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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e231957, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249251

RESUMO

Abstract Essential oils from the stems and leaves of Croton doctoris were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, resulting in 22 identified compounds. The effects of these essential oils on the germination, root and shoot growth, total chlorophyll content, potential root respiration, peroxidase activity, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and mitotic index in lettuce and onion were determined. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activity were also investigated. The results revealed that the stem oil consisted of 15 compounds, of which caryophyllene oxide (24.5%) and E-caryophyllene (13.3%) were the major constituents. The leaf oil contained E-caryophyllene (39.6%) and α-humulene (13.2%) as major compounds. The oils inhibited the germination and growth of lettuce and onion seedlings and reduced chlorophyll content, root respiration, and cell division. They also caused oxidative stress, indicated by the increased activity of the evaluated antioxidant enzymes. These abnormal physiological processes contributed to the inhibition of plant growth. The most pronounced phytotoxic effects were observed in the stem oil. The cytotoxicity tests indicated that leaf oil was more active than stem oil, resulting from the presence of biologically active sesquiterpenes that inhibit the growth of cancer cells.


Resumo Os óleos essenciais do caule e da folha de Croton doctoris foram analisados ​​por cromatografia gasosa (GC) e espectrometria de massa (GC-MS) resultando em 22 compostos identificados. Os efeitos dos óleos essenciais na germinação, crescimento de raízes e parte aérea, teor total de clorofila, respiração radicular, atividade de peroxidase, catalase e superóxido de dimetase e índice mitótico foram determinados em alface e cebola. Atividade antioxidante, antimicrobiana e citotóxica também foram investigadas. Os resultados revelaram que o óleo do caule é constituído por 15 compostos, dos quais os principais são o óxido de cariofileno (24,5%) e E-cariofileno (13,3%). O óleo foliar apresentou E-cariofileno (39,6%) seguido de α-humuleno (13,2%) como compostos majoritários. Os óleos inibiram a germinação e o crescimento das plântulas de alface e cebola e reduziram o conteúdo de clorofila, a respiração radicular e a divisão celular. Eles também causaram estresse oxidativo, indicado pelo aumento da atividade das enzimas antioxidantes avaliadas. Esses processos fisiológicos anormais contribuem para a inibição do crescimento das plantas. Os efeitos fitotóxicos mais pronunciados foram observados no óleo do caule. Nos testes de citotoxicidade observou-se que o óleo das folhas foi mais ativo, resultante da presença de sesquiterpenos biologicamente ativos que atuam inibindo o crescimento das células cancerígenas.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-level occupational vinyl chloride (VC) exposures have been associated with hepatic hemangiosarcoma, which typically develops following a long latency period. Although VC is genotoxic, a more comprehensive mode of action has not been determined and diagnostic biomarkers have not been established. The purpose of this study is to address these knowledge gaps through plasma metabolomics. METHODS: Plasma samples from polyvinyl chloride polymerization workers who developed hemangiosarcoma (cases, n = 15) and VC exposure-matched controls (n = 17) underwent metabolomic analysis. Random forest and bioinformatic analyses were performed. RESULTS: Cases and controls had similar demographics and routine liver biochemistries. Mass spectroscopy identified 606 known metabolites. Random forest analysis had an 82% predictive accuracy for group classification. 60 metabolites were significantly increased and 44 were decreased vs. controls. Taurocholate, bradykinin and fibrin degradation product 2 were up-regulated by greater than 80-fold. The naturally occurring anti-angiogenic phenol, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, was down-regulated 5-fold. Top affected ontologies involved: (i) metabolism of bile acids, taurine, cholesterol, fatty acids and amino acids; (ii) inflammation and oxidative stress; and (iii) nicotinic cholinergic signaling. CONCLUSIONS: The plasma metabolome was differentially regulated in polyvinyl chloride workers who developed hepatic hemangiosarcoma. Ontologies potentially involved in hemangiosarcoma pathogenesis and candidate biomarkers were identified.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Hemangiossarcoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Metaboloma , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Cloreto de Polivinila/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Hemangiossarcoma/sangue , Hemangiossarcoma/induzido quimicamente , Hemangiossarcoma/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/sangue , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 62(6): 1370-1378, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082646

RESUMO

This study examined distress and mental health service use in patients with newly diagnosed indolent lymphoma over the first-year post-diagnosis, as well as differences by age. Patients with indolent lymphoma completed online self-report measure of distress and whether they accessed mental health services (Yes/No) every four months for a total of four surveys. The baseline sample consisted of 74 patients; 41.9% were age 65 years and older, 24.3% endorsed elevated distress, and 16.2% accessed mental health services. Across time, less than half (36.4-46.7%) of distressed patients accessed mental health services. In patients younger than 65 years, a greater proportion of distressed than non-distressed patients accessed mental health services. However, distress was not associated with mental health service use in older adults. Future research should evaluate issues driving distress and access to mental health care in patients with indolent lymphomas, including age-based approaches.

4.
Hematol Oncol ; 39 Suppl 1: 31-38, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105823

RESUMO

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is clinically characterized by its heterogenous behavior with courses ranging from indolent cases that do not require therapy for years to highly aggressive MCL with very limited prognosis. A better understanding of the complex biology of MCL has already led to the approval of several innovative agents, expanding the landscape of MCL therapies and improving therapeutic options especially for refractory or relapsed disease. Nevertheless, to further optimize MCL treatment, early identification of individual risk profile and risk-adapted, patient-tailored choice of therapeutic strategy needs to be prospectively incorporated in clinical patient management. This review highlights recent advances in deciphering the molecular background of MCL, the definition of prognostically relevant factors and the identification of potential druggable targets and summarizes current treatment recommendations for primary and relapsed/refractory MCL including novel targeted therapies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linfoma de Célula do Manto , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Humanos , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/genética , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/metabolismo
5.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 691, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with Philadelphia-negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN) suffer from numerous symptoms and decreased quality of life. Smoking is associated with an increased symptom burden in several malignancies. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between smoking and MPN-related symptom burden and explore MPN patients' opinions on smoking. METHODS: A total of 435 patients with MPN participated in a cross-sectional internet-based survey developed by the Mayo Clinic and the Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Quality of Life Group. Patients reported their demographics, disease characteristics, tobacco use, and opinions on tobacco use. In addition, MPN-related symptoms were reported via the validated 10-item version of the Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Symptom Assessment Form. RESULTS: Current/former smokers reported worse fatigue (mean severity 5.6 vs. 5.0, p = 0.02) and inactivity (mean severity 4.0 vs. 3.4, p = 0.03) than never smokers. Moreover, current/former smokers more frequently experienced early satiety (68.5% vs. 58.3%, p = 0.03), inactivity (79.9% vs. 71.1%, p = 0.04), and concentration difficulties (82.1% vs. 73.1%, p = 0.04). Although not significant, a higher total symptom burden was observed for current/former smokers (mean 30.4 vs. 27.0, p = 0.07). Accordingly, overall quality of life was significantly better among never smokers than current/former smokers (mean 3.5 vs. 3.9, p = 0.03). Only 43.2% of the current/former smokers reported having discussed tobacco use with their physician, and 17.5% did not believe smoking increased the risk of thrombosis. CONCLUSION: The current study suggests that smoking may be associated with increased prevalence and severity of MPN symptoms and underscores the need to enhance patient education and address tobacco use in the care of MPN patients.

6.
World J Surg Oncol ; 19(1): 168, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sorafenib was reported as a useful adjuvant treatment in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent surgical resection. However, its therapeutic value remains controversial. This meta-analysis examined the available data regarding the efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after radical surgery. METHODS: The meta-analysis was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The protocol was registered in advance with PROSPERO (CRD42021233868). We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science to identify eligible studies. Overall survival, recurrence-free survival, and recurrence rates were analyzed, and adverse events were reviewed. Hazard ratios or pooled risk ratios with 95% CIs were collected and analyzed using STATA version 12.0 in a fixed-effects or random-effects meta-analysis model. RESULTS: In total, 2655 patients from 13 studies were ultimately included in this meta-analysis. The combined results illustrated that sorafenib was associated with better overall survival than the control (hazard ratio = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.59-0.86; P < 0.001). Similarly, the drug also improved recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.54-0.86, P = 0.001). Combined data revealed that patients treated with sorafenib after resection had a lower recurrence rate (pooled risk ratio = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.68-0.90, P < 0.001). The primary adverse events were hand-foot skin reaction, fatigue, and diarrhea of mild-to-moderate severity, whereas grade 4 adverse events were rare (< 1%). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis demonstrated that adjuvant sorafenib therapy after resection in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma could prolong overall survival and recurrence-free survival and reduce recurrence rates without intolerable side effects. However, more evidence is needed before reaching a definitive conclusion.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Niacinamida/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Prognóstico , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Orv Hetil ; 162(24): 960-967, 2021 06 13.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120100

RESUMO

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: A gliomák, ezen belül a glioblastoma kezelése továbbra is megoldatlan onkológiai problémát jelent. A szekunder szimptómás epilepsziabetegség megjelenése pozitív prognosztikai faktornak tekintheto a korai diagnosztizálás és az antiepileptikumok potenciális tumorellenes hatásának köszönhetoen. A valproát túlélést hosszabbító hatása már több mint 20 éve az alap- és klinikai kutatások tárgyát képezi. Napjainkban ismert citotoxikus, proapoptotikus, antiangiogenetikus és hiszton-deacetiláz-gátló hatásmechanizmusa. Célkituzés: Kutatásunk célja a valproát túlélést hosszabbító hatásának vizsgálata egy hazai gliomás betegcsoportban. Módszer: Egycentrumos, retrospektív klinikai vizsgálatot végeztünk. A vizsgálatba 122 felnott beteget vontunk be, akiknél 2000 januárja és 2018 januárja között supratentorialis glioma miatt mutét történt, és rohamtevékenység miatt antiepileptikumot (valproát, levetiracetám, karbamazepin) szedtek. Egyúttal gyógyszert nem szedo kontrollcsoportot is kialakítottunk. A populációt vizsgálati és kontrollcsoportokra osztottuk 28 : 52 arányban. Leíró statisztikai, Kaplan-Meier- és log-rank analízist végeztünk. Eredmények: A vizsgált szövettani kategóriák túlélési analízise az irodalmi adatokkal megegyezo értékeket mutatott. A progressziómentes (PFS: p = 0,031) és a teljes (OS: p = 0,027) túlélés tekintetében is szignifikáns eltérés mutatkozott a különbözo antiepileptikumot szedo betegcsoportok között, amely még kifejezettebbé vált a valproátot és az egyéb antiepileptikumot szedo betegek túlélési idejének összehasonlítása során (PFS: p = 0,006; OS: p = 0,015). Következtetés: Vizsgálatunkban a valproát betegeink PFS- és OS-idejének meghosszabbodását eredményezte. Az irodalmi adatok és kutatásunk alapján megfontolandónak tartjuk a valproát elso vonalban történo alkalmazását onkoterápiában részesülo, epilepsziás, agyi gliomás betegekben. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(24): 960-967. INTRODUCTION: Gliomas still prove to be a serious oncological problem. The presence of epilepsy may present a favorable prognosis due to early diagnosis and the potential antitumor effects of antiepileptic drugs. The survival prolongation effect of valproate has been studied for more than 20 years, nowadays its proapoptotic, anti-angiogenetic, cytotoxic and histone deacetylase inhibitory effects are well known. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to investigate the survival-enhancing effects of valproate in a Hungarian patient cohort of primary brain tumors. METHOD: A single-center based retrospective clinical trial was designed. In our study, we included 122 patients harboring supratentorial glioma who underwent surgery and experienced seizures between 2000 January and 2018 January. The patients were grouped by the antiepileptic therapies and survival analysis was performed. RESULTS: The Kaplan-Meier curves of the histological categories showed the survival values consistent with the data of the literature. The progression-free (PFS: p = 0.031) and the overall (OS: p = 0.027) survival of the antiepileptic drug categories were significantly different. It was performed by comparing the valproate group and the population formed by the other groups which also showed a significant increase in the survival values (PFS: p = 0.006; OS: p = 0.015). CONCLUSION: Our results show that valproate increases the PFS and OS period of glioma patients in comparison to other antiepileptic drugs. Our data suggest that the use of valproic acid should be considered as a first-line antiepileptic agent in certain well-selected epileptic patients with glioma as a supplement to the oncotherapy. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(24): 960-967.


Assuntos
Glioma , Ácido Valproico , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hungria , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Cancer Cell ; 39(6): 738-742, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129818

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) is transforming treatment for many cancers. While ICB alone initially demonstrated efficacy in patients with metastatic melanoma, it has expanded to other types and to earlier-stage cancers. We describe ICB history, mechanisms underlying variation in response, and how ICB is being integrated into adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment approaches.

11.
Clin Nutr ; 40(6): 3748-3753, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Quercetin is one of the most abundant flavonoids in plant kingdom. Because of its strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect, it is of potential in anti-hypertension. The objective of the present study was to explore the relationship between dietary quercetin and hypertension incidence in a Chinese population. METHODS: Participants aged 17-87 years were recruited at baseline. Those people who did not have hypertension, cardiovascular disease or cancer and finished physical checkup were included in this prospective cohort study. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was performed. Follow-up was conducted once a year. The intake of quercetin was calculated based on FFQ and Chinese food composition table. Three Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to investigate the relationship between quercetin intake and incidence of hypertension. RESULTS: The data of 15,662 participants, including 7340 males and 8322 females, were analyzed. The median follow-up period was 3.0 year and the follow-up rate is 85.2%. A total of 2463 subjects developed hypertension during the follow-up period. The mean of daily quercetin intake was 24.7 ± 13.8 mg/day in this population. In the multivariate adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression model, the hazard ratios (95% CI) for hypertension across the ascending quartiles of quercetin intake were: 1.00 (reference), 1.04 (0.92, 1.17), 0.99 (0.87, 1.12), and 1.06 (0.92, 1.21). No significant association was observed between quercetin intake and the incidence of hypertension. CONCLUSION: The dietary intake of quercetin alone does not reach a level sufficient to affect the incidence of hypertension in Chinese population.

12.
Pathobiology ; : 1-12, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130294

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is more aggressive than the most common papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). However, the current research on FTC is less than PTC. Here, we investigated the effects of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) GAS5 and miR-221-3p in FTC. METHODS: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was employed to detect GAS5 and miR-221-3p expression in the FTC tissues and cells. Cell proliferation was assessed by CCK8 and EdU assays. Flow cytometry was performed to determine the cell cycle. The dual-luciferase reporter assay was employed to validate the binding relationship of GAS5/miR-221-3p and miR-221-3p/cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (CDKN2B). Western blot was conducted to measure the protein level of CDKN2B. RESULTS: Our results displayed that GAS5 was downregulated, while miR-221-3p was upregulated in FTC tissues and cells. What's more, overexpression of GAS5 or miR-221-3p inhibition induced G0/G1 phase arrest and inhibited cell proliferation of FTC cells. GAS5 acted as a sponge of miR-221-3p, and CDKN2B was a target gene of miR-221-3p. Additionally, GAS5 inhibited cell cycle and proliferation of FTC cells via reducing miR-221-3p expression to enhance CDKN2B expression. CONCLUSION: GAS5 induced G0/G1 phase arrest and inhibited cell proliferation via targeting miR-221-3p/CDKN2B axis in FTC. Thus, GAS5 may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of FTC.

13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12532, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131164

RESUMO

Systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) emerged as a biomarker of chronic inflammation and an independent prognostic factor for many cancers. We aimed to investigate the associations of SII level with total and cause-specific mortality risks in the general populations, and the potential modification effects of lifestyle-related factors on the above associations. In this study, we included 30,521 subjects from the Dongfeng-Tongji (DFTJ) cohort and 25,761 subjects from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2014. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the associations of SII with mortality from all-cause, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancer and other causes. In the DFTJ cohort, compared to subjects in the low SII subgroup, those within the middle and high SII subgroups had increased risks of total mortality [hazard ratio, HR (95% confidence interval, CI) = 1.12 (1.03-1.22) and 1.26 (1.16-1.36), respectively) and CVD mortality [HR (95%CI) = 1.36 (1.19-1.55) and 1.50 (1.32-1.71), respectively]; those within the high SII subgroup had a higher risk of other causes mortality [HR (95%CI) = 1.28 (1.09-1.49)]. In the NHANES 1999-2014, subjects in the high SII subgroup had higher risks of total, CVD, cancer and other causes mortality [HR (95%CI) = 1.38 (1.27-1.49), 1.33 (1.11-1.59), 1.22 (1.04-1.45) and 1.47 (1.32-1.63), respectively]. For subjects with a high level of SII, physical activity could attenuate a separate 30% and 32% risk of total and CVD mortality in the DFTJ cohort, and a separate 41% and 59% risk of total and CVD mortality in the NHANES 1999-2014. Our study suggested high SII level may increase total and CVD mortality in the general populations and physical activity exerted a beneficial effect on the above associations.

14.
Support Care Cancer ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131848

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is potentially lifesaving. However, it comes with negative consequences such as impaired physical functioning, fatigue and poor quality of life. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine the effect of exercise and nutrition interventions to counteract negative consequences of treatment and improve physical functioning in patients receiving HSCT. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis included randomised controlled trials from three electronic databases between 2009 and 2020. The trials included adult patients receiving HSCT and an exercise or nutrition intervention. Study selection, bias assessment and data extraction were independently performed by two reviewers. Physical functioning outcomes were meta-analysed with a random-effects model. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included using exercise interventions (n = 11) and nutrition interventions (n = 2); no study used a combined intervention. Meta-analysis of the trials using exercise intervention showed statistically significant effects on 6-min walking distance (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.41, 95% CI: 0.14-0.68), lower extremity strength (SMD 0.37, 95% CI 0.12-0.62) and global quality of life (SMD 0.27, 95% CI: 0.08-0.46). CONCLUSION: Our physical functioning outcomes indicate positive effects of exercise interventions for patients receiving HSCT. Heterogeneity of the exercise interventions and absence of high-quality nutrition studies call for new studies comparing different types of exercise studies and high quality studies on nutrition in patients with HSCT.

15.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131861

RESUMO

In this manuscript, the grown and annealed strontium-doped nickel oxide nanoparticles (SrNiONPs) were synthesized using a precipitation method with nickel nitrate and strontium nitrate as precursor agents with trisodium citrate. Various characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-visible, and zeta sizer, were used to thoroughly examine the samples. The XRD pattern (21 nm) was used to calculate the size, phases, and crystallinity of the material (SrNiONPs). In addition to characterization, the material was tested for cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells (A549). The viability test in A549 cells was performed using [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) and Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay with SrNiONPs concentration ranging from 1 to 100 µg/mL. According to the MTT and NRU data, the toxicity studies are dose-dependent. SrNiONPs also increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and were involved in apoptosis (A549 cells). Furthermore, quantitative PCR (qPCR) data revealed that the mRNA levels of apoptotic genes marker like p53, bax, and caspase-3 were upregulated, whereas bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic gene, was downregulated. As a result, apoptosis was mediated by the p53, bax, caspase3, and bcl-2 pathways, implying a potential mechanism by which SrNiONPs mediate their toxicity.

16.
J Med Radiat Sci ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132066

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Radiation therapists implemented telephone follow-up (TFU) in 2015 as an additional point of care post-treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether TFU identified patients who required additional post-treatment care before the next scheduled review. METHODS: Between January 2015 and July 2016, all patients who were prescribed curative intent treatment aged 18 years or over were called 10 days post-radiation therapy (RT). Eight questions were developed and included asking patients how they were coping, if their side effects were improving, if they needed to contact the hospital and if more dressings were required. Patients who could not be contacted after two attempts were excluded from the study. Microsoft Excel and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) were used to analyse the responses. RESULTS: Data were collected from 850 patients. A total of 28/846 (3%) of patients reported they were not coping after RT, with 26/830 (3%) reporting their side effects were getting worse. A total of 97/826 (12%) of patients felt they needed to contact the hospital because they were unwell. This study identified 104/677 (15%) of patients who responded required more dressings, with 67/104 (65.7%) and 10/104 (9.8%) of this cohort identified in the breast, and head and neck groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: Radiation therapist-led TFU has shown to be beneficial in identifying a small cohort of breast and head and neck cancer patients who required additional care post-radiation treatment.

17.
JAMA Surg ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132738

RESUMO

Importance: Postoperative complications are associated with increased morbidity and mortality among patients with colorectal cancer. As a modifiable factor associated with gut health, dietary fiber intake is of interest with regard to the risk of complications after surgery for colorectal cancer. Objective: To examine the association between preoperative dietary fiber intake and risk of complications after surgery for colorectal cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from the Colorectal Longitudinal, Observational Study on Nutritional and Lifestyle Factors (COLON) study, which recruited adult patients with colorectal cancer at any stage at diagnosis from 11 hospitals in the Netherlands between August 2010 and December 2017. The present study included patients with stage I to IV colorectal cancer who underwent elective abdominal surgery. Data were analyzed between December 2019 and September 2020. Exposures: Habitual dietary fiber intake was assessed at diagnosis using a 204-item food frequency questionnaire. Main Outcomes and Measures: Any complications, surgical complications, and anastomotic leakage occurring during the 30 days after surgery for colorectal cancer. The association between fiber intake and risk of postoperative complications was assessed using logistic regression analyses. Additional analyses stratified by sex, tumor location, and fiber source were performed. Results: Among the 1399 patients included in the analysis, the median age at inclusion was 66 years (interquartile range, 61-72 years) and 896 (64%) were men. Any complications occurred in 397 patients (28%), and surgical complications occurred in 235 patients (17%). Of 1237 patients with an anastomosis, 67 (5%) experienced anastomotic leakage. Higher dietary fiber intake (per 10 g per day) was associated with a lower risk of any complications (odds ratio [OR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.62-0.92) and surgical complications (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.60-0.97), whereas no association with anastomotic leakage was found (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.66-1.43). Among women, higher dietary intake was associated with any complications (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.94), whereas there was no association among men (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.63-1.01). Fiber intake from vegetables (per 1 g per day) was inversely associated with any (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99) and surgical (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78-0.97) complications. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, higher habitual dietary fiber intake before surgery was associated with a lower risk of postoperative complications among patients with colorectal cancer. The findings suggest that improving preoperative dietary fiber intake may be considered in future prehabilitation programs for patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer.

18.
Life Sci ; 279: 119673, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic alcoholism induces kidney injury (KI), leading to increased mortality in alcoholic hepatitis patients. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER) represents the main initiator of kidney diseases and alcoholic nephropathy. AIMS: We used alcoholic nephropathy rat model followed by 10-dehydrogingerdione (10-DHGD) intake as potential modulator. This is to focus on ER/oxidative stress/inflammatory and apoptotic pathways involvement. MAIN METHOD: Alcoholic nephropathy was induced by alcohol administration (3.7 g/kg/body weight) orally and daily for 45 days. 10-DHGD (10 mg/kg/day) was administered either alone or along with alcohol. KEY FINDINGS: Our results demonstrated significant increase in kidney function parameters like f creatinine, urea, uric acid, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. Renal ER/oxidative stress markers such as cytochrome P450 family two subfamily E member 1 (CYP2E1), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and endoplasmic glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP-78) demonstrated also significant increase. Inflammatory mediators like nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß along with apoptotic marker caspase-3 behaved similarly. Antioxidant molecules like reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase demonstrated marked decrease. SIGNIFICANCE: 10-DHGD administration resulted in significant modulation represented by an enhancement in the kidney functions and the histopathological patterns in a conclusion of its potential to ameliorate the pathological changes (kidney injury) induced by alcohol intake.

19.
Acta Biomater ; 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082102

RESUMO

Transdermal delivery is an attractive strategy for treating superficial tumors. However, the applications of existing transdermal systems have been limited by low transdermal efficiency and poor therapeutic outcomes. Here, we develop a transdermal nanoplatform (+)T-SiDs, based on superparamagnetic iron oxide core, surface-modified with cationic lipids, transdermal enhanced peptide TD, and 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindotricarbocyanine iodide (DiR), and loaded with doxorubicin. The (+)T-SiDs compositions enable MR/NIR dual-modal imaging guided synergistic chemo-photothermal therapy to superficial tumors treatment via transdermal delivery. The (+)T-SiDs exhibit good stability, efficient cellular uptake, pH/photothermal responsive drug release, and high photothermal conversion efficiency (47.45%). Importantly, the transdermal delivery of (+)T-SiDs is significantly enhanced by TD functionalization. In vivo MR/NIR imaging shows that the (+)T-SiDs exhibit high transdermal efficiency and specificity in localization to the tumor site. Moreover, in comparison with individual chemo- or photothermal therapies, the combination of chemo-photothermal therapy exhibits more efficient tumor inhibition effects. This work presents a new transdermal treatment nanoplatform for dual-modal imaging-guided chemo-photothermal therapy of superficial tumors, with efficient tumor eradication and low systemic toxicity thus offering strong potential for clinical adoption. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Transdermal delivery is an attractive strategy for treating superficial tumors. However, a highly efficient transdermal nanoplatform remains to be developed. Herein, we designed a multifunctional transdermal nanoplatform for dual-modal imaging-guided chemo-photothermal therapy of superficial tumors, comprised of a super-paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticle, which can act as an MRI contrast agent and photothermal agent; a transdermal enhanced peptide (TD) and cationic lipids, which can accelerate skin penetration; and a NIR dye (DiR) and doxorubicin (DOX), which can achieve a synergistic enhanced chemo-photothermal therapy with NIR imaging ability. The transdermal nanoplatform achieved efficient tumor eradication and low systemic toxicity, thus offering strong potential for clinical adoption.

20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112378, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082244

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been demonstrated to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of human cancers and carcinogenesis of several environmental pollutants. Nevertheless, the function of circRNAs in cadmium carcinogenesis is unclear. circ-SHPRH is down-regulated in many cancers including non-small cell lung cancer. In our present study, during cadmium-induced transformation of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was induced. Meanwhile, at the middle and late stages of cell transformation, cadmium down-regulated the expression of circ-SHPRH, as well as QKI, a tumor suppressor protein known to prevent the proliferation and EMT during progression of human cancers, compared with passage-matched control BEAS-2B cells. Overexpression of circ-SHPRH in cadmium-transformed BEAS-2B cells promoted the expression of QKI and significantly inhibited proliferation, EMT, invasion, migration and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar of the cells. Mechanistic studies showed that circ-SHPRH functioned as a sponge of miR-224-5p to regulate QKI expression. Interestingly, QKI and circ-SHPRH could form a positive-feedback loop that perpetuated circ-SHPRH/miR-224-5p/QKI axis. Collectively, our results demonstrated that circ-SHPRH inhibited cadmium-induced transformation of BEAS-2B cells through sponging miR-224-5p to regulate QKI expression under cadmium treatment. Our study uncovered a novel molecular mechanism involved in circRNAs in the development of lung cancer due to cadmium exposure.

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