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1.
Univ. salud ; 27(1): B1-B9, enero-abril 2025. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554700

RESUMO

Introducción: Las enfermedades cerebrovasculares son consideradas un problema de salud pública que afectan muchas capacidades en el individuo, entre ellas la comunicación; de esta manera el cuidador cumple un papel fundamental en su recuperación. Objetivo: Describir el rol comunicativo del cuidador en la atención a pacientes con secuelas de accidente cerebrovascular en la ciudad de Sincelejo, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Paradigma positivista, enfoque cuantitativo y estudio descriptivo de corte transversal realizado con 40 cuidadores, seleccionados según muestreo por criterios y reclutamiento en cadena. Se utilizó una encuesta sociodemográfica, una sobre favorecimiento y bienestar comunicativo y Escala Likert, se realizó análisis de fiabilidad y consistencia interna del instrumento. Resultados: Predominaron cuidadores de sexo femenino, sobresale el cuidador informal, con estudios de secundaria y estrato socioeconómico bajo. Se encontró una actitud favorable en la competencia del ser y saber hacer, prima el buen trato, justicia y respeto. La competencia del saber evidenció actitud desfavorable, caracterizada por un conocimiento limitado frente a la patología, insuficientes destrezas, técnicas y habilidades para cumplir sus funciones y estrategias empleadas. Conclusión: Es necesario cualificar al cuidador en la atención del paciente con accidente cerebrovascular, mediante programas de que dinamicen la competencia del ser, saber y saber hacer


Introduction: Cerebrovascular diseases are a public health problem affecting the different capabilities of patients, including communication. Thus, caregivers play a fundamental role in their recovery. Objective: To describe the communicative role of caregivers in the support of patients with stroke sequelae in the city of Sincelejo, Colombia. Materials and methods: A positivist paradigm, quantitative approach, and descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with 40 caregivers, who were selected according to criteria sampling and chain recruitment. A sociodemographic survey about favorability and communicative well-being as well as the Likert Scale were applied. A reliability and internal consistency analysis was conducted. Results: The majority of caregivers were women. Informal caregivers, with high school education, and belonging to low socioeconomic status were also predominant. A positive attitude regarding competences such as being and knowing what to do; appropriate treatment of patients, with justice and respect, were observed as common features. The knowledge competence was considered unfavorable, which was characterized by limited understanding regarding pathology, strategies used, and insufficient skills, techniques, and abilities to fulfill their functions. Conclusions: Caregivers of stroke patients should be qualified through programs that improve the being, knowing, and knowing how to do competencies.


Introdução: As doenças cerebrovasculares são consideradas um problema de saúde pública que afeta diversas capacidades do indivíduo, incluindo a comunicação; desta forma, o cuidador desempenha um papel fundamental na sua recuperação. Objetivo: Descrever o papel comunicativo do cuidador no cuidado de pacientes com sequelas de acidente vascular cerebral na cidade de Sincelejo, Colômbia. Materiais e métodos: Paradigma positivista, abordagem quantitativa e estudo transversal descritivo realizado com 40 cuidadores, selecionados segundo critérios de amostragem e recrutamento em cadeia. Foi utilizado um inquérito sociodemográfico, um de favorabilidade e bem-estar comunicativo e uma Escala Likert, foi realizada uma análise da fiabilidade e consistência interna do instrumento. Resultados: Predominaram cuidadores do sexo feminino, destacando-se os cuidadores informais, com escolaridade média e baixo nível socioeconômico. Encontrou-se na competição uma atitude favorável por ser e saber fazer, prevalecendo o bom tratamento, a justiça e o respeito. A competência conhecimento apresentou atitude desfavorável, caracterizada por conhecimento limitado sobre a patologia, habilidades, técnicas e habilidades insuficientes para cumprir suas funções e estratégias utilizadas. Conclusões: É necessário qualificar o cuidador no cuidado ao paciente com AVC, por meio de programas que potencializem a competência de ser, saber e saber fazer.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino
2.
J Biomed Opt ; 29(Suppl 2): S22702, 2025 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38434231

RESUMO

Significance: Advancements in label-free microscopy could provide real-time, non-invasive imaging with unique sources of contrast and automated standardized analysis to characterize heterogeneous and dynamic biological processes. These tools would overcome challenges with widely used methods that are destructive (e.g., histology, flow cytometry) or lack cellular resolution (e.g., plate-based assays, whole animal bioluminescence imaging). Aim: This perspective aims to (1) justify the need for label-free microscopy to track heterogeneous cellular functions over time and space within unperturbed systems and (2) recommend improvements regarding instrumentation, image analysis, and image interpretation to address these needs. Approach: Three key research areas (cancer research, autoimmune disease, and tissue and cell engineering) are considered to support the need for label-free microscopy to characterize heterogeneity and dynamics within biological systems. Based on the strengths (e.g., multiple sources of molecular contrast, non-invasive monitoring) and weaknesses (e.g., imaging depth, image interpretation) of several label-free microscopy modalities, improvements for future imaging systems are recommended. Conclusion: Improvements in instrumentation including strategies that increase resolution and imaging speed, standardization and centralization of image analysis tools, and robust data validation and interpretation will expand the applications of label-free microscopy to study heterogeneous and dynamic biological systems.


Assuntos
Técnicas Histológicas , Microscopia , Animais , Citometria de Fluxo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38694538

RESUMO

Large ileal lipomas over 2 cm can cause symptoms, that may require a resection. Due to the narrow lumen and thin walls of the ileum, endoscopic treatments can have a high risk of adverse events and require technical expertise, thus surgical resection is currently the mainstay of treatment. To overcome the technical challenges, we developed a novel method to endoscopically resect terminal ileal lipomas. The technique involves extracting the lesion into the cecum, which creates sufficient space to maneuver, and a better field of view. The lipoma is resected with endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection. The appearance of the lipoma protruding out of the ileocecal valve resembles that of a tongue sticking out of the mouth, thus we named this the "tongue out technique". To assess the technical feasibility of this method, we retrospectively analyzed seven cases of terminal ileal lipoma that were endoscopically resected using the "tongue out technique" at NTT Medical Center Tokyo between January 2017 and October 2023. Technical success was 100% and en bloc resection was achieved in all cases. The median size was 31 (14-55) mm. Three cases were resected with endoscopic mucosal resection while endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed on the other four cases. There was one case of delayed post-endoscopic mucosal resection bleeding, which was caused by clip dislodgement. There were no perforations. No recurrence of the lipoma or associated symptoms have been observed. This new technique can allow more ileal lipomas to be treated with minimally invasive and organ-preserving endoscopic procedures.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38694539

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of endoscopic ultrasound-guided tissue acquisition (EUS-TA) for diagnosing focal liver lesions in patients with a history of multiple primary malignant neoplasms. Methods: Among patients who underwent EUS-TA for focal liver lesions between 2016 and 2022, those with a history of multiple malignant neoplasms were included. A histologically confirmed malignant tumor within the past 5 years before EUS-TA was defined as a history of malignant neoplasm. The primary outcomes were diagnostic ability and adverse events of EUS-TA. Results: This study included 16 patients (median age, 73 [33-90] years), the median tumor size was 32 (6-51) mm, 14 had a history of double malignant neoplasms, whereas two had triple malignant neoplasms. Malignant neoplasms were detected histologically or cytologically in all cases. Immunohistochemistry was performed in 75% (12/16), and the final diagnosis of EUS-TA was metastatic liver tumor in 12 patients, and primary malignant liver tumor in four patients. The primary site could be identified in 11 of 12 metastatic tumor cases. The diagnostic yield of EUS-TA was 100% (16/16) for differentiating benign and malignant tumors and 94% (15/16) for confirming the histological type including the primary site of metastatic lesions. No adverse events were associated with the procedure. Conclusion: EUS-TA is a useful diagnostic modality for focal liver lesions in patients with a history of multiple malignant neoplasms, allowing for the differential diagnosis of primary and metastatic tumors and identification of the primary site of metastatic lesions.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38694540

RESUMO

Patients with ulcerative colitis sometimes need a total colectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis due to medically refractory disease or colitis-associated neoplasia. Up to 50% of patients with ulcerative colitis postoperatively develop pouchitis and the rate of chronic inflammatory pouch conditions requiring pouch excision or diverting ileostomy is reported to be 10%. In order to diagnose and monitor pouchitis, pouchoscopy is essential to assess endoscopic inflammatory findings of the J pouch and to survey neoplasia development, particularly in the remnant distal rectum. However, endoscopic protocols for the evaluation of the pouch may not be standardized worldwide and the reliability of existing disease activity indices for pouchitis has been questioned due to the lack of validation. Recently, reliable endoscopic scoring systems based on an observation of the anatomical location of the J pouch were reported and a significant association between the distribution pattern of endoscopic inflammation (i.e., endoscopic phenotype) and pouch outcomes was also uncovered. In this review, we discuss how to survey the J pouch using pouchoscopy, endoscopic indices for pouchitis disease activity, endoscopic phenotypes and classification, and the pathological mechanisms of pouchitis phenotype in patients with ulcerative colitis.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38817688

RESUMO

Gossypiboma is an extremely rare adverse event occurring post-surgery, where surgical gauze is left within the body. If aseptically retained, it can lead to the formation of granulation tissue through chronic inflammation and adhesion with surrounding tissues, potentially persisting asymptomatically for many years. While diagnosis of this condition has been reported through various imaging modalities such as abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography, cases not presenting with typical findings are difficult for preoperative diagnosis, and instances where it is discovered postoperatively exist. Particularly when in contact with the gastrointestinal tract within the abdominal cavity, differentiation from submucosal tumors of the digestive tract becomes problematic. This report describes the imaging characteristics of endoscopic ultrasound and the usefulness of endoscopic ultrasound-fine-needle-aspiration for tissue diagnosis in the preoperative diagnosis of intra-abdominal gossypiboma.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38817686

RESUMO

An upside-down stomach is a rare type of hiatal hernia. An 83-year-old woman presented to the emergency room with abdominal pain and vomiting. Computed tomography revealed an upside-down stomach and the incarceration of a part of the gastric body into the abdominal cavity. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a circular ulcer caused by gastric ischemia. Although she was discharged after 1 week of conservative therapy, she was readmitted to the hospital 1 day after discharge because of a recurrence of hiatal hernia incarceration. She underwent laparoscopic surgery 4 days after readmission and recovered successfully.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38817687

RESUMO

Objective: A newly launched endoscopy system (EVIS X1, CV-1500; Olympus) is equipped with texture and color enhancement imaging (TXI). We aimed to investigate the efficacy of TXI for the visibility and diagnostic accuracy of non-polypoid colorectal lesions. Methods: We examined 100 non-polypoid lesions in 42 patients from the same position, angle, and distance of the view in three modes: white light imaging (WLI), narrow-band imaging (NBI), and TXI. The primary outcome was to compare polyp visibility in the three modes using subjective polyp visibility score and objective color difference values. The secondary outcome was to compare the diagnostic accuracy without magnification. Results: Overall, the visibility score of TXI was significantly higher than that of WLI (3.7 ± 1.1 vs. 3.6 ± 1.1; p = 0.008) and lower than that of NBI (3.7 ± 1.1 vs. 3.8 ± 1.1; p = 0.013). Color difference values of TXI were higher than those of WLI (11.5 ± 6.9 vs. 9.1 ± 5.4; p < 0.001) and lower than those of NBI (11.5 ± 6.9 vs. 13.1 ± 7.7; p = 0.002). No significant differences in TXI and NBI (visibility score: 3.7 ± 1.0 vs. 3.8 ± 1.1; p = 0.833, color difference values: 11.6 ± 7.1 vs. 12.9 ± 8.3; p = 0.099) were observed for neoplastic lesions. Moreover, the diagnostic accuracy of TXI was significantly higher than that of NBI (65.5% vs. 57.6%, p = 0.012) for neoplastic lesions. Conclusions: TXI demonstrated higher visibility than that of WLI and lower than that of NBI. Further investigations are warranted to validate the performance of the TXI mode comprehensively.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38746904

RESUMO

Image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE) has advanced gastrointestinal disease diagnosis and treatment. Traditional white-light imaging has limitations in detecting all gastrointestinal diseases, prompting the development of IEE. In this review, we explore the utility of IEE, including texture and color enhancement imaging and red dichromatic imaging, in pancreatobiliary (PB) diseases. IEE includes methods such as chromoendoscopy, optical-digital, and digital methods. Chromoendoscopy, using dyes such as indigo carmine, aids in delineating lesions and structures, including pancreato-/cholangio-jejunal anastomoses. Optical-digital methods such as narrow-band imaging enhance mucosal details and vessel patterns, aiding in ampullary tumor evaluation and peroral cholangioscopy. Moreover, red dichromatic imaging with its specific color allocation, improves the visibility of thick blood vessels in deeper tissues and enhances bleeding points with different colors and see-through effects, proving beneficial in managing bleeding complications post-endoscopic sphincterotomy. Color enhancement imaging, a novel digital method, enhances tissue texture, brightness, and color, improving visualization of PB structures, such as PB orifices, anastomotic sites, ampullary tumors, and intraductal PB lesions. Advancements in IEE hold substantial potential in improving the accuracy of PB disease diagnosis and treatment. These innovative techniques offer advantages paving the way for enhanced clinical management of PB diseases. Further research is warranted to establish their standard clinical utility and explore new frontiers in PB disease management.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774472

RESUMO

Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare mesenchymal tumor. Some papers have reported that colonoscopy could be used to treat PEComa with a predominantly pedunculated polyp, whereas surgical intervention is often required for cases with submucosal-type tumors. These findings suggest that the morphology of PEComa changes dramatically with disease progression. Because of the rapid progression of PEComa, endoscopic treatment remains challenging, and early-stage PEComa morphology is not well understood. A 64-year-old man presented to our hospital for a follow-up colonoscopy after undergoing multiple polypectomies. He had a medical history of colorectal adenoma and prostate cancer. A 4-mm pale blue elevated but not pedunculated lesion was observed in the transverse colon, an area where he had not had polyps previously. Since no epithelial change was observed, the presence of a submucosal tumor, such as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor, was suspected. Cold snare polypectomy was performed, and the lesion was completely resected. Histological evaluation using hematoxylin and eosin staining identified that the submucosal tumor included thickened vascular walls and adipose tissue. Although fragmented due to significant degeneration, spindle-shaped cells staining positive for smooth muscle actin were observed within and surrounding the unstructured hyalinized tissue with calcifications. Based on these findings, the lesion was diagnosed as angiomyolipoma, a subtype of PEComa. Complete resection was confirmed by histopathology. To our knowledge, this PEComa is the smallest of any PEComa reported in the literature. Our finding provides valuable insights into the very early stage of colorectal PEComas.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770399

RESUMO

Objective: The population-based colorectal cancer screening guidelines in Japan recommend an annual fecal immunochemical test (FIT). However, there is no consensus on the need for annual FIT screening for patients who recently performed a total colonoscopy (TCS). Therefore, we evaluated the repeated TCS results for patients with positive FIT after a recent TCS to assess the necessity of an annual FIT. Methods: We reviewed patients with positive FIT in opportunistic screening from April 2017 to March 2022. The patients were divided into two groups: those who had undergone TCS within the previous 5 years (previous TCS group) and those who had not (non-previous TCS group). We compared the detection rates of advanced neoplasia and colorectal cancer between the two groups. Results: Of 671 patients, 151 had received TCS within 5 years and 520 had not. The detection rates of advanced neoplasia in the previous TCS and non-previous TCS groups were 4.6% and 12.1%, respectively (p < 0.01), and the colorectal cancer detection rates were 0.7% and 1.5%, respectively (no significant difference). The adenoma detection rates were 33.8% in the previous TCS group and 40.0% in the non-previous TCS group (no significant difference). Conclusions: Only a few patients were diagnosed with advanced neoplasia among the patients with FIT positive after a recent TCS. For patients with adenomatous lesions on previous TCS, repeated TCS should be performed according to the surveillance program without an annual FIT. The need for an annual FIT for patients without adenomatous lesions on previous TCS should be prospectively assessed in the future.

12.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(1): 253-264, 2025 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767490

RESUMO

JOURNAL/nrgr/04.03/01300535-202501000-00033/figure1/v/2024-05-14T021156Z/r/image-tiff The E3 ubiquitin ligase, carboxyl terminus of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) interacting protein (CHIP), also functions as a co-chaperone and plays a crucial role in the protein quality control system. In this study, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of overexpressed CHIP on Alzheimer's disease. We used an adeno-associated virus vector that can cross the blood-brain barrier to mediate CHIP overexpression in APP/PS1 mouse brain. CHIP overexpression significantly ameliorated the performance of APP/PS1 mice in the Morris water maze and nest building tests, reduced amyloid-ß plaques, and decreased the expression of both amyloid-ß and phosphorylated tau. CHIP also alleviated the concentration of microglia and astrocytes around plaques. In APP/PS1 mice of a younger age, CHIP overexpression promoted an increase in ADAM10 expression and inhibited ß-site APP cleaving enzyme 1, insulin degrading enzyme, and neprilysin expression. Levels of HSP70 and HSP40, which have functional relevance to CHIP, were also increased. Single nuclei transcriptome sequencing in the hippocampus of CHIP overexpressed mice showed that the lysosomal pathway and oligodendrocyte-related biological processes were up-regulated, which may also reflect a potential mechanism for the neuroprotective effect of CHIP. Our research shows that CHIP effectively reduces the behavior and pathological manifestations of APP/PS1 mice. Indeed, overexpression of CHIP could be a beneficial approach for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

13.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(1): 277-290, 2025 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767492

RESUMO

JOURNAL/nrgr/04.03/01300535-202501000-00035/figure1/v/2024-05-14T021156Z/r/image-tiff Our previous study found that rat bone marrow-derived neural crest cells (acting as Schwann cell progenitors) have the potential to promote long-distance nerve repair. Cell-based therapy can enhance peripheral nerve repair and regeneration through paracrine bioactive factors and intercellular communication. Nevertheless, the complex contributions of various types of soluble cytokines and extracellular vesicle cargos to the secretome remain unclear. To investigate the role of the secretome and extracellular vesicles in repairing damaged peripheral nerves, we collected conditioned culture medium from hypoxia-pretreated neural crest cells, and found that it significantly promoted the repair of sensory neurons damaged by oxygen-glucose deprivation. The mRNA expression of trophic factors was highly expressed in hypoxia-pretreated neural crest cells. We performed RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis and found that miR-21-5p was enriched in hypoxia-pretreated extracellular vesicles of neural crest cells. Subsequently, to further clarify the role of hypoxia-pretreated neural crest cell extracellular vesicles rich in miR-21-5p in axonal growth and regeneration of sensory neurons, we used a microfluidic axonal dissociation model of sensory neurons in vitro, and found that hypoxia-pretreated neural crest cell extracellular vesicles promoted axonal growth and regeneration of sensory neurons, which was greatly dependent on loaded miR-21-5p. Finally, we constructed a miR-21-5p-loaded neural conduit to repair the sciatic nerve defect in rats and found that the motor and sensory functions of injured rat hind limb, as well as muscle tissue morphology of the hind limbs, were obviously restored. These findings suggest that hypoxia-pretreated neural crest extracellular vesicles are natural nanoparticles rich in miRNA-21-5p. miRNA-21-5p is one of the main contributors to promoting nerve regeneration by the neural crest cell secretome. This helps to explain the mechanism of action of the secretome and extracellular vesicles of neural crest cells in repairing damaged peripheral nerves, and also promotes the application of miR-21-5p in tissue engineering regeneration medicine.

14.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(1): 291-304, 2025 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767493

RESUMO

JOURNAL/nrgr/04.03/01300535-202501000-00036/figure1/v/2024-05-14T021156Z/r/image-tiff Axonal regeneration following surgical nerve repair is slow and often incomplete, resulting in poor functional recovery which sometimes contributes to lifelong disability. Currently, there are no FDA-approved therapies available to promote nerve regeneration. Tacrolimus accelerates axonal regeneration, but systemic side effects presently outweigh its potential benefits for peripheral nerve surgery. The authors describe herein a biodegradable polyurethane-based drug delivery system for the sustained local release of tacrolimus at the nerve repair site, with suitable properties for scalable production and clinical application, aiming to promote nerve regeneration and functional recovery with minimal systemic drug exposure. Tacrolimus is encapsulated into co-axially electrospun polycarbonate-urethane nanofibers to generate an implantable nerve wrap that releases therapeutic doses of bioactive tacrolimus over 31 days. Size and drug loading are adjustable for applications in small and large caliber nerves, and the wrap degrades within 120 days into biocompatible byproducts. Tacrolimus released from the nerve wrap promotes axon elongation in vitro and accelerates nerve regeneration and functional recovery in preclinical nerve repair models while off-target systemic drug exposure is reduced by 80% compared with systemic delivery. Given its surgical suitability and preclinical efficacy and safety, this system may provide a readily translatable approach to support axonal regeneration and recovery in patients undergoing nerve surgery.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827185

RESUMO

Objectives: The efficacy of uncovered self-expandable metal stents (UCSEMS) versus fully covered self-expandable metal stents for distal malignant biliary obstruction remains controversial. Additionally, the heterogeneity of the disease conditions has been indicated in previous studies because pancreatic and non-pancreatic cancers have different characteristics in clinical course. Therefore, the etiology of biliary obstruction necessitates investigations stratified by primary disease. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of UCSEMS, specifically for non-pancreatic cancer-induced distal malignant biliary obstruction. Methods: We conducted a single-center retrospective review to evaluate the time to recurrent biliary obstruction and frequency of adverse events (AEs) in patients receiving UCSEMS for unresectable non-pancreatic cancer-induced malignant biliary obstruction. Results: Overall, 32 patients were enrolled in the study between January 2016 and December 2023. The median time to recurrent biliary obstruction was 140 days. AE rates were low at 3.1% for both pancreatitis and cholecystitis, suggesting a potential benefit of UCSEMS in reducing post-procedural AEs. Conclusion: UCSEMS may reduce the risk of post-procedural AEs and should be considered in patients at high risk of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis. However, the patency period may be shorter, necessitating future comparative research with fully covered self-expandable metal stents to determine the optimal stent choice.

16.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(2): 309-325, 2025 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38819036

RESUMO

Terahertz biotechnology has been increasingly applied in various biomedical fields and has especially shown great potential for application in brain sciences. In this article, we review the development of terahertz biotechnology and its applications in the field of neuropsychiatry. Available evidence indicates promising prospects for the use of terahertz spectroscopy and terahertz imaging techniques in the diagnosis of amyloid disease, cerebrovascular disease, glioma, psychiatric disease, traumatic brain injury, and myelin deficit. In vitro and animal experiments have also demonstrated the potential therapeutic value of terahertz technology in some neuropsychiatric diseases. Although the precise underlying mechanism of the interactions between terahertz electromagnetic waves and the biosystem is not yet fully understood, the research progress in this field shows great potential for biomedical noninvasive diagnostic and therapeutic applications. However, the biosafety of terahertz radiation requires further exploration regarding its two-sided efficacy in practical applications. This review demonstrates that terahertz biotechnology has the potential to be a promising method in the field of neuropsychiatry based on its unique advantages.

17.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(2): 587-597, 2025 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38819069

RESUMO

JOURNAL/nrgr/04.03/01300535-202502000-00034/figure1/v/2024-05-28T214302Z/r/image-tiff Several studies have found that transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) promotes the survival of injured neurons. However, a poor integration rate and high risk of tumorigenicity after cell transplantation limits their clinical application. Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) contain bioactive molecules for neuronal protection and regeneration. Previous studies have shown that stem/progenitor cell-derived sEVs can promote neuronal survival and recovery of neurological function in neurodegenerative eye diseases and other eye diseases. In this study, we intravitreally transplanted sEVs derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and hiPSCs-differentiated NPCs (hiPSC-NPC) in a mouse model of optic nerve crush. Our results show that these intravitreally injected sEVs were ingested by retinal cells, especially those localized in the ganglion cell layer. Treatment with hiPSC-NPC-derived sEVs mitigated optic nerve crush-induced retinal ganglion cell degeneration, and regulated the retinal microenvironment by inhibiting excessive activation of microglia. Component analysis further revealed that hiPSC-NPC derived sEVs transported neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory miRNA cargos to target cells, which had protective effects on RGCs after optic nerve injury. These findings suggest that sEVs derived from hiPSC-NPC are a promising cell-free therapeutic strategy for optic neuropathy.

18.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(2): 518-532, 2025 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38819064

RESUMO

JOURNAL/nrgr/04.03/01300535-202502000-00029/figure1/v/2024-05-28T214302Z/r/image-tiff Cerebral edema caused by blood-brain barrier injury after intracerebral hemorrhage is an important factor leading to poor prognosis. Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cell exosomes (hiPSC-NSC-Exos) have shown potential for brain injury repair in central nervous system diseases. In this study, we explored the impact of hiPSC-NSC-Exos on blood-brain barrier preservation and the underlying mechanism. Our results indicated that intranasal delivery of hiPSC-NSC-Exos mitigated neurological deficits, enhanced blood-brain barrier integrity, and reduced leukocyte infiltration in a mouse model of intracerebral hemorrhage. Additionally, hiPSC-NSC-Exos decreased immune cell infiltration, activated astrocytes, and decreased the secretion of inflammatory cytokines like monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and tumor necrosis factor-α post-intracerebral hemorrhage, thereby improving the inflammatory microenvironment. RNA sequencing indicated that hiPSC-NSC-Exo activated the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in astrocytes and decreased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 secretion, thereby improving blood-brain barrier integrity. Treatment with the PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002 or the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 neutralizing agent C1142 abolished these effects. In summary, our findings suggest that hiPSC-NSC-Exos maintains blood-brain barrier integrity, in part by downregulating monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 secretion through activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in astrocytes.

19.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(2): 533-547, 2025 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38819065

RESUMO

JOURNAL/nrgr/04.03/01300535-202502000-00030/figure1/v/2024-05-28T214302Z/r/image-tiff In patients with Alzheimer's disease, gamma-glutamyl transferase 5 (GGT5) expression has been observed to be downregulated in cerebrovascular endothelial cells. However, the functional role of GGT5 in the development of Alzheimer's disease remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the effect of GGT5 on cognitive function and brain pathology in an APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, as well as the underlying mechanism. We observed a significant reduction in GGT5 expression in two in vitro models of Alzheimer's disease (Aß1-42-treated hCMEC/D3 and bEnd.3 cells), as well as in the APP/PS1 mouse model. Additionally, injection of APP/PS1 mice with an adeno-associated virus encoding GGT5 enhanced hippocampal synaptic plasticity and mitigated cognitive deficits. Interestingly, increasing GGT5 expression in cerebrovascular endothelial cells reduced levels of both soluble and insoluble amyloid-ß in the brains of APP/PS1 mice. This effect may be attributable to inhibition of the expression of ß-site APP cleaving enzyme 1, which is mediated by nuclear factor-kappa B. Our findings demonstrate that GGT5 expression in cerebrovascular endothelial cells is inversely associated with Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, and that GGT5 upregulation mitigates cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice. These findings suggest that GGT5 expression in cerebrovascular endothelial cells is a potential therapeutic target and biomarker for Alzheimer's disease.

20.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(2): 491-502, 2025 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38819062

RESUMO

JOURNAL/nrgr/04.03/01300535-202502000-00027/figure1/v/2024-05-28T214302Z/r/image-tiff Neurotoxic astrocytes are a promising therapeutic target for the attenuation of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Low-density lipoprotein receptor, a classic cholesterol regulatory receptor, has been found to inhibit NLR family pyrin domain containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in neurons following ischemic stroke and to suppress the activation of microglia and astrocytes in individuals with Alzheimer's disease. However, little is known about the effects of low-density lipoprotein receptor on astrocytic activation in ischemic stroke. To address this issue in the present study, we examined the mechanisms by which low-density lipoprotein receptor regulates astrocytic polarization in ischemic stroke models. First, we examined low-density lipoprotein receptor expression in astrocytes via immunofluorescence staining and western blotting analysis. We observed significant downregulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor following middle cerebral artery occlusion reperfusion and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation. Second, we induced the astrocyte-specific overexpression of low-density lipoprotein receptor using astrocyte-specific adeno-associated virus. Low-density lipoprotein receptor overexpression in astrocytes improved neurological outcomes in middle cerebral artery occlusion mice and reversed neurotoxic astrocytes to create a neuroprotective phenotype. Finally, we found that the overexpression of low-density lipoprotein receptor inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation in oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation injured astrocytes and that the addition of nigericin, an NLRP3 agonist, restored the neurotoxic astrocyte phenotype. These findings suggest that low-density lipoprotein receptor could inhibit the NLRP3-meidiated neurotoxic polarization of astrocytes and that increasing low-density lipoprotein receptor in astrocytes might represent a novel strategy for treating cerebral ischemic stroke.

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