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1.
Am J Epidemiol ; 192(5): 703-713, 2023 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36173743

RESUMO

Arterial blood oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2)) may be differentially less accurate for people with darker skin pigmentation, which could potentially affect the course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment. We analyzed pulse oximeter accuracy and its association with COVID-19 treatment outcomes using electronic health record data from Sutter Health, a large, mixed-payer, integrated health-care delivery system in Northern California. We analyzed 2 cohorts: 1) 43,753 non-Hispanic White (NHW) or non-Hispanic Black/African-American (NHB) adults with concurrent arterial blood gas oxygen saturation/SpO2 measurements taken between January 2020 and February 2021; and 2) 8,735 adults who went to a hospital emergency department with COVID-19 between July 2020 and February 2021. Pulse oximetry systematically overestimated blood oxygenation by 1% more in NHB individuals than in NHW individuals. For people with COVID-19, this was associated with lower admission probability (-3.1 percentage points), dexamethasone treatment (-3.1 percentage points), and supplemental oxygen treatment (-4.5 percentage points), as well as increased time to treatment: 37.2 minutes before dexamethasone initiation and 278.5 minutes before initiation of supplemental oxygen. These results call for additional investigation of pulse oximeters and suggest that current guidelines for development, testing, and calibration of these devices should be revisited, investigated, and revised.


Assuntos
Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Dexametasona , Equidade em Saúde , Adulto , Humanos , COVID-19/terapia , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Oximetria/métodos , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde
2.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1882, 2022 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36217102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is increasingly recognized that policies have played a role in both alleviating and exacerbating the health and economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. There has been limited systematic evaluation of variation in U.S. local COVID-19-related policies. This study introduces the U.S. COVID-19 County Policy (UCCP) Database, whose objective is to systematically gather, characterize, and assess variation in U.S. county-level COVID-19-related policies. METHODS: In January-March 2021, we collected an initial wave of cross-sectional data from government and media websites for 171 counties in 7 states on 22 county-level COVID-19-related policies within 3 policy domains that are likely to affect health: (1) containment/closure, (2) economic support, and (3) public health. We characterized the presence and comprehensiveness of policies using univariate analyses. We also examined the correlation of policies with one another using bivariate Spearman's correlations. Finally, we examined geographical variation in policies across and within states. RESULTS: There was substantial variation in the presence and comprehensiveness of county policies during January-March 2021. For containment and closure policies, the percent of counties with no restrictions ranged from 0% (for public events) to more than half for public transportation (67.8%), hair salons (52.6%), and religious gatherings (52.0%). For economic policies, 76.6% of counties had housing support, while 64.9% had utility relief. For public health policies, most were comprehensive, with 70.8% of counties having coordinated public information campaigns, and 66.7% requiring masks outside the home at all times. Correlations between containment and closure policies tended to be positive and moderate (i.e., coefficients 0.4-0.59). There was variation within and across states in the number and comprehensiveness of policies. CONCLUSIONS: This study introduces the UCCP Database, presenting granular data on local governments' responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. We documented substantial variation within and across states on a wide range of policies at a single point in time. By making these data publicly available, this study supports future research that can leverage this database to examine how policies contributed to and continue to influence pandemic-related health and socioeconomic outcomes and disparities. The UCCP database is available online and will include additional time points for 2020-2021 and additional counties nationwide.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Políticas , Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 256, 2021 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increased recognition in clinical settings of the importance of documenting, understanding, and addressing patients' social determinants of health (SDOH) to improve health and address health inequities. This study evaluated a pilot of a standardized SDOH screening questionnaire and workflow in an ambulatory clinic within a large integrated health network in Northern California. METHODS: The pilot screened for SDOH needs using an 11-question Epic-compatible paper questionnaire assessing eight SDOH and health behavior domains: financial resource, transportation, stress, depression, intimate partner violence, social connections, physical activity, and alcohol consumption. Eligible patients for the pilot receiving a Medicare wellness, adult annual, or new patient visits during a five-week period (February-March, 2020), and a comparison group from the same time period in 2019 were identified. Sociodemographic data (age, sex, race/ethnicity, and payment type), visit type, length of visit, and responses to SDOH questions were extracted from electronic health records, and a staff experience survey was administered. The evaluation was guided by the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. RESULTS: Two-hundred eighty-nine patients were eligible for SDOH screening. Responsiveness by domain ranged from 55 to 67%, except for depression. Half of patients had at least one identified social need, the most common being stress (33%), physical activity (22%), alcohol (12%), and social connections (6%). Physical activity needs were identified more in females (81% vs. 19% in males, p < .01) and at new patient/transfer visits (48% vs. 13% at Medicare wellness and 38% at adult wellness visits, p < .05). Average length of visit was 39.8 min, which was 1.7 min longer than that in 2019. Visit lengths were longer among patients 65+ (43.4 min) and patients having public insurance (43.6 min). Most staff agreed that collecting SDOH data was relevant and accepted the SDOH questionnaire and workflow but highlighted opportunities for improvement in training and connecting patients to resources. CONCLUSION: Use of evidence-based SDOH screening questions and associated workflow was effective in gathering patient SDOH information and identifying social needs in an ambulatory setting. Future studies should use qualitative data to understand patient and staff experiences with collecting SDOH information in healthcare settings.


Assuntos
Iniquidades em Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Fluxo de Trabalho
4.
Nurse Lead ; 19(6): 571-575, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539261

RESUMO

Devastating disparities in COVID-19 infection and outcomes among socioeconomically marginalized groups have resulted in a public outcry to address longstanding societal inequities that have contributed to the present situation. Nurse leaders have an opportunity and an obligation in this moment to lend their skills as scientists, innovators, advocates, and educators to lead in these efforts, advancing health equity for all.

5.
Health Equity ; 5(1): 476-483, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34316531

RESUMO

Purpose: The coronavirus pandemic has created the greatest public health crisis in a century, causing >500,000 deaths in the United States alone. Minoritized and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups have borne a disproportionate burden of severe illness, hospitalization, and death from COVID-19. Recently developed FDA-approved vaccines have been shown to significantly reduce severe COVID-19-related outcomes. Vaccination campaigns have the potential to advance health equity by prioritizing allocation to those at highest risk while striving for herd immunity. Large integrated health systems have been faced with the daunting task of meeting the rapidly evolving needs of diverse patient populations for the provision of population-based testing, treatment, education, and now vaccine distribution. We have designed a COVID-19 vaccine equity index (CVEI) to guide health system vaccination strategy. Methods: We considered proportion unvaccinated within a health care system. We then used real-time readily available electronic health record (EHR) COVID-19 testing positivity and proportion hospitalized to measure burden of illness by race/ethnicity. We used conditional probability and statistical theory to measure equity for unvaccinated individuals and to derive an index to highlight these inequities for specific subgroups. Results: We present an illustrative hypothetical example using simulated data for which we calculated the CVEI for non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic Asian, and Hispanic patients. In the example, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic patients had inequitable outcomes. Conclusion: The index can be widely implemented to promote more equitable outcomes among racial/ethnic groups, reducing morbidity and mortality within the overall population as we pursue the collective goal of herd immunity through mass vaccination.

6.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(11): 2300-2313, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215866

RESUMO

To measure disparities in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) transfer among racially/ethnically marginalized groups before and after implementation of the California statewide shelter-in-place (SIP) policy, we conducted a retrospective cohort study within a health-care system in California. COVID-19 patients diagnosed from January 1, 2020, to August 31, 2020, were identified from electronic health records. We examined hospitalizations and ICU transfers by race/ethnicity and pandemic period using logistic regression. Among 16,520 people with COVID-19 (mean age = 46.6 (standard deviation, 18.4) years; 54.2% women), during the post-SIP period, patients were on average younger and a larger proportion were Hispanic. In adjusted models, odds of hospitalization were 20% lower post-SIP as compared with the SIP period, yet all non-White groups had higher odds (odds ratios = 1.6-2.1) than non-Hispanic White individuals, regardless of period. Among hospitalized patients, odds of ICU transfer were 33% lower post-SIP than during SIP. Hispanic and Asian patients had higher odds than non-Hispanics. Disparities in hospitalization persisted and ICU risk became more pronounced for Asian and Hispanic patients post-SIP. Policy-makers should consider ways to proactively address racial/ethnic inequities in risk when considering future population-level policy interventions for public health crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19/etnologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Raciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/virologia , California/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
7.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 39(7): 1253-1262, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437224

RESUMO

As the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic spreads throughout the United States, evidence is mounting that racial and ethnic minorities and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups are bearing a disproportionate burden of illness and death. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of COVID-19 patients at Sutter Health, a large integrated health system in northern California, to measure potential disparities. We used Sutter's integrated electronic health record to identify adults with suspected and confirmed COVID-19, and we used multivariable logistic regression to assess risk of hospitalization, adjusting for known risk factors, such as race/ethnicity, sex, age, health, and socioeconomic variables. We analyzed 1,052 confirmed cases of COVID-19 from the period January 1-April 8, 2020. Among our findings, we observed that compared with non-Hispanic white patients, non-Hispanic African American patients had 2.7 times the odds of hospitalization, after adjustment for age, sex, comorbidities, and income. We explore possible explanations for this, including societal factors that either result in barriers to timely access to care or create circumstances in which patients view delaying care as the most sensible option. Our study provides real-world evidence of racial and ethnic disparities in the presentation of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , COVID-19 , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Bases de Dados Factuais , Etnicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise de Sobrevida
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 694, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Group-based Diabetes Prevention Programs (DPP), aligned with recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, promote clinically significant weight loss and reduce cardio-metabolic risks. Studies have examined implementation of the DPP in community settings, but less is known about its integration in healthcare systems. In 2010, a group-based DPP known as the Group Lifestyle Balance (GLB) was implemented within a large healthcare delivery system in Northern California, across three geographically distinct regional administration divisions of the organization within 12 state counties, with varying underlying socio-demographics. The regional divisions implemented the program independently, allowing for natural variation in its real-world integration. We leveraged this natural experiment to qualitatively assess the implementation of a DPP in this healthcare system and, especially, its fidelity to the original GLB curriculum and potential heterogeneity in implementation across clinics and regional divisions. METHODS: Using purposive sampling, we conducted semi-structured interviews with DPP lifestyle coaches. Data were analyzed using mixed-method techniques, guided by an implementation outcomes framework consisting of eight constructs: acceptability, adoption, appropriateness, cost, feasibility, fidelity, penetration, and sustainability. RESULTS: We conducted 33 interviews at 20 clinics across the three regional administrative divisions. Consistencies in implementation of the program were found across regions in terms of satisfaction with the evidence base (acceptability), referral methods (adoption), eligibility criteria (fidelity), and strategies to increase retention and effectiveness (sustainability). Heterogeneity in implementation across regions were found in all categories, including: the number and frequency of sessions (fidelity); program branding (adoption); lifestyle coach training (adoption), and patient-facing cost (cost). Lifestyle coaches expressed differing attitudes about curriculum content (acceptability) and suitability of educational level (appropriateness). While difficulties with recruitment were common across regions (feasibility), strategies used to address these challenges differed (sustainability). CONCLUSIONS: Variation exists in the implementation of the DPP within a large multi-site healthcare system, revealing a dynamic and important tension between retaining fidelity to the original program and tailoring the program to meet the local needs. Moreover, certain challenges across sites may represent opportunities for considering alternative implementation to anticipate these barriers. Further research is needed to explore how differences in implementation domains impact program effectiveness.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , California , Aconselhamento , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Redução de Peso
9.
Health Equity ; 3(1): 92-98, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963142

RESUMO

Disparities in outcomes for preventive and primary health care services often result when vulnerable patients rely on episodic encounters for emergency services that do not meet their long-term health needs. Understanding health outcomes in socially or economically disadvantaged subgroups is crucial to improving community health, and it requires innovative analytics and dynamic application of clinical and population data. While it is common practice to use proxy indicators, such as quality of life and mortality, when discussing health equity, these have shown limited utility and are rarely applied at a population-level within a health system. Therefore, we designed and implemented an index, calculated as the ratio of observed-to-expected encounters, to identify and quantify health inequalities in health care systems. Providing equitable care, as measured by health outcomes, is analogous to precision medicine applied to social determinants. For health systems, the use of this index will facilitate the development of specially-tailored interventions to address inequity and provides a tool to measure the impact of such programs.

10.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 15(5): 953-60, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22968231

RESUMO

Dietary acculturation for immigrant groups has largely been attributed to the "Westernization" of indigenous diets, as characterized by an increased consumption of unhealthy American foods (i.e., fast foods, hamburgers). However, acculturation and adoption of western dietary habits may not fully explain new dietary patterns among racial/ethnic minority immigrants. The immigrant diet may change in such a way that it elaborates on specific ethnic traditions in addition to the incorporation of Western food habits. In this paper, we explore the role that festival foods, those foods that were once eaten a few times a year and on special occasions, play in the regular diet of immigrants to the US. This paper will focus on the overconsumption of ethnic festival foods, which are often high in carbohydrates, animal protein, sugar and fat, as opposed to Western "junk" food, as an explanation for the increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders among new immigrant groups.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Aculturação , Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia/etnologia , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade/etiologia
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