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1.
J Affect Disord ; 350: 539-543, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale (WHODAS 2.0) have been widely used to measure functional impairment and disability. To ensure that the scores from these two scales are practically exchangeable across diseases, therapies, and care programmes, the current study aimed to examine the linkage of the WHODAS 2.0 with the SDS and develop a simple and reliable conversion table for the two scales in people with mental disorders. METHODS: A total of 798 patients (mean age = 36.1, SD = 12.7) were recruited from outpatient clinics of the Institute of Mental Health, and the Community Wellness Clinic in Singapore. Using a single-group design, an equipercentile equating method with log-linear smoothing was used to establish a conversion table from the SDS to the WHODAS 2.0 and vice versa. RESULTS: The conversion table showed that the scores were consistent for the entire range of scores when the scores were converted either from the SDS to the WHODAS 2.0 or from the WHODAS 2.0 to the SDS. The agreement between the WHODAS 2.0's raw and converted scores and SDS's raw and converted scores were interpreted as good with intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.711 and 0.725, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study presents a simple and reliable method for converting the SDS scores to the WHODAS 2.0 scores and vice versa, enabling interchangeable use of data across these two disability measures.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Adulto , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Avaliação da Deficiência , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Saúde Mental , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Psicometria
2.
PLoS One ; 18(11): e0294908, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38033104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on the reliability and validity of the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) in an Asian patient population with mental and physical disorders. The current study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the WHODAS 2.0 among patients with schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and diabetes. METHODS: A total of 1076 patients (M = 40.9 years, SD = 14.7) were recruited from the outpatient clinics of a tertiary psychiatric hospital and a primary care clinic. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability, structural validity, convergent validity, agreement, and floor and ceiling effects were examined. RESULTS: Our confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that the 1-factor model fits our data. Multigroup CFA demonstrated metric and scalar invariance, indicating the scores can be compared across the four conditions. The WHODAS 2.0 scale had excellent reliability in the overall sample and good to excellent reliability across conditions. The test-retest reliability and agreement between self-administered and interviewer-administered modes were good. The WHODAS 2.0 scores had moderate to strong correlations with the Social and Occupational Functioning Scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale scores in the overall sample and across four conditions. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that the WHODAS 2.0 is a valid tool to measure functioning and disability in those with schizophrenia, anxiety, depression, and diabetes in an Asian patient population.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Singapura/epidemiologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Avaliação da Deficiência , Psicometria , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Organização Mundial da Saúde
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37216213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to map the disease-specific Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SQLS) onto the three- and five-level EuroQol five-dimension (EQ-5D-3 L and EQ-5D-5 L), Health Utility Index Mark 3 (HUI3) and Short Form six-dimensional (SF-6D) preference-based instruments to inform future cost-utility analyses for treatment of patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Data from 251 outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders was included for analysis. Ordinary least square (OLS), Tobit and beta regression mixture models were employed to estimate the utility scores. Three regression models with a total of 66 specifications were determined by goodness of fit and predictive indices. Distribution of the original data to the distributions of the data generated using the preferred estimated models were then compared. RESULTS: EQ-5D-3 L and EQ-5D-5 L were best predicted by the OLS model, including SQLS domain scores, domain-squared scores, age, and gender as explanatory predictors. The models produced the best performance index and resembled most closely with the observed EQ-5D data. HUI3 and SF-6D were best predicted by the OLS and Tobit model respectively. CONCLUSION: The current study developed mapping models for converting SQLS scores into generic utility scores, which can be used for economic evaluation among patients with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Psicometria/métodos
4.
J Ment Health ; 32(1): 190-197, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the economic burden of mental disorders in multiethnic Asian populations. AIMS: The study aimed to estimate the economic cost of mental disorders in Singapore using data from the second Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS 2016). METHOD: The SMHS 2016 is a nationally representative survey of the Singapore Resident population aged 18 years and above. Data on mental disorders and healthcare resource utilization were obtained from the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the adapted version of the Client Service Receipt Inventory. RESULTS: The costs of visits to a restructured hospital doctor, other private health workers, accident and emergency, and intermediate and long-term care services and productivity losses tend to be much higher in those with mental disorders than those without mental disorders. The average annual excess cost associated with mental disorders per person was estimated to be S$3938.9 (95% CI, S$-100.8-S$7978.7). Extrapolation of these excess costs to the population suggests that the incremental costs of mental disorders in Singapore is about S$1.7 billion per year. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence of the substantial burden of mental disorders on Singaporean society - both in terms of direct medical costs and loss of productivity costs.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Adulto , Humanos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Singapura/epidemiologia , Estresse Financeiro , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272745, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947580

RESUMO

This study evaluated the knowledge of diabetes mellitus and predictors of the level of diabetes knowledge among the general public of Singapore. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were used to evaluate the fit of different factor models for the diabetes knowledge questionnaire. Multiple linear regressions were performed to determine the sociodemographic characteristics associated with diabetes knowledge. The final factor model identified three domains for diabetes knowledge: general knowledge, diabetes specific knowledge and causes of diabetes, and complications of untreated diabetes. Overall knowledge scores were 23.8 ± 2.4 for general diabetes knowledge, 2.3 ± 0.8 for diabetes specific knowledge, 2.3 ± 1.2 for causes, and 5.2 ± 1.2 for complications of untreated diabetes. Patients with diabetes were more knowledgeable than adults without diabetes in the population. While the general public in Singapore has adequate knowledge of diabetes, misconceptions were identified in both groups which underscores the need to tailor specific educational initiatives to reduce these diabetes knowledge gaps.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 203, 2022 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35305602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is pertinent to focus on chronic medical condition (CMC) comorbidity with mental health conditions (MHC) as their co-occurrence has significant cost and health implications. However, current evidence on co-occurrence of MHC with CMC is mixed and mostly from Western settings. Therefore, our study aimed to (i) describe the association between MHC and total healthcare expenditure, (ii) examine the association between CMC and total healthcare expenditure and (iii) examine determinants of total and different types of healthcare expenditure in respondents with and without MHC in an Asian setting. METHODS: The data from Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS) 2016, a nationwide epidemiological survey, were linked with the National claims record (from 2017 to 2019). Multivariable Generalized Linear Models (GLM) were used to examine the association between MHC and total and different types of healthcare expenditure. RESULTS: A total of 3077 survey respondents were included in current analysis. Respondents with MHC had a lower mean age of 38.6 years as compared to those without MHC (47.1 years). MHC was associated with increased total healthcare expenditure after adjusting for covariates (b = 0.508, p < 0.05). In respondents with MHC, presence of CMC increased the total healthcare expenditure by 35% as compared to 40% increase in those without MHC. Interestingly, 35-49 years age group with MHC had almost 3 times higher total healthcare expenditure and 7.5 times higher inpatient expenditure as compared to the 18-34 years age group. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights variations in association of CMC and age with total healthcare expenditure in those with versus without MHC in an Asian setting. Practical recommendations include appropriate planning and resource allocation for early diagnosis and management of MHC, proactive screening for CMC in those with MHC and addressing the dual issues of treatment gap and stigma to facilitate early help seeking and prevent episodic, costly healthcare utilization.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Comorbidade , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 451, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence of mapping clinical instruments to a generic preference-based instrument in Asian patient populations. The current study aims to map the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8) onto the EuroQol Five-Dimension (EQ-5D), the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) and the Short Form Six-Dimension (SF-6D) which helps to inform future cost-utility analyses of treatments for depression. METHODS: A total of 249 participants who had completed PHQ-8, EQ-5D, SF-6D and HUI3 questionnaires were included in the analyses. A beta regression mixture model was used to map the utility scores as a function of PHQ-8 total scores, PHQ-squared, age and gender. The predictive accuracy of the models was examined using mean absolute error and root mean square error. RESULTS: The results were compared against two common regression methods including Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and Tobit regression models. The mean age of the sample was 36.2 years (SD = 11.1). The mean EQ-5D-3L, EQ-5D-5L, HUI3 and SF-6D utility scores were 0.615, 0.709, 0.461 and 0.607, respectively. The EQ-5D-3L, EQ-5D-5L and SF-6D utility scores were best predicted by the beta mixture regression model consisting of PHQ-8 total sores, PHQ-squared, and covariates including age and gender. The HUI3 was best predicted by the OLS regression model. CONCLUSIONS: The current study provides important evidence to clinicians and researchers about the mapping algorithms that can be used in economic evaluation among patients with depression.


Assuntos
Depressão , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 80, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Short Form Health Survey (SF-12v2) is an increasingly popular measure of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Singapore. In order to examine whether the SF-12v2 was appropriate for use in the population, the factor structure and validity of the English, Mandarin, and Malay versions were assessed in a representative sample of the general population of Singapore. METHODS: 6126 respondents were recruited for the Singapore Mental Health Study 2016 (SMHS 2016), a cross-sectional and population-based survey. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted to examine the fit of a two-factor model for the SF-12v2 within a representative sample and amongst the different language (English, Mandarin, Malay) subgroups. Multiple-group CFAs (MGCFA) were conducted to test measurement invariance across the different languages, ethnicities, and chronic illnesses subgroups. CFA-generated latent factor scores (FSCORE command in MPlus) were also compared with the composite scores derived from the developer's scoring method via correlations. Sociodemographic correlates of the latent physical and mental health scores were explored. RESULTS: CFA results within the full sample supported a two-factor model (RMSEA = 0.044; CFI = 0.991; TLI = 0.988; SRMR = 0.044) in which physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain and general health items loaded onto a latent physical health factor, while role emotional, mental health, social functioning, and vitality items loaded onto a latent mental health factor. Physical and mental health factors were allowed to correlate, unlike the developer's orthogonal scoring method. All standardized loadings were high and statistically significant. Both factors had high internal consistency. CFA within subsamples of English, Mandarin, and Malay languages indicated similar findings. MGCFA results indicate that measurement invariance held across the different languages, ethnicities, and those with and without chronic illnesses. CONCLUSION: The present study identified a two-factor (physical and mental health) structure within the general population and amongst the three different languages and demonstrated the measurement invariance of SF-12v2 across different subgroups. Findings indicate that algorithm-derived PCS and MCS should be interpreted with caution as they may result in inaccurate conclusions regarding the relationships between HRQoL and its correlates. Future studies using the SF-12v2 within the general population of Singapore should consider utilizing the factor structure put forth in the present study to obtain more appropriate estimates of HRQoL.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Etnicidade/psicologia , Etnicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Singapura/epidemiologia , Traduções
9.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 67, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) face high caregiving burden, distress related to responsive behaviours, and psychiatric morbidity. The present paper examines how these are associated with healthcare utilization of the PWD in Singapore. METHODS: The data of 399 caregiver-PWD dyads were extracted from a national cross-sectional survey. PWD completed the Client Service Receipt Inventory, which provided information on their healthcare utilization (i.e. emergency service use, hospital admission, length of stay in hospital, and number of outpatient visits) within a frame of 3 months. The Zarit Burden Interview  (ZBI), Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q), and Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) were administered to caregivers. Information on severity of dementia, physical multimorbidity of the PWD, household composition, and caregivers' sociodemographic characteristics such as age, gender, and education were collected. Variables significantly associated with healthcare utilization in the univariate analyses were selected and included in the final regression models. Emergency service use and hospital admission were investigated using logistic regression analyses, whilst negative binomial models were utilized for length of stay in hospital and number of outpatient visits. RESULTS: After adjusting for significant correlates such as dementia severity and multimorbidity, only caregiver distress from responsive behaviours was positively associated with emergency room utilization, while caregiver burden was positively associated with length of hospital stay in the final regression model. Psychiatric morbidity was associated with healthcare utilization outcomes at the univariate level but did not reach statistical significance in final models. CONCLUSION: The study identifies caregiver variables associated with the healthcare utilization of PWD. Policy makers and healthcare professionals should provide interventions to ease burden and distress amongst caregivers of PWD.


Assuntos
Fardo do Cuidador , Demência , Cuidadores , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/terapia , Humanos , Morbidade , Singapura/epidemiologia
10.
Early Interv Psychiatry ; 15(6): 1531-1541, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254283

RESUMO

AIM: Neurostimulation techniques are effective treatments for major depressive disorders (MDD). However, the optimal sequence of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as part of antidepressant treatment algorithm is unclear. We examined the cost-effectiveness of ECT and TMS in MDD. METHODS: A decision-analytic model was developed to determine total costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for 10 strategies. Each strategy comprised four treatment lines with ECT and TMS incorporated as second, third, or fourth line. A scenario analysis that explored the cost-effectiveness of maintenance approach by continuing ECT and TMS after acute treatment was performed. RESULTS: In the base case, fourth-line TMS after three preceding trials of antidepressants was least costly at US$ 5523 yielding 1.424 QALYs. Compared with this strategy, fourth-line ECT and third-line TMS followed by ECT were cost-effective with ICERs of US$ 7601 per QALY gained and US$ 11 388 per QALY gained, respectively. In the scenario analysis where continuation treatments of ECT and TMS were provided, third-line TMS followed by ECT was cost-effective, with an ICER of US$ 17 198 per QALY gained. Effectiveness of ECT and cost of managing severe depression were influential parameters affecting the cost-effectiveness results. CONCLUSIONS: In acute treatment of MDD, fourth-line ECT was the most cost-effective strategy. In maintenance treatment, the strategy that incorporated third-line TMS and fourth-line ECT was cost-effective. The overall findings confirmed the value of neurostimulation therapies which should be offered early in the process of managing depression.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Eletroconvulsoterapia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Eletroconvulsoterapia/métodos , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos
11.
Singapore Med J ; 61(5): 246-253, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197373

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As populations age globally and the burden of chronic illnesses increases, valid measures of disability are needed for assessment in the older adult population. The aim of the current analysis was to explore the psychometric properties and validity of the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) in an epidemiological survey of older adults in Singapore. METHODS: The study comprised secondary data analysis of the Well-being of the Singapore Elderly study. Inclusion criteria for the study were Singapore residents (Singapore citizens and permanent residents) aged 60 years and above. The 12-item interviewer-administered version of the WHODAS 2.0 was used to assess disability in the study. Data on cognition, health status and sociodemographic information were collected. Depression was assessed using the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy. RESULTS: The study found a one-factor model solution for WHODAS 2.0 with a high internal consistency of all items. The internal consistency for the overall scale was 0.92. The WHODAS 2.0 score positively correlated with multimorbidity, perceived overall health status, depression and subsyndromal depression. There was a significant inverse association between the WHODAS 2.0 score and the cognitive status. After adjustment for all sociodemographic variables in the multiple linear regression analysis, these measures remained significantly associated with the WHODAS 2.0 score. CONCLUSION: WHODAS 2.0 was found to be a valid measure of disability among older adults. However, further research is required to determine its usefulness as a responsive instrument that can detect change following interventions.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Entrevistas como Assunto/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ásia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Singapura , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 267, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of clinicians and healthcare workers providing treatment to patients with psychiatric disorders, has shifted over time from focusing on the symptoms alone towards functional improvement. In this study, we aimed to compare the subjective quality of life (QoL) among patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: QoL scores were collected using 36-item Short Form Survey Instrument. QoL scores were compared between 203 outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 185 outpatients with MDD using analysis of covariance. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale was administered to assess the severity of psychiatric symptoms among patients with schizophrenia and Personal Health Questionnaire-8 items was utilized to assess the severity of depressive symptoms among patients with MDD. The correlation coefficient (r) of socio-demographic factors and core psychiatric symptoms with QoL were analyzed using multiple linear regression. RESULTS: As compared to patients with MDD, patients with schizophrenia reported better health scores in all QoL subdomains, except for physical function (PF). Among patients with schizophrenia, old age was correlated with better mental health (MH, r = 0.35) and PF (r = 0.37). Compared to those of Chinese ethnicity, those of Malay, Indian and other ethnicity were correlated with worse PF (r = - 0.43 for Malays; r = - 0.30 for Indians and r = - 0.34 for other ethnicities). Longer duration of mental illness was correlated with worse MH (r = - 0.30), worse PF (r = - 0.38) and worse scores on role limitations due to physical health problems (RP, r = - 0.30). Among patients with MDD, older age was correlated with worse PF (r = - 0.33) and patients without comorbid physical illness reported less bodily pain (r = 0.45) and better general health (r = 0.34). Moreover, all psychiatric symptoms among patients with schizophrenia were negatively correlated with QoL, but the strength of the correlation was less than that between depressive symptoms and QoL among patients with MDD. CONCLUSION: Patients with schizophrenia generally reported better QoL as compared to patients with MDD. The correlates of QoL differed between patients with schizophrenia and patients with MDD. This study adds to the understanding of QoL among patients with mental illnesses and may aid in better management of these patients with different psychiatric diagnoses.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Comorbidade , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 422, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281269

RESUMO

Young people experience high rates of mental health issues. However, many do not seek professional help. In order to encourage help-seeking behavior among young people, it is important to ensure that services are youth-friendly. This study aims to evaluate the Community Health Assessment Team (CHAT)'s mental health assessment service model using the World Health Organization (WHO) youth-friendly health service framework of accessibility, acceptability, and appropriateness (AAA), and to ascertain the extent to which the CHAT service model is youth-friendly. Three hundred young people aged 16-30 years, who had gone through CHAT mental health assessments, completed a 27-item questionnaire. Majority rated the items in the questionnaire favorably. Our results suggest that majority of the young people who accessed CHAT mental health assessment service found it to be youth-friendly.

14.
Singapore Med J ; 60(1): 22-30, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29774358

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The current study aimed to estimate the overall prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of successful ageing, as defined by Rowe and Kahn, among a national sample of multiethnic adults aged 60 years and older in Singapore. METHODS: Data from older adults who participated in the Well-being of the Singapore Elderly study was analysed. Successful ageing was defined with five indicators: no major diseases; no disability; high cognitive functioning; high physical functioning; and active engagement with life. RESULTS: The prevalence of successful ageing was 25.4% in this older population. Older adults aged 75-84 years and ≥ 85 years had 0.3 times and 0.1 times the odds of successful ageing, respectively, than those aged 60-74 years. Compared to older adults of Chinese ethnicity, those of Malay (odds ratio [OR] 0.6) and Indian (OR 0.5) ethnicities were less likely to be associated with successful ageing. Older adults with lower education levels, who had no formal education (OR 0.2), some schooling but did not complete primary education (OR 0.4) or only primary education (OR 0.5), had lower odds of ageing successfully than those with tertiary education. CONCLUSION: Older adults in Singapore tend to have much more active engagement with life as compared to their counterparts from other countries. Further research into this population is needed, both in terms of qualitative research to gain a better understanding of successful ageing from the older adult's perspective, as well as longitudinal studies that explore behavioural determinants of successful ageing.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Envelhecimento , Nível de Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Pessoas com Deficiência , Etnicidade , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Singapura , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 47(7): 243-252, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120432

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Literature has shown that individuals with various psychiatric disorders experience a lower quality of life (QoL). However, few have examined QoL across disorders. The current study explored differences in QoL and symptom severity across 4 psychiatric diagnostic groups: anxiety disorders (including obsessive compulsive disorder [OCD]), depressive disorders, schizophrenia, and pathological gambling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data analysed was from a previous study that examined the prevalence of hoarding symptoms among outpatients (n = 500) in a tertiary psychiatric hospital in Singapore. Measures utilised included the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction QuestionnaireShort Form (Q-LES-Q-SF). Sociodemographic information and details on type and number of comorbidities were also collected. RESULTS: The depressive disorder group had the highest level of depressive and anxiety symptoms and the lowest QoL whereas; the schizophrenia group had the lowest level of depressive symptoms and the highest QoL. Age and employment status were the only sociodemographic correlates which were significantly associated with QoL. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, only the type of mental disorder was found to have a significant effect in explaining BAI, BDI-II and Q-LES-Q-SF. CONCLUSION: Findings offer insight in terms of the burden associated with the various disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Transtorno Depressivo , Jogo de Azar , Qualidade de Vida , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Comorbidade , Demografia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Singapura/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 267: 516-527, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980132

RESUMO

Illness perceptions are beliefs that patients have about their illness. These beliefs play an important role in influencing their behaviour and outcomes. This study examined the factor structure and correlates of the Illness Perception Questionnaire Mental Health (IPQ-MH) among patients with mental illness in a multi-ethnic Asian sample. 400 participants with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, mood or anxiety disorder were recruited from a tertiary psychiatric institution and administered the IPQ-MH. Data on sociodemographic variables were also collected. A multi-factor structure was identified for the Identity, Structure and Cause subscale of the IPQ-MH. Age was consistently associated with a positive perception of illness across all three disorders; women had a more positive perception of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders as compared to men while those of Indian ethnicity had a more negative perception of their mood disorder as compared to those of Chinese ethnicity. Those with lower education had a poorer understanding of their illness among those with mood disorder, and a poorer understanding of their illness and the effectiveness of treatment among those with anxiety disorder. The study identified specific groups which can be targeted through tailored and culturally relevant psychoeducational interventions to enhance their understanding and perception of mental illness.


Assuntos
Povo Asiático/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Etnicidade/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Povo Asiático/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Psychiatry Res ; 266: 206-211, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29870958

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study aims to describe the dental caries experience, treatment needs, and experience of dry mouth of 191 long-term psychiatric inpatients in Singapore. Medical history, dental caries experience [represented by the Decayed Missing or Filled Teeth index (DMFT)], salivary flow, and treatment needs were recorded. Information on brushing, pain (when eating), and xerostomia was gathered. Bivariate analysis was used to examine the associations of DMFT, saliva flow, the presence of salivary gland hypofunction (SGH), and xerostomia. Simple linear regression was used to examine the association between SGH and DMFT. The sample comprised 143 men (74.9%) and 48 women (25.1%), aged 24 to 80 years old. 169 patients (88.5%) had schizophrenia. DMFT ranged from 0 to 32, with a mean of 21.6 (SD 9.7). Mean DMFT scores were significantly higher among males and older patients. 77 of 176 patients (43.8%) were found to have SGH. SGH was associated with a higher mean DMFT. Those taking classical antipsychotics and anticholinergics had significantly lower mean saliva flow and tended to have SGH. 107 of 165 patients (64.8%) were found to experience xerostomia. Long-term psychiatric inpatients in Singapore have poor oral health, unmet treatment needs, and suffer from dry mouth.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/fisiopatologia , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Xerostomia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/psicologia , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Saliva/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Singapura , Xerostomia/epidemiologia , Xerostomia/psicologia
18.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 18(1): 29, 2018 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29544448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measures of mental well-being and positive mental health (PMH) have been largely developed and used in Western populations, however, data on representative Asian communities are lacking. Using data from a population sample, this study sought to establish psychometric properties and norms of the PMH Instrument (PMH-I), a measure of positive mental health developed in Singapore. METHODS: We conducted a nationally representative survey among 1925 adults aged 18-79 years of Chinese, Malay, Indian or other ethnicity. Participants reported socio-demographic characteristics and completed the PMH-I along with measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychological distress. Construct validity of the PMH-I was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis and concurrent validity was tested through correlation with other psychological measures. Normative PMH values and differences in population subgroups were estimated. RESULTS: The six-factor-higher-order structure of the PMH-I comprising six subscales of general coping, emotional support, spirituality, interpersonal skills, personal growth and autonomy and global affect was confirmed. Concurrent validity was shown through significant positive correlation of the total PMH score and its subscales with HRQoL and an inverse correlation with psychological distress. Weighted age, gender and ethnicity-specific norms were derived for the Singapore population. Total PMH was significantly higher in participants aged over 40 years as compared with 18-29 year olds and in non-Chinese ethnic groups as compared with Chinese. These differences were observed for all PMH-I subscales, with the exception of emotional support and interpersonal skills score differences by age. In contrast, gender, marital status, and education level were significantly associated with some of the subscales, but not with total PMH. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the psychometric properties of the PMH-I in a multi-ethnic Asian population sample. The generalizable population-based norms support the application of the PMH-I for measuring mental health and assessing its determinants within the Singapore general population.


Assuntos
Povo Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Povo Asiático/psicologia , China/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Malásia/etnologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Singapura , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMJ Open ; 8(3): e020285, 2018 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to establish the prevalence of stroke, and to explore the association between stroke prevalence and sociodemographic and health factors, disability, cognitive functioning and care needs among older adult residents in Singapore. SETTING: Data were drawn from the Well-being of the Singapore Elderly study-a cross-sectional epidemiological survey conducted from 2012 to 2013 on older adults living in Singapore. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were Singapore residents (citizens and permanent residents) 60 years and above who were living in Singapore during the survey period . Older adult residents who were institutionalised were also included in this study. Those who were not living in Singapore or who were not contactable were excluded from the study. The response rate was 65.6 % (2565/3913). A total population sample of 2562 participants completed the survey. Participants comprised 43.6% males and 56.4% females. The sample comprised 39.4% Chinese, 29.1% Malay, 30.1% Indian and 1.4% other ethnicities . PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: History of stroke, along with other health and mental health conditions, disability and cognitive functioning, were determined by self-report. RESULTS: Weighted stroke prevalence was 7.6% among older adults aged 60 and above. At a multivariate level, Malay ethnicity (OR 0.41, p=0.012, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.82), hypertension (OR 4.58, p=0.001, 95% CI 1.84 to 11.40), heart trouble (OR 2.45, p=0.006, 95% CI 1.30 to 4.63), diabetes (OR 2.60, p=0.001, 95% CI 1.49 to 4.53) and dementia (OR 3.57, p=0.002, 95% CI 1.57 to 8.12) were associated with stroke prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Several findings of this study were consistent with previous reports. Given that Singapore's population is ageing rapidly, our findings may indicate the need to review existing support services for stroke survivors and their caregivers. Future research could investigate the association between various sociodemographic and health conditions and stroke prevalence to confirm some of the findings of this study.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Demência/complicações , Complicações do Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus , Etnicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Singapura/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
20.
BMC Psychiatry ; 18(1): 27, 2018 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29385985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of caring for an older adult can be a form of stress and influence caregivers' daily lives and health. Previous studies have reported that resilience and social support play an important role in reducing physical and psychological burden in caregivers. Thus, the present study aimed to examine whether perceived social support served as a possible protective factor of burden among caregivers of older adults in Singapore using moderation and mediation effects' models. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 285 caregivers providing care to older adults aged 60 years and above who were diagnosed with physical and/or mental illness in Singapore. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) was used to measure resilience and burden was measured by the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) was used to measure perceived social support. Hayes' PROCESS macro was used to test moderation and mediation effects of perceived social support in the relationship between resilience and burden after controlling for sociodemographic variables. Indirect effects were tested using bootstrapped confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: The mean scores observed were CD-RISC: 70.8/100 (SD = 15.1), MSPSS: 62.2/84 (SD = 12.2), and ZBI: 23.2/88 (SD = 16.0) respectively. While perceived social support served as a full mediator between resilience and caregiver burden (ß = - 0.14, 95% CI -0.224 to - 0.072, p < 0.05), it did not show a significant moderating effect. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived social support mediates the association between resilience and caregiver burden among caregivers of older adults in Singapore. It is crucial for healthcare professionals, particularly those who interact and deliver services to assist caregivers, to promote and identify supportive family and friends' network that may help to address caregiver burden.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Apoio Social , Adaptação Psicológica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Singapura
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