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1.
Psychiatry Res ; 335: 115862, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554493

RESUMO

Large-scale studies and burdened clinical settings require precise, efficient measures that assess multiple domains of psychopathology. Computerized adaptive tests (CATs) can reduce administration time without compromising data quality. We examined feasibility and validity of an adaptive psychopathology measure, GOASSESS, in a clinical community-based sample (N = 315; ages 18-35) comprising three groups: healthy controls, psychosis, mood/anxiety disorders. Assessment duration was compared between the Full and CAT GOASSESS. External validity was tested by comparing how the CAT and Full versions related to demographic variables, study group, and socioeconomic status. The relationships between scale scores and criteria were statistically compared within a mixed-model framework to account for dependency between relationships. Convergent validity was assessed by comparing scores of the CAT and the Full GOASSESS using Pearson correlations. The CAT GOASSESS reduced interview duration by more than 90 % across study groups and preserved relationships to external criteria and demographic variables as the Full GOASSESS. All CAT GOASSESS scales could replace those of the Full instrument. Overall, the CAT GOASSESS showed acceptable psychometric properties and demonstrated feasibility by markedly reducing assessment time compared to the Full GOASSESS. The adaptive version could be used in large-scale studies or clinical settings for intake screening.

2.
Brain Cogn ; 174: 106117, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38128447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery is an efficient tool for assessing brain-behavior domains, and its efficiency was augmented via computerized adaptive testing (CAT). This battery requires validation in a separate sample to establish psychometric properties. METHODS: In a mixed community/clinical sample of N = 307 18-to-35-year-olds, we tested the relationships of the CAT tests with the full-form tests. We compared discriminability among recruitment groups (psychosis, mood, control) and examined how their scores relate to demographics. CAT-Full relationships were evaluated based on a minimum inter-test correlation of 0.70 or an inter-test correlation within at least 0.10 of the full-form correlation with a previous administration of the full battery. Differences in criterion relationships were tested via mixed models. RESULTS: Most tests (15/17) met the minimum criteria for replacing the full-form with the updated CAT version (mean r = 0.67; range = 0.53-0.80) when compared to relationships of the full-forms with previous administrations of the full-forms (mean r = 0.68; range = 0.50-0.85). Most (16/17) CAT-based relationships with diagnostics and other validity criteria were indistinguishable (interaction p > 0.05) from their full-form counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: The updated CNB shows psychometric properties acceptable for research. The full-forms of some tests should be retained due to insufficient time savings to justify the loss in precision.


Assuntos
Teste Adaptativo Computadorizado , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Encéfalo , Psicometria , Cognição , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
Biol Psychiatry Glob Open Sci ; 3(3): 340-350, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37519466

RESUMO

The phenotype of schizophrenia, regardless of etiology, represents the most studied psychotic disorder with respect to neurobiology and distinct phases of illness. The early phase of illness represents a unique opportunity to provide effective and individualized interventions that can alter illness trajectories. Developmental age and illness stage, including temporal variation in neurobiology, can be targeted to develop phase-specific clinical assessment, biomarkers, and interventions. We review an earlier model whereby an initial glutamate signaling deficit progresses through different phases of allostatic adaptation, moving from potentially reversible functional abnormalities associated with early psychosis and working memory dysfunction, and ending with difficult-to-reverse structural changes after chronic illness. We integrate this model with evidence of dopaminergic abnormalities, including cortical D1 dysfunction, which develop during adolescence. We discuss how this model and a focus on a potential critical window of intervention in the early stages of schizophrenia impact the approach to research design and clinical care. This impact includes stage-specific considerations for symptom assessment as well as genetic, cognitive, and neurophysiological biomarkers. We examine how phase-specific biomarkers of illness phase and brain development can be incorporated into current strategies for large-scale research and clinical programs implementing coordinated specialty care. We highlight working memory and D1 dysfunction as early treatment targets that can substantially affect functional outcome.

4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 118(1): 121-131, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37146760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iron is essential to brain function, and iron deficiency during youth may adversely impact neurodevelopment. Understanding the developmental time course of iron status and its association with neurocognitive functioning is important for identifying windows for intervention. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize developmental change in iron status and understand its association with cognitive performance and brain structure during adolescence using data from a large pediatric health network. METHODS: This study included a cross-sectional sample of 4899 participants (2178 males; aged 8-22 y at the time of participation, M [SD] = 14.24 [3.7]) who were recruited from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia network. Prospectively collected research data were enriched with electronic medical record data that included hematological measures related to iron status, including serum hemoglobin, ferritin, and transferrin (33,015 total samples). At the time of participation, cognitive performance was assessed using the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery, and brain white matter integrity was assessed using diffusion-weighted MRI in a subset of individuals. RESULTS: Developmental trajectories were characterized for all metrics and revealed that sex differences emerged after menarche such that females had reduced iron status relative to males [all R2partial > 0.008; all false discovery rates (FDRs) < 0.05]. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with higher hemoglobin concentrations throughout development (R2partial = 0.005; FDR < 0.001), and the association was greatest during adolescence. Higher hemoglobin concentrations were associated with better cognitive performance during adolescence (R2partial = 0.02; FDR < 0.001) and mediated the association between sex and cognition (mediation effect = -0.107; 95% CI: -0.191, -0.02). Higher hemoglobin concentration was also associated with greater brain white matter integrity in the neuroimaging subsample (R2partial = 0.06, FDR = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: Iron status evolves during youth and is lowest in females and individuals of low socioeconomic status during adolescence. Diminished iron status during adolescence has consequences for neurocognition, suggesting that this critical period of neurodevelopment may be an important window for intervention that has the potential to reduce health disparities in at-risk populations.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Ferro , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Masculino , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cognição , Hemoglobinas/análise , Classe Social
5.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 80(5): 498-507, 2023 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37017948

RESUMO

Importance: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with significant clinical, neuroanatomical, and genetic heterogeneity that limits precision diagnostics and treatment. Objective: To assess distinct neuroanatomical dimensions of ASD using novel semisupervised machine learning methods and to test whether the dimensions can serve as endophenotypes also in non-ASD populations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used imaging data from the publicly available Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) repositories as the discovery cohort. The ABIDE sample included individuals diagnosed with ASD aged between 16 and 64 years and age- and sex-match typically developing individuals. Validation cohorts included individuals with schizophrenia from the Psychosis Heterogeneity Evaluated via Dimensional Neuroimaging (PHENOM) consortium and individuals from the UK Biobank to represent the general population. The multisite discovery cohort included 16 internationally distributed imaging sites. Analyses were performed between March 2021 and March 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: The trained semisupervised heterogeneity through discriminative analysis models were tested for reproducibility using extensive cross-validations. It was then applied to individuals from the PHENOM and the UK Biobank. It was hypothesized that neuroanatomical dimensions of ASD would display distinct clinical and genetic profiles and would be prominent also in non-ASD populations. Results: Heterogeneity through discriminative analysis models trained on T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance images of 307 individuals with ASD (mean [SD] age, 25.4 [9.8] years; 273 [88.9%] male) and 362 typically developing control individuals (mean [SD] age, 25.8 [8.9] years; 309 [85.4%] male) revealed that a 3-dimensional scheme was optimal to capture the ASD neuroanatomy. The first dimension (A1: aginglike) was associated with smaller brain volume, lower cognitive function, and aging-related genetic variants (FOXO3; Z = 4.65; P = 1.62 × 10-6). The second dimension (A2: schizophrenialike) was characterized by enlarged subcortical volumes, antipsychotic medication use (Cohen d = 0.65; false discovery rate-adjusted P = .048), partially overlapping genetic, neuroanatomical characteristics to schizophrenia (n = 307), and significant genetic heritability estimates in the general population (n = 14 786; mean [SD] h2, 0.71 [0.04]; P < 1 × 10-4). The third dimension (A3: typical ASD) was distinguished by enlarged cortical volumes, high nonverbal cognitive performance, and biological pathways implicating brain development and abnormal apoptosis (mean [SD] ß, 0.83 [0.02]; P = 4.22 × 10-6). Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study discovered 3-dimensional endophenotypic representation that may elucidate the heterogeneous neurobiological underpinnings of ASD to support precision diagnostics. The significant correspondence between A2 and schizophrenia indicates a possibility of identifying common biological mechanisms across the 2 mental health diagnoses.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Endofenótipos , Estudos Transversais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Neuroanatomia , Encéfalo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
6.
J Neurosci Methods ; 386: 109795, 2023 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional paper-and-pencil neurocognitive evaluations and semi-structured mental health interviews can take hours to administer and score. Computerized assessment has decreased that burden substantially, and contemporary psychometric tools such as item response theory and computerized adaptive testing (CAT) allow even further abbreviation. NEW METHOD: The goal of this paper was to describe the application of CAT and related methods to the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB) and a well-validated clinical assessment in order to increase efficiency in assessment and relevant domain coverage. To calibrate item banks for CAT, N = 5053 participants (63% female; mean age 45 years, range 18-80) were collected from across the United States via crowdsourcing, providing item parameters that were then linked to larger item banks and used in individual test construction. Tests not amenable to CAT were abbreviated using complementary short-form methods. RESULTS: The final "CAT-CCNB" battery comprised 21 cognitive tests (compared to 14 in the original) and five adaptive clinical scales (compared to 16 in the original). COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: This new battery, derived with contemporary psychometric approaches, provides further improvements over existing assessments that use collections of fixed-length tests developed for stand-alone administration. The CAT-CCNB provides an improved version of the CNB that shows promise as a maximally efficient tool for neuropsychiatric assessment. CONCLUSIONS: We anticipate CAT-CCNB will help satisfy the clear need for broad yet efficient measurement of cognitive and clinical domains, facilitating implementation of large-scale, "big science" approaches to data collection, and potential widespread clinical implementation.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Psicometria , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Netw Neurosci ; 6(1): 234-274, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36605887

RESUMO

In systems neuroscience, most models posit that brain regions communicate information under constraints of efficiency. Yet, evidence for efficient communication in structural brain networks characterized by hierarchical organization and highly connected hubs remains sparse. The principle of efficient coding proposes that the brain transmits maximal information in a metabolically economical or compressed form to improve future behavior. To determine how structural connectivity supports efficient coding, we develop a theory specifying minimum rates of message transmission between brain regions to achieve an expected fidelity, and we test five predictions from the theory based on random walk communication dynamics. In doing so, we introduce the metric of compression efficiency, which quantifies the trade-off between lossy compression and transmission fidelity in structural networks. In a large sample of youth (n = 1,042; age 8-23 years), we analyze structural networks derived from diffusion-weighted imaging and metabolic expenditure operationalized using cerebral blood flow. We show that structural networks strike compression efficiency trade-offs consistent with theoretical predictions. We find that compression efficiency prioritizes fidelity with development, heightens when metabolic resources and myelination guide communication, explains advantages of hierarchical organization, links higher input fidelity to disproportionate areal expansion, and shows that hubs integrate information by lossy compression. Lastly, compression efficiency is predictive of behavior-beyond the conventional network efficiency metric-for cognitive domains including executive function, memory, complex reasoning, and social cognition. Our findings elucidate how macroscale connectivity supports efficient coding and serve to foreground communication processes that utilize random walk dynamics constrained by network connectivity.

8.
J Affect Disord ; 291: 1-8, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has major ramifications for global health and economy, with growing concerns about economic recession and implications for mental health. Here we investigated the associations between pandemic-related income loss with financial strain and mental health trajectories over a 1-month course, in two independent cohorts. METHODS: Two independent studies were conducted in the U.S and in Israel at the beginning of the outbreak (March-April 2020, T1; study I: N = 2904, study II: N = 1267) and at a 1-month follow-up (T2; study I: N = 1318, study II: N = 241). Mixed-effects models were applied to assess associations among COVID-19-related income loss, financial strain, and pandemic-related worries about health, with anxiety and depression, controlling for multiple covariates including pre-COVID-19 income. RESULTS: In both studies, income loss and financial strain were associated with greater depressive symptoms at T1, above and beyond T1 anxiety, worries about health, and pre-COVID-19 income. Worsening of income loss was associated with exacerbation of depression at T2 in both studies. Worsening of subjective financial strain was associated with exacerbation of depression at T2 in one study (US). CONCLUSIONS: Income loss and financial strain were uniquely associated with depressive symptoms and their exacerbation over time, above and beyond pandemic-related anxiety. In times when a myriad of stressors are affecting mental health worldwide, our findings reveal specific links between the economic impact of COVID-19 and psychiatric outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Depressão , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Psychiatry Res ; 293: 113475, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007683

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted the well-being of vulnerable populations in the US, including Black people. The impact on pregnant women is of special concern for the intrauterine and post-natal development of their offspring. We evaluated in an online survey a sample of 913 pregnant women, 216 Black, 571 White, 126 Other, during a 2-week stay-at-home mandate in the Philadelphia region. We applied logistic regression models and analysis of covariance to examine general and pregnancy-specific worries and negative consequences arising from the COVID-19 pandemic, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and resilience. Black pregnant women reported greater likelihood of having their employment negatively impacted, more concerns about a lasting economic burden, and more worries about their prenatal care, birth experience, and post-natal needs. In the full sample, 11.1% of women met screening criteria for anxiety and 9.9% met criteria for depression. Black women were more likely to meet criteria for depression than White women, but this difference was not significant accounting for covariates. Resilience factors including self-reliance and emotion regulation were higher in Black women. Racial disparities related to COVID-19 in pregnant women can advance the understanding of pregnancy related stressors and improve early identification of mental health needs.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Negro ou Afro-Americano/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Psychiatry Res ; 288: 112996, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361336

RESUMO

It is critical to understand the factors that increase risk for development of psychiatric disorders as well as promote resilience against disorders. The current study describes the development of a brief tool for risk/resilience assessment that takes a broad perspective of "risk" and "resilience" to characterize the phenomena, and assesses multiple factors that span intrapersonal, interpersonal, and wide-ranging external contexts. We administered twelve scales (212 items) to a diverse population comprising help-seeking and community participants (N = 298; 46% female) in the greater Philadelphia area. We used exploratory item-factor analysis to determine how items cluster across scales. After determining that a seven-factor solution was optimal, computerized adaptive testing (CAT) simulation was run to determine what would happen if the seven full-form factors were administered adaptively. These results were used to select items for short-form scales, producing seven final scales (items = 47). Validity was assessed by relating short-form scores to demographics, clinical diagnoses, scales, and criteria; these relationships were also compared to the relationships found with the original scales. Almost all effects detected by the twelve original scales were detected by the substantially abbreviated short-forms. The abbreviated battery shows promise for rapid assessment of multiple risk and resilience parameters, a necessity in large-scale studies.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador/normas , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Resiliência Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Simulação por Computador/tendências , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cereb Cortex ; 30(1): 1-19, 2020 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220218

RESUMO

Higher socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood is associated with stronger cognitive abilities, higher academic achievement, and lower incidence of mental illness later in development. While prior work has mapped the associations between neighborhood SES and brain structure, little is known about the relationship between SES and intrinsic neural dynamics. Here, we capitalize upon a large cross-sectional community-based sample (Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, ages 8-22 years, n = 1012) to examine associations between age, SES, and functional brain network topology. We characterize this topology using a local measure of network segregation known as the clustering coefficient and find that it accounts for a greater degree of SES-associated variance than mesoscale segregation captured by modularity. High-SES youth displayed stronger positive associations between age and clustering than low-SES youth, and this effect was most pronounced for regions in the limbic, somatomotor, and ventral attention systems. The moderating effect of SES on positive associations between age and clustering was strongest for connections of intermediate length and was consistent with a stronger negative relationship between age and local connectivity in these regions in low-SES youth. Our findings suggest that, in late childhood and adolescence, neighborhood SES is associated with variation in the development of functional network structure in the human brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Características de Residência , Classe Social , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Psychol Assess ; 31(9): 1168-1173, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192630

RESUMO

An important component of neuropsychological testing is assessment of premorbid intelligence to estimate a patient's ability independent of neurological impairment. A common test of premorbid IQ-namely, the Reading section of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT)-has been shown to have high measurement error in the high ability range, is unnecessarily long (55 items), and is proprietary. We describe the development of an alternative, nonproprietary, computerized adaptive test for premorbid IQ, the Penn Reading Assessment (PRA-CAT). PRA-CAT items were calibrated using a 1-parameter item response theory model in a large community sample (N = 9,498), Ages 8 to 21, and the resulting parameters were used to simulate computerized adaptive testing sessions. Simulations demonstrated that the PRA-CAT achieves low measurement error (0.25; equivalent to Cronbach's alpha = .94) and acceptable measurement error (0.40; Cronbach's alpha = .84) after only 18 and 6 items, respectively (on average). Correlation of WRAT and PRA-CAT scores with numerous clinical, cognitive, demographic, and neuroimaging criteria suggests that validity of PRA-CAT score interpretation is comparable (and sometimes superior) with the WRAT. The fully functioning PRA-CAT for public use (including item parameter estimates reported here) has been built using the open-source program Concerto, and can be installed by anyone on a local computer or on the "cloud." Given the length and proprietary nature of the WRAT, the PRA-CAT shows promise as a potential alternative (and with minimal or no cost). Further validation in the context of neurological injury is needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Testes de Inteligência , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Leitura , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Computadores , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
13.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 76(9): 966-975, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141099

RESUMO

Importance: Low socioeconomic status (L-SES) and the experience of traumatic stressful events (TSEs) are environmental factors implicated in behavioral deficits, abnormalities in brain development, and accelerated maturation. However, the relative contribution of these environmental factors is understudied. Objective: To compare the association of L-SES and TSEs with psychopathology, puberty, neurocognition, and multimodal neuroimaging parameters in brain maturation. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort is a community-based study examining psychopathology, neurocognition, and neuroimaging among participants recruited through the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia pediatric network. Participants are youths aged 8 to 21 years at enrollment with stable health and fluency in English. The sample of 9498 participants was racially (5298 European ancestry [55.8%], 3124 African ancestry [32.9%], and 1076 other [11.4%]) and economically diverse. A randomly selected subsample (n = 1601) underwent multimodal neuroimaging. Data were collected from November 5, 2009, through December 30, 2011, and analyzed from February 1 through November 7, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: The following domains were examined: (1) clinical, including psychopathology, assessed with a structured interview based on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, and puberty, assessed with the Tanner scale; (2) neurocognition, assessed by the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery; and (3) multimodal magnetic resonance imaging parameters of brain structure and function. Results: A total of 9498 participants were included in the analysis (4906 [51.7%] female; mean [SD] age, 14.2 [3.7] years). Clinically, L-SES and TSEs were associated with greater severity of psychiatric symptoms across the psychopathology domains of anxiety/depression, fear, externalizing behavior, and the psychosis spectrum. Low SES showed small effect sizes (highest for externalizing behavior, 0.306 SD; 95% CI, 0.269 to 0.342), whereas TSEs had large effect sizes, with the highest in females for anxiety/depression (1.228 SD; 95% CI, 1.156 to 1.300) and in males for the psychosis spectrum (1.099 SD; 95% CI, 1.032 to 1.166). Both were associated with early puberty. Cognitively, L-SES had moderate effect sizes on poorer performance, the greatest being on complex cognition (-0.500 SD 95% CI, -0.536 to -0.464), whereas TSEs were associated with slightly better memory (0.129 SD; 95% CI, 0.084 to 0.174) and poorer complex reasoning (-0.109 SD; 95% CI, -0.154 to -0.064). Environmental factors had common and distinct associations with brain structure and function. Structurally, both were associated with lower volume, but L-SES had correspondingly lower gray matter density, whereas TSEs were associated with higher gray matter density. Functionally, both were associated with lower regional cerebral blood flow and coherence and with accelerated brain maturation. Conclusions and Relevance: Low SES and TSEs are associated with common and unique differences in symptoms, neurocognition, and structural and functional brain parameters. Both environmental factors are associated with earlier completion of puberty by physical features and brain parameters. These findings appear to underscore the need for identifying and preventing adverse environmental conditions associated with neurodevelopment.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Experiências Adversas da Infância , Sintomas Comportamentais , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Disfunção Cognitiva , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Mentais , Trauma Psicológico , Puberdade , Classe Social , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Adulto , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Sintomas Comportamentais/diagnóstico por imagem , Sintomas Comportamentais/epidemiologia , Sintomas Comportamentais/fisiopatologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Criança , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Trauma Psicológico/diagnóstico por imagem , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Trauma Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Puberdade/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico por imagem , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Neuroimage ; 169: 407-418, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29278774

RESUMO

Data quality is increasingly recognized as one of the most important confounding factors in brain imaging research. It is particularly important for studies of brain development, where age is systematically related to in-scanner motion and data quality. Prior work has demonstrated that in-scanner head motion biases estimates of structural neuroimaging measures. However, objective measures of data quality are not available for most structural brain images. Here we sought to identify quantitative measures of data quality for T1-weighted volumes, describe how these measures relate to cortical thickness, and delineate how this in turn may bias inference regarding associations with age in youth. Three highly-trained raters provided manual ratings of 1840 raw T1-weighted volumes. These images included a training set of 1065 images from Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC), a test set of 533 images from the PNC, as well as an external test set of 242 adults acquired on a different scanner. Manual ratings were compared to automated quality measures provided by the Preprocessed Connectomes Project's Quality Assurance Protocol (QAP), as well as FreeSurfer's Euler number, which summarizes the topological complexity of the reconstructed cortical surface. Results revealed that the Euler number was consistently correlated with manual ratings across samples. Furthermore, the Euler number could be used to identify images scored "unusable" by human raters with a high degree of accuracy (AUC: 0.98-0.99), and out-performed proxy measures from functional timeseries acquired in the same scanning session. The Euler number also was significantly related to cortical thickness in a regionally heterogeneous pattern that was consistent across datasets and replicated prior results. Finally, data quality both inflated and obscured associations with age during adolescence. Taken together, these results indicate that reliable measures of data quality can be automatically derived from T1-weighted volumes, and that failing to control for data quality can systematically bias the results of studies of brain maturation.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Neuroimagem/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos
17.
Neuroimage ; 125: 903-919, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26520775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is applied in investigation of brain biomarkers for neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. However, the quality of DTI measurements, like other neuroimaging techniques, is susceptible to several confounding factors (e.g., motion, eddy currents), which have only recently come under scrutiny. These confounds are especially relevant in adolescent samples where data quality may be compromised in ways that confound interpretation of maturation parameters. The current study aims to leverage DTI data from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC), a sample of 1601 youths with ages of 8-21 who underwent neuroimaging, to: 1) establish quality assurance (QA) metrics for the automatic identification of poor DTI image quality; 2) examine the performance of these QA measures in an external validation sample; 3) document the influence of data quality on developmental patterns of typical DTI metrics. METHODS: All diffusion-weighted images were acquired on the same scanner. Visual QA was performed on all subjects completing DTI; images were manually categorized as Poor, Good, or Excellent. Four image quality metrics were automatically computed and used to predict manual QA status: Mean voxel intensity outlier count (MEANVOX), Maximum voxel intensity outlier count (MAXVOX), mean relative motion (MOTION) and temporal signal-to-noise ratio (TSNR). Classification accuracy for each metric was calculated as the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC). A threshold was generated for each measure that best differentiated visual QA status and applied in a validation sample. The effects of data quality on sensitivity to expected age effects in this developmental sample were then investigated using the traditional MRI diffusion metrics: fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). Finally, our method of QA is compared with DTIPrep. RESULTS: TSNR (AUC=0.94) best differentiated Poor data from Good and Excellent data. MAXVOX (AUC=0.88) best differentiated Good from Excellent DTI data. At the optimal threshold, 88% of Poor data and 91% Good/Excellent data were correctly identified. Use of these thresholds on a validation dataset (n=374) indicated high accuracy. In the validation sample 83% of Poor data and 94% of Excellent data was identified using thresholds derived from the training sample. Both FA and MD were affected by the inclusion of poor data in an analysis of an age, sex and race matched comparison sample. In addition, we show that the inclusion of poor data results in significant attenuation of the correlation between diffusion metrics (FA and MD) and age during a critical neurodevelopmental period. We find higher correspondence between our QA method and DTIPrep for Poor data, but we find our method to be more robust for apparently high-quality images. CONCLUSION: Automated QA of DTI can facilitate large-scale, high-throughput quality assurance by reliably identifying both scanner and subject induced imaging artifacts. The results present a practical example of the confounding effects of artifacts on DTI analysis in a large population-based sample, and suggest that estimates of data quality should not only be reported but also accounted for in data analysis, especially in studies of development.


Assuntos
Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/normas , Neuroimagem/normas , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Área Sob a Curva , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Curva ROC , Adulto Jovem
18.
Schizophr Res ; 170(1): 30-40, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26597662

RESUMO

The Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study (COGS-1) has previously reported our efforts to characterize the genetic architecture of 12 primary endophenotypes for schizophrenia. We now report the characterization of 13 additional measures derived from the same endophenotype test paradigms in the COGS-1 families. Nine of the measures were found to discriminate between schizophrenia patients and controls, were significantly heritable (31 to 62%), and were sufficiently independent of previously assessed endophenotypes, demonstrating utility as additional endophenotypes. Genotyping via a custom array of 1536 SNPs from 94 candidate genes identified associations for CTNNA2, ERBB4, GRID1, GRID2, GRIK3, GRIK4, GRIN2B, NOS1AP, NRG1, and RELN across multiple endophenotypes. An experiment-wide p value of 0.003 suggested that the associations across all SNPs and endophenotypes collectively exceeded chance. Linkage analyses performed using a genome-wide SNP array further identified significant or suggestive linkage for six of the candidate endophenotypes, with several genes of interest located beneath the linkage peaks (e.g., CSMD1, DISC1, DLGAP2, GRIK2, GRIN3A, and SLC6A3). While the partial convergence of the association and linkage likely reflects differences in density of gene coverage provided by the distinct genotyping platforms, it is also likely an indication of the differential contribution of rare and common variants for some genes and methodological differences in detection ability. Still, many of the genes implicated by COGS through endophenotypes have been identified by independent studies of common, rare, and de novo variation in schizophrenia, all converging on a functional genetic network related to glutamatergic neurotransmission that warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Endofenótipos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Família , Humanos , Proteína Reelina
19.
Schizophr Res ; 163(1-3): 9-16, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25454799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COGS is a multi-site NIMH-sponsored investigation of the genetic basis of 12 primary and multiple secondary quantitative endophenotypes in schizophrenia. METHODS: Since 2003, COGS has completed studies using a family-based ascertainment strategy (COGS-1), and a case-control ascertainment strategy (COGS-2) (cumulative "n">4000). RESULTS: COGS-1 family study confirmed robust deficits in, and heritability of, these endophenotypes in schizophrenia, and provided evidence for a coherent genetic architecture underlying the risk for neurocognitive and neurophysiological deficits in this disorder. COGS-2 case-control findings, many reported herein, establish a foundation for fine genomic mapping and other analyses of these endophenotypes and risk genes for SZ. Several reports in this Special Issue compare findings of endophenotype deficits generated by fundamentally different COGS-1 vs. COGS-2 ascertainment strategies. Despite the expectation that family-based and case-control designs would establish demographically and potentially biologically distinct patient cohorts, findings generally revealed comparable patterns of endophenotype deficits across studies. The COGS-2 case-control design facilitated the accrual of a larger "n", permitting detailed analyses of factors moderating endophenotype performance. Some COGS-2 endophenotypes not assessed in COGS-1 are also reported, as is a new factor analytic strategy for identifying shared vs. unique factors among the COGS endophenotypes which can be used to develop composite variables with distinct genetic signatures. DISCUSSION: The path to date of COGS-1 endophenotype and genetic findings, followed by replication and extension in COGS-2, establishes benchmarks for endophenotype deficits in SZ and their moderation by specific factors, and clear expectations for informative findings from upcoming COGS-2 genetic analyses.


Assuntos
Endofenótipos , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Família , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estados Unidos
20.
Am J Psychiatry ; 170(2): 165-72, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23377637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A major barrier to developing treatments for negative symptoms has been measurement concerns with existing assessment tools. Fulfilling the top recommendation of the National Institute of Mental Health's Consensus Development Conference on Negative Symptoms, the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) was developed using an iterative, empirical approach, and includes items assessing motivation, pleasure, and emotion expression. The authors employed multiple analytic techniques to develop the CAINS and here provide final development and validation results. METHOD: The CAINS structure, interrater agreement, test-retest reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity were assessed in a large and diverse sample of 162 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder recruited from four sites. RESULTS: Three items with poor psychometric properties were removed, resulting in a 13-item CAINS. The CAINS factor structure was replicated, demonstrating two modestly correlated scales: expression (four items) and motivation/pleasure (nine items). The scales demonstrated good internal consistency, test-retest stability, and interrater agreement. Strong convergent validity was demonstrated by linkages with other negative symptom measures, self-report scales of sociality, pleasure, and motivation, and coded facial expressions. Discriminant validity was shown by independence from depression, medication side effects, and cognition. Notably, the CAINS scales were related to real-world vocational, independent living, and social/familial functioning. CONCLUSIONS: The CAINS is an empirically developed and evaluated measure of negative symptoms. Findings indicate that the CAINS is brief yet comprehensive and employable across a wide range of research and clinical contexts.


Assuntos
Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Testes Psicológicos , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adulto , Anedonia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Emoções Manifestas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Prazer , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comportamento Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Volição
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