoma (85/1,483, 5.7%), pheochromocytoma (57/1,483, 3.8%), and thyroid adenoma (57/1,483, 3.8%) are the most frequently reported neoplasms in nondomestic felids in human care. Apparent species predilections for neoplasia include mammary adenocarcinoma in tigers, jaguars, lions, and jungle cats; lymphoma in lions and tigers; squamous cell carcinoma in snow leopards; pheochromocytoma in clouded leopards; ovarian adenocarcinoma in jaguars; cholangiocarcinoma in lions and tigers; multiple myeloma in tigers; bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma in cougars and lions; hemangiosarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma in lions; mesothelioma in clouded leopards, lions, and tigers; myelolipoma and cutaneous mast cell tumor in cheetahs; soft tissue sarcomas in tigers; and transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in fishing cats.

20.
Am Surg ; : 31348211024975, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social determinants of health challenge in at-risk patients seen in safety net facilities. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective review of surgical oncology specialty clinic referrals at a safety net institution evaluating referral compliance and times to first appointment and initiation of definitive treatment. Main outcomes measured included completion of initial visit, initiation of definitive treatment, time from referral to first appointment, and time from first appointment to initiation of definitive treatment. RESULTS: Of 189 new referrals, English was not spoken by 52.4% and 69.4% were Hispanic. Patients presented without insurance in 39.2% of cases. Electronic patient portal was accessed by 31.6% of patients. Of all new referrals, 55.0% arrived for initial consultation and 53.4% initiated definitive treatment. Malignant diagnosis (P < .0001) and lack of insurance (P = .01) were associated with completing initial consultation. Initiation of definitive treatment was associated with not speaking English (P = .03), malignant diagnosis (P < .0001), and lack of insurance (P = .03). Times to first appointment and initiation of definitive treatment were not significantly affected by race/ethnicity, language, insurance, treatment recommended, or electronic patient portal access. CONCLUSION: Access to surgical oncology care for at-risk patients at a safety net facility is not adversely affected by lack of insurance, primary spoken language, or race/ethnicity. However, a significant proportion of all patients fail to complete the initial consultation and definitive treatment. Lessons learned from safety net facilities may help to inform disparities in health care found elsewhere.

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