Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 9.739.072
Filtrar
Mais filtros











Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 40: e2020302, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143856

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze literature data about unnecessary exposure of pediatric emergency patients to ionizing agents from imaging examinations, nowadays and during times of COVID-19. Data sources: Between April and July 2020, articles were selected using the databases: Virtual Health Library, PubMed and Scientific Electronic Library Online. The following descriptors were used: [(pediatrics) AND (emergencies) AND (diagnostic imaging) AND (medical overuse)] and [(Coronavirus infections) OR (COVID-19) AND (pediatrics) AND (emergencies) AND (diagnostic imaging)]. Inclusion criteria were articles available in full, in Portuguese or English, published from 2016 to 2020 or from 2019 to 2020, and articles that covered the theme. Articles without adherence to the theme and duplicate texts in the databases were excluded. Data synthesis: 61 publications were identified, of which 17 were comprised in this review. Some imaging tests used in pediatric emergency departments increase the possibility of developing future malignancies in patients, since they emit ionizing radiation. There are clinical decision instruments that allow reducing unnecessary exam requests, avoiding over-medicalization, and hospital expenses. Moreover, with the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a growing concern about the overuse of imaging exams in the pediatric population, which highlights the problems pointed out by this review. Conclusions: It is necessary to improve hospital staff training, use clinical decision instruments and develop guidelines to reduce the number of exams required, allowing hospital cost savings; and reducing children's exposure to ionizing agents.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar dados da literatura sobre exposição desnecessária de pacientes da emergência pediátrica a agentes ionizantes dos exames de imagem, na atualidade e em tempos de COVID-19. Fontes de dados: Entre abril e julho de 2020 ocorreu a seleção dos artigos, utilizando-se as bases de dados: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, PubMed e Scientific Electronic Library Online. Utilizaram-se os descritores: [(pediatrics) AND (emergencies) AND (diagnostic imaging) AND (medical overuse)] e [(Coronavirus infections) OR (COVID-19) AND (pediatrics) AND (emergencies) AND (diagnostic imaging)]. Incluíram-se artigos disponíveis na íntegra, em português ou inglês, publicados no período de 2016 a 2020 ou de 2019 a 2020, e artigos que contemplassem o tema. Excluiu-se artigos sem aderência com a temática e textos duplicados. Síntese dos dados: Identificaram-se 61 publicações, sendo 17 utilizadas para a elaboração desta revisão. Alguns exames de imagem utilizados nos Setores de Urgência e Emergência (SUEs) pediátricos, por emitirem radiação ionizante, aumentam a possibilidade de desenvolver malignidades futuras nas crianças. Destarte, há instrumentos de decisão clínica que possibilitam diminuir requisições de exames desnecessários, evitando a sobremedicalização e os gastos hospitalares. Ademais, com a pandemia da COVID-19, cresceu a preocupação com o uso excessivo de exames de imagem na população pediátrica, o que reafirma a problematização deste estudo. Conclusões: Veem-se como necessárias a capacitação da equipe hospitalar, a utilização de instrumentos de decisão clínica e a confecção de protocolos que possam avaliar a singularidade da criança. Isso permitirá reduzir o número de exames requeridos, possibilitando economia de custos hospitalares e redução da exposição de crianças a agentes ionizantes.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236297, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153472

RESUMO

Abstract Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae) is widely distributed in the world and has a range of popular therapeutic indications. This work aimed to evaluate the phytochemical characterization of two leaf extracts of P. barbatus, and their antimicrobial, antineoplastic and immunomodulatory potential. After collection, herborization and obtainment of the P. barbatus aqueous extract (PBA) and acetone:water 7:3 P. barbatus organic extract (PBO), the phytochemical characterization was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antimicrobial activity was performed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against eight bacterial strains using the microdilution test and the fungus Trichophyton rubrum by disc diffusion assay and microdilution test. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT and trypan blue methods in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at concentrations ranged between 0.1 to 100 µg.mL-1 and in neoplastic cell lines Toledo, K562, DU-145 and PANC-1 at 1, 10 and 100 µg.mL-1 . Immunomodulatory activity, was evaluated by sandwich ELISA of proinflammatory cytokines at BALB/c mice splenocytes cultures supernatant. Both extracts presented flavonoids, cinnamic derivatives, steroids and ellagic acid. PBO showed bacteriostatic activity against Acinetobacter baumannii (MIC = 250 µg.mL-1) clinical isolate and PBA fungistatic activity against Trichophyton rubrum (MIC = 800 µg.mL-1). The extracts did not exhibit toxicity to PBMCs and neoplastic cells (IC50 > 100 µg.mL-1). Additionally, PBO at 100 µg.mL-1 significantly inhibited IFN-γ and IL-17A cytokines (p = 0.03). Plectranthus barbatus is a potential candidate for therapeutic use due to its low toxicity in healthy human cells and exhibits biological activities of medical interest as bacteriostatic, fungistatic and immunomodulatory.


Resumo Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae) é amplamente distribuída no mundo e com uma série de indicações terapêuticas populares. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a caracterização fitoquímica de dois extratos da folha de P. barbatus e seu potencial antimicrobiano, antineoplásico e imunomodulador. Após coleta, herborização e obtenção do extrato aquoso (PBA) e acetona: água 7: 3 (orgânico) (PBO) de P. barbatus, a caracterização fitoquímica foi realizada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE). A atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada para determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) contra oito cepas bacterianas usando o teste de microdiluição e o fungo Trichophyton rubrum por ensaio de difusão em disco e teste de microdiluição. A citotoxicidade foi avaliada por métodos MTT e azul de tripan em células normais mononucleares do sangue periférico (CMSP) em concentrações variadas entre 0,1 a 100 µg.mL-1 e nas linhagens celulares neoplásicas Toledo, K562, DU-145 e PANC-1 em 1, 10 e 100 µg.mL-1 . A atividade imunomoduladora foi avaliada por ELISA sanduíche de citocinas pró-inflamatórias em sobrenadante de culturas de esplenócitos de camundongos BALB/c. Ambos os extratos apresentaram flavonoides, derivados cinâmicos, esteróides e ácido elágico. O PBO mostrou atividade bacteriostática contra Acinetobacter baumannii (CIM = 250 µg.mL-1) e atividade fungistática do PBA contra Trichophyton rubrum (CIM = 800 µg.mL-1). Os extratos não apresentaram toxicidade para CMSP e células neoplásicas (IC50 > 100 µg.mL-1). Além disso, o PBO a 100 µg.mL-1 inibiu significativamente as citocinas IFN-γ e IL-17A (p = 0,03). Plectranthus barbatus é um candidato potencial para uso terapêutico devido à sua baixa toxicidade em células humanas saudáveis ​​e exibe atividade de interesse médico como bacteriostática, fungistática e imunomoduladora.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e235781, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153480

RESUMO

Abstract Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol found in tempeh, has not been investigated especially in vitro as a neuroprotective agent against 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME)-induced beta-amyloid cytotoxicity. Beta amyloid peptides (Aβ) could initiate neurotoxic events and neuron-inflammatory response via microglial activation. However, it remains unknown whether the neurotoxic effect of beta-amyloid and/or associated with the potential of 2-ME to induce neurotoxic effects on primary culture of nerve cells induced by 2-ME. This study investigated potential neuroprotective of trans-resveratrol a promising agent tempeh and soybean seed coats-derived against beta-amyloid cytotoxicity on primary culture of nerve cells induced by 2-methoxyethanol. Biotium and MTT assays were used to analyze neurons, which were isolated from the cerebral cortex of fetal mice at gestation day 19 (GD-19). A standard solution of 2-methoxyethanol was dosed at 10 μL. The cultured cells were randomly divided into the following groups: (1) 2-ME group + resveratrol standard, (2) 2-ME group + resveratrol isolated from tempeh, (3) 2-ME group + resveratrol isolated from soybean seed coats, and (4) the control group, without the addition of either 2-ME or resveratrol. Exposure of the primary cortical neuron cells to beta-amyloid monoclonal antibody pre-incubated for 24 h with 10 µL of 4.2 µg/mL resveratrol and 7.5 mmol/l 2-methoxy-ethanol additions. Here, we report that the addition of 2-ME and resveratrol (standard and isolated from tempeh) of cell culture at concentrations of 1.4, 2.8 and 4.2 µg/mL showed that the majority of neurons grew well. In contrast, after exposure to 2-ME and Beta-amyloid, showed that glial activated. These findings demonstrate a role for resveratrol in neuroprotective-neurorescuing action.


Resumo O resveratrol, um polifenol natural encontrado em tempê, não foi investigado apenas in vitro como agente neuroprotetor contra a citotoxicidade beta-amiloide induzida por 2-metoxietanol (2-ME). Os peptídeos beta-amiloides (Aβ) podem iniciar eventos neurotóxicos e resposta inflamatória dos neurônios via ativação microglial. No entanto, permanece desconhecido se o efeito neurotóxico do peptídeo beta-amiloide associado ao potencial do 2-ME causa efeitos neurotóxicos na cultura primária de células nervosas induzidas pelo 2-ME. Este estudo investigou o potencial neuroprotetor do agente trans-resveratrol em cascas de sementes de soja e tempê derivadas da citotoxicidade beta-amiloide na cultura primária de células nervosas induzidas pelo 2-metoxietanol. Ensaios de biotium e MTT foram utilizados para analisar os neurônios isolados do córtex cerebral de camundongos fetais no dia da gestação 19 (GD-19). As células cultivadas foram divididas aleatoriamente nos seguintes grupos: (1) grupo 2-ME + padrão de resveratrol; (2) grupo 2-ME + resveratrol isolado de tempê; (3) grupo 2-ME + resveratrol isolado de cascas de sementes de soja; e (4) grupo controle, sem a adição de 2-ME ou resveratrol. Houve exposição das células primárias dos neurônios corticais ao anticorpo monoclonal beta-amiloide pré-incubado por 24 horas, com 10 µL de 4,2 µg/mL de resveratrol, e adições de 7,5 mmol/l de 2-metoxietanol. A adição de 2-ME e resveratrol (padrão e isolado do tempê) da cultura de células nas concentrações de 1,4, 2,8 e 4,2 µg/mL mostrou que a maioria dos neurônios cresceu bem. Por outro lado, após a exposição ao 2-ME e beta-amiloide, a glia foi ativada. Esses achados demonstram um papel do resveratrol na ação neuroprotetora e de neurorresgate.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 1023-1029, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153420

RESUMO

Abstract The mortality of the Alabama argillacea and Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae caused by the kaolin inert powder and the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana were determined under laboratory conditions. Using the caterpillar submersion method, the CG 138 B. bassiana isolate was more pathogenic to A. argillacea than the CG 70, GC 82, ESALQ 634, and ESALQ 645. All five tested isolates caused similar mortality of C. includens. The mortality of first-instar larvae of A. argillacea and C. includens by feeding on leaf-disc impregnated with B. bassiana (CG 138) and kaolin was also determined. Higher A. argillacea mortalities were observed in the B. bassiana (CG 138) treatments, regardless of the presence of kaolin. However, the activity of kaolin + B. bassiana (CG 138) against C. includens was higher than each ingredient alone, indicating an additive action against C. includes larvae. The mortality of A. argillacea and C. includens larvae treated with kaolin + B. bassiana (CG 138) was similar, and the A. argillacea mortality was higher than that of C. includens with kaolin and B. bassiana (GC 138) separated. The treatment kaolin + B. bassiana (CG 138) is promising for the simultaneous management of these two defoliator pests, mainly A. includes. In addition, the monophagous A. argillacea is more susceptible to both kaolin and B. bassiana (GC 138) than the polyphagous C. includens, suggesting that the nutritional ecology plays an important role in the susceptibility of these defoliator species to alternative insecticides.


Resumo A mortalidade de larvas de Alabama argillacea e Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), causada pelo pó inerte do caulim e pelo fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana, foi determinada em condições de laboratório. Usando o método de submersão da lagarta, o isolado CG 138 de B. bassiana foi mais patogênico para A. argillacea que os CG 70, GC 82, ESALQ 634 e ESALQ 645 desse fungo. Os cinco isolados testados causaram mortalidade semelhante de C. includens. A mortalidade de larvas de primeiro ínstar de A. argillacea e C. includens pelo método de alimentação em discos foliares impregnados com B. bassiana (CG 138) e caulim foi, também, determinada. A mortalidade de A. argillacea foi maior nos tratamentos com B. bassiana (CG 138), independentemente da presença do caulim. A atividade do caulim + B. bassiana (CG 138) contra C. includens foi maior que cada ingrediente isolado, indicando ação aditiva contra larvas desse Lepidoptera. A mortalidade de larvas de A. argillacea e C. includens, com caulim + B. bassiana (CG 138), foi semelhante e as de A. argillacea maiores que as de C. includens com caulim e B. bassiana (GC 138) isoladamente. O tratamento caulin + B. bassiana (CG 138) é promissor para o manejo simultâneo dessas duas pragas desfolhadoras, principalmente A. includens. Além disso, a monófaga, A. argilacea, é mais suscetível ao caulim e à B. bassiana (GC 138) que a polífaga, C. includens, sugerindo que a ecologia nutricional desempenha papel importante na suscetibilidade dessas espécies desfolhadoras a inseticidas alternativos.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 1133-1143, Oct.-Dec. 2021. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153449

RESUMO

Abstract Apoptosis is a sequential order of cell death occurring regularly to ensure a homeostatic balance between the rate of cell formation and cell death. However, a misplaced of this balancing function can contribute to an abnormal cell growth / proliferation or autoimmune disorders etc. Apoptosis is therefore said to be crucial from the point of development of an embryo throughout the growth of an organism contributing to the renewal of tissues and also the getting rid of inflammatory cells. This review seeks to elaborate on the recent overview of the mechanism involved in apoptosis, some element and signal contributing to its function and inhibition together with how their malfunction contribute to a number of cancer related cases.


Resumo A apoptose é uma ordem sequencial de morte celular que ocorre regularmente para garantir um equilíbrio homeostático entre a taxa de formação e a morte celular. No entanto, um desequilíbrio dessa função pode contribuir para um crescimento/proliferação celular anormal ou distúrbios autoimunes. A apoptose é, portanto, considerada crucial do ponto de desenvolvimento de um embrião ao longo do crescimento de um organismo que contribui para a renovação dos tecidos e também a eliminação de células inflamatórias. Esta revisão procura elaborar a recente visão geral do mecanismo envolvido na apoptose, alguns elementos e sinais que contribuem para sua função e inibição, além de como o mau funcionamento deles contribui para vários casos relacionados ao câncer.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 737-740, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153393

RESUMO

Abstract Curcuma longa is an important dietary plant which possess several pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflamatory, anticancer and anti clotting etc. The aim of the present study was to determine the phenolic profile of Curcuma longa and in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. In HPLC chromatogram of Curcuma longa rhizome extract 15 phenolic compounds were identified namely Digalloyl-hexoside, Caffeic acid hexoside, Curdione, Coumaric, Caffeic acid, Sinapic acid, Qurecetin-3-D-galactoside, Casuarinin, Bisdemethoxycurcumin, Curcuminol, Demethoxycurcumin, and Isorhamnetin, Valoneic acid bilactone, Curcumin, Curcumin-O-glucuronide respectively. The ethanolic extract displayed an IC50 value of 37.1±0.3 µg/ml against alpha glucosidase. The IC50 value of DPPH radical scavenging activity was 27.2 ± 1.1 μg/mL. It is concluded that ethanolic extract of Curcuma long is rich source of curcumin and contain several important phenolics. The in vitro antioxidant and alpha glucosidase inhibitory effect of the plant justifies its popular use in traditional medicine.


Resumo A Curcuma longa é uma importante planta presente na dieta da população, pois possui diversas atividades farmacológicas, incluindo antioxidante, antimicrobiana, anti-inflamatória, anticancerígena, anticoagulante etc. O objetivo do presente estudo foi elucidar o perfil fenólico da Curcuma longa e determinar as atividades antioxidante e antidiabética in vitro do extrato. No cromatograma por HPLC do extrato de rizoma de Curcuma longa, foram identificados 15 compostos fenólicos: digaloil-hexosídeo, hexosídeo de ácido cafeico, curdiona, cumárico, ácido cafeico, ácido sinápico, quercetina-3-D-galactosídeo, casuarinina, bisdemetoxicurcumina, curcuminol, demetoxicurcumina, isoramnetina, bilactona de ácido valônico, curcumina e curcumina-O-glicuronídeo. O extrato etanólico apresentou um valor de IC50 de 37,1 ± 0,3 µg / mL em relação à alfa-glucosidase. O valor de IC50 da atividade de eliminação de radicais DPPH foi de 27,2 ± 1,1 μg / mL. Conclui-se que o extrato etanólico de Curcuma longa é uma rica fonte de curcumina e contém várias substâncias fenólicas importantes. O efeito antioxidante in vitro e inibidor da alfa-glucosidase da planta justifica seu uso popular na medicina tradicional.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 806-813, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153395

RESUMO

Abstract Phytochemical and antioxidant activity of quinoa flour was evaluated after subjected to gamma irradiation processes at dose 3 and 6 kGy. Both non-irradiated and irradiated quinoa samples were subjected to successive extractions in ethanol solvent. The antioxidant activity after gamma irradiation treatment was investigated via Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and radical-scavenging activity (RSA) using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH).Total phenolic and flavonoid content were analyzed using Folin-Ciocalteu micro-method, aluminium chloride (AlCl3) method and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). As well as, effect of irradiation treatment on saponin was also evaluated. Irradiation treatment showed slight differences in the saponin content after exposure to 3 and 6 kGy. Irradiation process enhanced both total phenolic content (TPC) and Total flavonoid content (TFC), TPC were 34.52 and 30.92 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/100g compared to 26.25 mg GAE/100g in non-irradiated quinoa. TFC were 67.44 and 62.89 mg Quercetin Equivalents (QE)/100g compared to 53.15 mg QE/100g. Irradiation dose 3 kGy significantly (p> 0.05) decreased the IC50 as DPPH-RSA and increased the FRAP.


Resumo Atividades fitoquímica e antioxidante da farinha de quinoa foram analisadas após submissão a processos de irradiação gama nas doses 3 e 6 kGy. As amostras de quinoa não irradiadas e irradiadas foram submetidas a extrações sucessivas em solvente etanol. A atividade antioxidante, após o tratamento com irradiação gama, foi investigada por meio do poder antioxidante redutor férrico (ARF) e da atividade de eliminação de radicais (AER) usando 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidrazil (DPPH). O conteúdo fenólico total e o teor de flavonoide foram analisados usando o método de Folin-Ciocalteu, método de cloreto de alumínio (AlCl3) e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE). Além disso, o efeito do tratamento de irradiação na saponina também foi avaliado. O tratamento por irradiação não mostrou diferenças significativas no conteúdo de saponina após exposição a 3 e 6 kGy. O processo de irradiação aumentou o conteúdo fenólico total (CFT) e o teor total de flavonoides (TTF); o CFT foi de 34,52 e 30,92 mg de equivalente de ácido gálico (EAG) / 100 g em comparação com 26,25 mg de EAG / 100 g na quinoa não irradiada. Os TTF foram 67,44 e 62,89 mg de equivalentes de quercetina (EQ) / 100 g em comparação com 53,15 mg de EQ / 100 g. A dose de irradiação de 3 kGy diminuiu significativamente (p > 0,05) o IC50 como DPPH-AER e aumentou o ARF.

8.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 575-583, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153400

RESUMO

Abstract Vernonanthura polyanthes, popularly known as assa-peixe, is a medicinal plant that has been widely used by Brazilian Cerrado population for treatment of diseases without a detailed evaluation of their effectiveness, toxicity, and proper dosage. Thus, more studies investigating the safety of V. polyanthes aqueous extract before the use are needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract using the Artemia salina and Allium cepa assays. For the A. salina assay, three groups of 10 larvae were exposed to V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract at the concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/ml. For the A. cepa assay, 5 onion bulbs were exposed to V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract at 10, 20, and 40 mg/ml, and then submitted to macroscopic and microscopic analysis. As result it was identified a toxicity and cytotoxicity of V. polyanthes dependent on the extract concentration. The A. salina assay suggests that the concentration of 24 mg/ml of the V. polyanthes extract is able to kill 50% of naupllis; while the A. cepa assay suggests that V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract is toxic at concentrations higher than 20 mg/ml; however the cytotoxic effect in A. cepa root cells was observed at 40 mg/ml of the extract. It is important to say that the V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract concentration commonly used in popular medicine is 20 mg/ml. Thus, the popular concentration used is very close to toxicity limit in A. salina model (24 mg/ml) and is the concentration which showed toxic effect in A. cepa root cells (20 mg/ml). No genotoxic activity of V. polyantes leaves aqueous extract was observed in the conditions used in this study. Because of the antiproliferative action and no genotoxic activity, V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract may present compounds with potential use for human medicine. However more detailed studies need to be performed to confirm this potential.


Resumo Vernonanthura polyanthes, popularmente conhecida como assa-peixe, é uma planta medicinal amplamente utilizada pela população brasileira do Cerrado para o tratamento doenças, sem uma avaliação detalhada de sua eficácia, toxicidade e dosagem adequada. Dessa forma, são necessários estudos para investigar a segurança do uso do extrato aquoso de V. polyanthes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a toxicidade, citotoxicidade e genotoxicidade do extrato aquoso de folhas de V. polyanthes utilizando os ensaios de Artemia salina e Allium cepa. Para o ensaio de A. salina, três grupos de 10 larvas foram expostos ao extrato aquoso de folhas de V. polyanthes nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20, 40 e 80 mg/ml. Para o ensaio de A. cepa, 5 bulbos de cebola foram expostas ao extrato aquoso de folhas de V. polyanthes nas concentrações de 10, 20 e 40 mg/ml, e então submetidos a análise macroscópica e microscópica. O ensaio de A. salina sugere que a concentração de 24 mg/ml do extrato de V. polyanthes é capaz de matar 50% dos náuplios; enquanto o ensaio de A. cepa sugere que o extrato aquoso das folhas de V. polyanthes é tóxico em concentrações superiores a 20 mg/ml. O efeito citotóxico nas células da raiz de A. cepa foi observado apenas na concentração de 40 mg/ml. É importante dizer que a concentração de extrato aquoso de folhas de V. polyanthes comumente usada na medicina popular é de 20 mg/ml. Assim, a concentração popular utilizada está muito próxima do limite de toxicidade no modelo de A. salina (24 mg/ml) e é a mesma concentração que apresentou efeito tóxico nas células da raiz de A. cepa (20 mg/ml). Não foi observada atividade genotóxica do extrato aquoso de folhas de V. polyantes nas condições utilizadas neste trabalho. Por causa da ação antiproliferativa e ausência de atividade genotóxica, o extrato aquoso de folhas de V. polyanthes pode ser uma boa fonte natural de compostos antitumorais e pode apresentar potencial para uso na medicina. No entanto, estudos mais detalhados precisam ser realizados para confirmar esse potencial.

9.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 684-691, July-Sept. 2021. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153408

RESUMO

Abstract Plants adjust their shoot growth to acclimate to changing environmental factors, such as to enhanced Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. However, people have ignored that plant roots can also respond to UV-B light. Here, we find the morphology curled wheat roots under UV-B radiation, that we call, "bending roots." The curly region is the transition zone of the root after observed at the cellular level. After exposed to enhanced UV-B radiation for 2 d (10.08 KJ/m2/d), cell size decreased and actin filaments gathered in wheat roots. We also find that H2O2 production increased and that content of the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) increased remarkably. The pharmacological experiment revealed that actin filaments gathered and polymerized into bundles in the wheat root cells after irrigated H2O2 and IAA. These results indicated that actin filaments changed their distribution and formed the "bending root," which was related to H2O2 production and increase in IAA. Overall, actin filaments in wheat root cells could be a subcellular target of UV-B radiation, and its disruption determines root morphology.


Resumo As plantas ajustam o crescimento da parte aérea para se adaptarem a fatores ambientais variáveis, como o aumento da radiação ultravioleta B (UVB). No entanto, as pessoas ignoram que as raízes das plantas também podem responder à luz UVB. Neste estudo, verificamos a morfologia das raízes enroladas de trigo sob radiação UVB, o que chamamos de "raízes dobradas". A região encaracolada é a zona de transição da raiz no nível celular. Depois de exposição à radiação UVB aprimorada por 2 dias (10,08 KJ/m2/d), o tamanho das células diminuiu, e os filamentos de actina se reuniram. Também constatamos que a produção de H2O2 aumentou e que o conteúdo do ácido indol-3-acético (IAA) aumentou notavelmente. O experimento farmacológico revelou que os filamentos de actina se reuniram e polimerizaram em feixes nas células da raiz de trigo após irrigação com H2O2 e IAA. Esses resultados indicam que os filamentos de actina alteraram sua distribuição e formaram a "raiz dobrada", relacionada à produção de H2O2 e ao aumento do IAA. No geral, os filamentos de actina nas células da raiz de trigo podem ser um alvo subcelular da radiação UVB, e sua interrupção determina a morfologia da raiz.

10.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 719-727, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153409

RESUMO

Abstract Six different bread wheat genotypes; two Egyptian commercial varieties (control); Giza-168 and Gemmeiza-11, and four promising lines; L84 and L148, resulted via hybridization and M10 and M34 via radiation mutation program) were rheologically evaluated using extensograph and for protein, analysis using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The radiation mutant M10 and M34 had the highest maximum resistance which is a very good indicator of strong gluten. The amount of gluten content was higher in M10, L148, and M34 compared to the control samples Gz168 and Gm11. Sulfide amino acids (CYS and MET) are slightly higher in M10. The electrophoretic results and amino acid analyzers show that the best technological quality was exhibited by M10. Radiation mutants wheat genotypes have a protein with good characteristics, mainly gluten which is significantly higher compared to control samples. The rheological properties measured as extensograph and gel electrophoresis were much better in irradiated lines M10 and M34.


Resumo Seis diferentes genótipos de trigo de pão, duas variedades comerciais egípcias (controle) - Giza-168 e Gemmeiza-11 - e quatro linhas promissoras - L84 e L148, obtidas via hibridação, e M10 e M34, via programa de mutação por radiação - foram avaliados reologicamente por meio de extensógrafo, enquanto, para proteínas, foram feitas análises utilizando eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida com dodecilsulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE). Os mutantes de radiação M10 e M34 apresentaram a maior resistência máxima, o que é um indicador muito bom de glúten forte. A quantidade de glúten foi maior em M10, L148 e M34 em comparação com as amostras de controle Gz168 e Gm11. Os aminoácidos sulfurados (CYS e MET) são um pouco mais altos no M10. Os resultados eletroforéticos e analisadores de aminoácidos mostram que a melhor qualidade tecnológica foi exibida pelo M10. Os genótipos de trigo mutantes da radiação possuem uma proteína com boas características, principalmente o glúten, que é significativamente maior em comparação às amostras do grupo controle. As propriedades reológicas medidas, como extensógrafo e eletroforese em gel, foram muito melhores nas linhas irradiadas M10 e M34.

11.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 566-573, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154486

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Background: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and immunotherapy improved survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Disparities in treatment access are present in healthcare systems globally. The aim of this study was to analyze survival outcomes of mRCC patients treated with first-line TKIs in the public (PHS) and private (PrS) health system in a Brazilian Cancer Center. Materials and Methods: Records from all mRCC patients treated with first-line TKIs from 2007-2018 were reviewed retrospectively. Categorial variables were compared by Fisher's exact test. Survival was estimated by Kaplan-Maier method and survival curves were compared using the log-rank test. Prognostic factors were adjusted by Cox regression model. Results: Of the 171 eligible patients, 37 (21.6%) were PHS patients and 134 (78.4%) were PrS patients. There were no difference in age, gender, or sites of metastasis. PHS patients had worse performance status (ECOG ≥2, 35.1% vs. 13.5%, p=0.007), poorer risk score (IMDC poor risk, 32.4% vs. 16.4%, p=0.09), and less nephrectomies (73% vs. 92.5%, p=0.003) than PrS patients. Median lines of therapy was one for PHS versus two for PrS patients (p=0.03). Median overall survival (OS) was 16.5 versus 26.5 months (p=0.002) and progression-free survival (PFS), 8.4 versus 11 months (p=0.01) for PHS and PrS patients, respectively. After adjusting for known prognostic factors on multivariate analysis, PHS patients still had a higher risk of death (HR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.01-2.56, p=0.047). Conclusion: Patients with mRCC treated via the PHS had worse overall survival, possibly due to poorer prognosis at presentation and less drug access.

12.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 515-522, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154487

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the erectile function in patients who underwent partial penectomy and identify factors associated with penile functional status. Materials and Methods: We identified patients who underwent partial penectomy due to penile cancer between 2009 and 2014. Clinical and pathological characteristics included patient age at the time of diagnosis, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoking, metabolic syndrome, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status, penile shaft length, tumor size, primary tumor stage (pT), clinical nodal status, and local recurrence. Erectile function was assessed prospectively with the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) at least 3 months after partial penectomy. Results: A total of 81 patients met analysis criteria. At the diagnosis, the median age was 62 years (range from 30 to 88). Median follow-up was 17 months (IQR 7-36). Of total patients, 37 (45%) had T2 or higher disease. Clinically positive nodes were present in 16 (20%) patients and seven (8.6%) developed local recurrence. Fifty patients (62%) had erectile dysfunction (ED) after partial penectomy, 30% had moderate or severe erectile dysfunction scores. Patients with ED versus without ED were similar in baseline characteristics except for age, penile shaft length, and presence of inguinal adenopathy (p <0.05). Multivariate analysis using logistic regression confirmed that older patients, shorter penile shaft length, and clinically positive lymph node were significantly associated with ED. Conclusion: Partial penectomy due to penile cancer provides adequate local control of the disease, however, proper counselling is important especially in relation to ED consequences. Preservation of penile length yields to more optimal erectile recovery.

13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 484-494, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154488

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Prostate cancer is the most common invasive cancer in men. Radical prostatectomy (RP) is a definitive treatment option, but biochemical recurrence can reach 40%. Salvage lymphadenectomy is a relatively recent approach to oligometasis and has been rapidly diffused primarily due to improvement in imaging diagnosis and results showing possibly promising therapy. A systematic literature review was performed in March 2020, according to the PRISMA statement. We excluded studies with patients with suspicion or confirmation of visceral and / or bone metastases. A total of 27 articles were included in the study. All studies evaluated were single arm, and there were no randomized studies in the literature. A total of 1,714 patients received salvage lymphadenectomy after previous treatment for localized prostate cancer. RP was the most used initial therapeutic approach, and relapses were based on PET / CT diagnosis, with Coline-11C being the most widely used radiopharmaceutical. Biochemical response rates ranged from 0% to 80%. The 5 years - Free Survival Biochemical recurrence was analyzed in 16 studies with rates of 0% up to 56.1%. The articles do not present high levels of evidence to draw strong conclusions. However, even if significant rates of biochemical recurrence are not evident in all studies, therapy directed to lymph node metastases may present good oncological results and postpone the onset of systemic therapy. The long-term impact in overall survival and quality of life, as well as the best strategies for case selection remains to be determined.

16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 584-593, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154495

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of the present prospective-randomized study was to compare perioperative outcomes and complications of bipolar and monopolar TURBT for lateral wall-located non-muscle invasive bladder cancers (NMIBC) under obturator nerve block (ONB). Patients and Methods: 80 patients who underwent TURBT for lateral wall-located primary bladder tumors under ONB from March, 2016 to November, 2019 were included in the present study. The patients were randomized equally into two groups; monopolar TUR (M-TURBT) and bipolar TUR (B-TURBT). The primary and secondary outcomes were safety (obturator jerk and bladder perforation) and efficacy (complete tumor resection and sampling of the deep muscle tissue). Results: Obturator jerk was detected in 2 patients (5%) in M-TURBT while obturator jerk was not observed during B-TURBT (p=0.494). Bladder perforation was not observed in both groups. All of the patients underwent complete tumor resection. There was no significant difference in muscle tissue sampling (67.5% vs. 72.5%, p=0.626) and thermal tissue damage rates (12.5% vs. 25%, p=0.201). The majority of complications were low-grade and the differences in Clavien grade 1-3 complications between groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: In the treatment of lateral-wall located NMIBCs, either M-TURBT or B-TURBT can be safely and effectively performed by combining spinal anesthesia with ONB. Even so, it should be taken into consideration that low-grade postoperative hemorrhagic complications may occur in patients who undergo M-TURBT.

17.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 503-514, May-June 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154498

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose: Proteomic biomarkers have been emerging as alternative methods to the gold standard procedures of cystoscopy and urine cytology in the diagnosis and surveillance of bladder cancer (BC). This review aims to update the state of the art of proteomics research and diagnosis in BC. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the current literature related to BC research on urinary, tissue, blood and cell line proteomics, using the Pubmed database. Findings: Two urinary protein biomarkers are FDA-approved (NMP22® and BTA® tests), only if performed along with cystoscopy for surveillance after initial diagnosis, but not in the primary diagnostic setting due to high false-positive rates in case of infections, stones and hematuria. There are a great number of non-FDA approved proteins being studied, with good preliminary results; panels of proteins seem valuable tools to be refined in ongoing trials. Blood proteins are a bigger challenge, because of the complexity of the serum protein profile and the scarcity of blood proteomic studies in BC. Previous studies with the BC tissue proteome do not correlate well with the urinary proteome, likely due to the tumor heterogeneity. Cell line proteomic research helps in the understanding of basic mechanisms that drive BC development and progression; the main difficulty is culturing low-grade tumors in vitro, which represents the majority of BC tumors in clinical practice. Conclusion: Protein biomarkers have promising value in the diagnosis, surveillance and prognostic of BC. Urine is the most appropriate body fluid for biomarker research in BC due to its easiness of sampling, stability and enrichment of shed and secreted tumor-specific proteins. Panels of biomarkers may exhibit higher sensitivity than single proteins in the diagnosis of BC at larger populations due to clinical and tumor heterogeneity. Prospective clinical trials are warranted to validate the relevance of proteomic data in the clinical management of BC.

18.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 558-565, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154500

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose: Incidence and mortality of prostate cancer (PCa) are still increasing in developing countries. Limited access to the health system or more aggressive disease are potential reasons for this. Ethnic and social differences in developed countries seem to make inappropriate to extrapolate data from other centers. We aim to report the epidemiological profile of a PSA-screened population from a cancer center in Brazil. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively selected 9.692 men enrolled in a PCa prevention program, comprising total PSA level and digital rectal examination at the first appointment, associated with complementary tests when necessary. Men aged over 40 years-old were included after shared decision-making process. Prostate biopsy (TRUS) was performed when clinically suspected for PCa. After the diagnosis, patients underwent appropriate treatment. Results: TRUS was performed in 5.5% of men and PCa incidence was 2.6%. Overall ratio between number of patients who needed to be screened in order to diagnose one cancer was 38.9 patients, with 2.1 biopsies performed to diagnose a cancer. Positive predictive value (PPV) of TRUS biopsy in this strategy was 47.2%, varying from 38.5% (<50 years-old) to 60% (>80 years-old). We evidenced 70 patients (27.9%) classified as low risk tumors, 74 (29.5%) as intermediate risk, and 107 (42.6%) as high-risk disease. Conclusions: PSA-screening remains controversial in literature. In front of a huge miscegenated people and considering the big proportion of high-risk PCa, even in young men diagnosed with the disease, it is imperative to inform patients and health providers about these data particularities in Brazil.

19.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 682-683, May-June 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154502

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose: Enucleation of a large prostate is the best surgical choice for patients refractory to clinical treatment (1,2). Since the first robot-assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP) was described (3,4), some technical modifications (5-7) and different approaches to reach the adenoma have been proposed (8,9). The aim of this video is to demonstrate three different techniques of RASP. Materials and Methods: The first procedure begins with a transversal incision over the bladder neck, the second is a transvesical approach and the last one is a Retzius-sparing RASP. All techniques were performed with a vesico-urethral anastomosis. Results: Three patients underwent RASP, each one with a different approach. Patients presented mean age of 66±4.4 years, PSA baseline level of 7.8±3ng/mL, IPSS score of 17.7±4.5, maximum urine flow of 8.3±1.5mL/seg and 122.3±11.2cm3 of prostate volume. The mean operative time was 63±8 minutes, estimated blood loss of 106.7±11.5mL, prostate weight of the surgical specimen of 106.3±8 grams and 1 day of length of stay. No continuous bladder irrigation was required and there was no complication. The mean postoperative PSA and IPSS were 0.7±0.3ng/mL, 4.7±1.5. The maximum urine flow raised to 20±4.4mL/seg. Conclusions: RASP with vesico-urethral anastomosis allowed minimal blood loss, short length of stay and great functional outcomes. All the three approaches allowed to perform this technique in a safe way, while showing different alternatives to reach the adenoma.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA