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1.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 11(2): 123-133, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38245017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regional mental health planning is a key challenge for decision makers because mental health care is a complex, dynamic system. Economic evaluation using a system dynamics modelling approach presents an opportunity for more sophisticated planning and important evidence on the value of alternative investments. We aimed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of eight systems-based interventions targeted at improving the mental health and wellbeing of children, adolescents, and young adults in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). METHODS: We assessed eight interventions for children and young people (aged ≤25 years) with low, moderate, and high-to-very-high psychological distress: technology-enabled integrated care, emergency department-based suicide prevention, crisis response service, family education programme, online parenting programme, school-based suicide prevention programme, trauma service for youths, and multicultural-informed care. We developed a system dynamics model for the ACT through a participatory process and calibrated the model with historical data, including population demographics, the prevalence of psychological distress, and mental health services provision. We calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios compared with business as usual for cost (AU$) per: quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), suicide death avoided, self-harm related hospital admissions avoided, and mental health-related emergency department presentation, using a 10-year time horizon for health-care and societal perspectives. We investigated uncertainty through probabilistic sensitivity analysis and deterministic sensitivity analysis, including using a 30-year timeframe. FINDINGS: From a societal perspective, increased investment in technology-enabled integrated care, family education, an online parenting programme, and multicultural-informed care were expected to improve health outcomes (incremental QALYs 4517 [95% UI -3135 to 14 507] for technology-enabled integrated care; 339 [91 to 661] for family education; 724 [114 to 1149] for the online parenting programme; and 137 [88 to 194] for multicultural-informed care) and reduce costs ($-91·4 million [-382·7 to 100·7]; $-12·8 million [-21·0 to -6·6]; $-3·6 million  [-6·3 to 0·2]; and $-3·1 million [-4·5 to -1·8], respectively) compared with business as usual using a 10-year time horizon. The incremental net monetary benefit for the societal perspective for these four interventions was $452 million (-351 to 1555), $40 million (14 to 74), $61 million (9 to 98), and $14 million (9 to 20), respectively, compared with business as usual, when QALYs were monetised using a willingness to pay of $79 930 per QALY. Synergistic effects are anticipated if these interventions were to be implemented concurrently. The univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses indicated a high level of certainty in the results. Although emergency department-based suicide prevention and school-based suicide prevention were not cost effective in the base case (41 QALYs [0 to 48], incremental cost $4·1 million [1·2 to 8·2] for emergency department-based suicide prevention; -234 QALYs [-764 to 12], incremental cost $90·3 million [72·2 to 111·0] for school-based suicide prevention) compared with business as usual, there were scenarios for which these interventions could be considered cost effective. A dedicated trauma service for young people (9 QALYs gained [4 to 16], incremental cost $8·3 million [6·8 to 10·0]) and a crisis response service (-11 QALYs gained [-12 to -10], incremental cost $7·8 million [5·1 to 11·0]) were unlikely to be cost effective in terms of QALYs. INTERPRETATION: Synergistic effects were identified, supporting the combined implementation of technology-enabled integrated care, family education, an online parenting programme, and multicultural-informed care. Synergistic effects, emergent outcomes in the form of unintended consequences, the capability to account for service capacity constraints, and ease of use by stakeholders are unique attributes of a system dynamics modelling approach to economic evaluation. FUNDING: BHP Foundation.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Estados Unidos , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Território da Capital Australiana , Austrália/epidemiologia
2.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 268, 2024 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38263048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schoolteachers are often the first to respond when a student presents with a mental health issue in the classroom. This places a burden on schools that impacts school staff, healthcare workers and teachers. More broadly, it places a responsibility on the education system to address students' mental health. This study examines Australian teachers' classroom experiences and the training areas identified by teachers as necessary to manage these issues. METHOD: Interviews were undertaken with 18 in-service teachers between 2020 and 2021 from Catholic, Independent and Public schools. Data were gathered via multiple interviews and analysed using thematic content analysis. RESULTS: The major mental health issues identified by teachers related to mental disorders, depression, anxiety, and a complex range of negative emotional states. Teachers requested training in child and adolescent mental health, counselling skills, early detection and intervention, and training skills to manage the complex relationship with parents and external health and community personnel. Teachers also reported the need to access mental health resources, support and training, which were differentially accessed along socioeconomic status and postcodes. CONCLUSION: The data show that teachers are often placed as first responders when a student has a mental health issue but feel inadequately trained to manage these issues in the classroom. We identified mental health issues presenting in Australian classrooms and documented critical features of mental-health training asked for by teachers in order to address those issues. Given the increasing demands on teachers to address the mental health of children and adolescents, we argue that an urgent review of mental health training for teachers is needed.


Assuntos
Socorristas , Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Austrália , Ansiedade
3.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 12: e49150, 2023 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37788054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Digital technology is a means to uphold or violate human rights in various domains, including business, military, and health. Given the pervasiveness of mobile technology in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), mobile health (mHealth) interventions present an opportunity to reach remote populations and enable them to exercise civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, such as the right to health and education. Simultaneously, the ubiquity of mobile phones involves processing sensitive data which can threaten rights, including the right to privacy and nondiscrimination. Digital health is often promoted as advancing human rights and health equity; however, digital rights are underexplored in the literature on mHealth in LMICs. As such, creating an understanding of the digital rights topics covered in the 2022 literature is important to avoid exacerbating existing inequities relating to digital health design, use, implementation, and access. OBJECTIVE: This scoping review aims to identify digital rights topics in the 2022 peer-reviewed literature on mHealth in LMICs. METHODS: The Arksey and O'Malley framework for scoping reviews guides this review. Searches were performed across 7 electronic databases (Web of Science, Scopus, Ovid, ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, ProQuest, and PubMed). The screening processes were guided by the research question "What digital rights topics have been explored in the 2022 literature on mHealth in LMICs?" Only papers addressing mHealth in LMICs and digital rights topics were included. Data extraction will include publication title, year, and type; first author's affiliation country; LMICs implicated; infrastructure challenges; study aims, design, limitations, and future work; health area; mHealth technology, functions, purpose or application, and target end users; human or digital right terms used; explicit rights topics cited; and implied rights topics. The results will be reported using the PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews) checklist. RESULTS: This scoping review was registered in Open Science Framework (December 22, 2022). Title and abstract screening and full-text paper screening were completed in 2023. This resulted in 56 papers being included in the study. The target date for completing data extraction and publishing a case study of the initial findings is the end of 2023. The full scoping review findings are expected to be disseminated through various pathways benefiting academia, practice, and policy making by the end of 2024. These include journal papers, conference presentations, publicly available toolkits for research and practice, public webinars, and policy briefs with evidence-based policy recommendations emerging from this review. CONCLUSIONS: The planned scoping review will identify digital rights topics in the 2022 literature at the intersection of mHealth and LMICs. Furthermore, it will highlight the importance of patient empowerment, data protection, and inclusion in mHealth research and related policies in LMICs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework osf.io/7mz24; https://osf.io/7mz24. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/49150.

4.
JMIR Form Res ; 7: e44267, 2023 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37610805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimal child-rearing practices can help mitigate the consequences of detrimental social determinants of health in early childhood. Given the ubiquity of personal digital technologies worldwide, the direct delivery of evidence-based information about early childhood development holds great promise. However, to make the content of these novel systems effective, it is crucial to incorporate place-based cultural beliefs, traditions, circumstances, and value systems of end users. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the iterative approach used to develop the Thrive by Five child-rearing app in collaboration with Afghan parents, caregivers (eg, grandparents, aunts, and nannies), and subject matter experts (SMEs). We outline how co-design methodologies informed the development and cultural contextualization of content to meet the specific needs of Afghan parents and the content was tested and refined in collaboration with key Afghan stakeholders. METHODS: The preliminary content was developed based on a comprehensive literature review of the historical and sociocultural contexts in Afghanistan, including factors that influence child-rearing practices and early childhood development. After an initial review and refinement based on feedback from SMEs, this content was populated into a beta app for testing. Overall, 8 co-design workshops were conducted in July and August 2021 and February 2022 with 39 Afghan parents and caregivers and 6 SMEs to collect their feedback on the app and its content. The workshops were audio recorded and transcribed; detailed field notes were taken by 2 scribes. A theoretical thematic analysis using semantic codes was conducted to inform the refinement of existing content and development of new content to fulfill the needs identified by participants. RESULTS: The following 4 primary themes were identified: child-rearing in the Afghan sociocultural context, safety concerns, emotion and behavior management, and physical health and nutrition. Overall, participants agreed that the app had the potential to deliver valuable information to Afghan parents; however, owing to the volatility in the country, participants recommended including more activities that could be safely done indoors, as mothers and children are required to spend most of their time at home. Additionally, restrictions on public engagement in music required the removal of activities referencing singing that might be performed outside the home. Further, activities to help parents reduce their children's screen time, promote empathy, manage emotions, regulate behavior, and improve physical health and nutrition were requested. CONCLUSIONS: Direct engagement with Afghan parents, caregivers, and SMEs through co-design workshops enabled the development and refinement of evidence-based, localized, and contextually relevant child-rearing activities promoting healthy social, emotional, and cognitive development during the first 5 years of children's lives. Importantly, the content was adapted for the ongoing conflict in Afghanistan with the aim of empowering Afghan parents and caregivers to support their children's developmental potential despite the security concerns and situational stressors.

5.
Compr Psychiatry ; 126: 152404, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37524044

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is an ongoing necessity to match clinical interventions with the multidimensional needs of young people. A key step toward better service planning and the design of optimal models of care is to use multidimensional assessment to understand the clinical needs of those presenting to primary mental health care. METHODS: 1284 people aged 12-25 years presenting to primary youth mental health services completed an online assessment at service entry. Latent class analysis was conducted for seven scales assessing anxiety, depression, psychosis, mania, functioning (indexed by Work and Social Adjustment Scale), and suicidality. RESULTS: A three-class solution was identified as the optimal solution. Class 1 (n = 305, 23.75%), an early illness stage group, had low and mixed symptomatology with limited functional impairment, class 2 (n = 353, 27.49%) was made up of older persons with established depression and functional impairment, and class 3 (n = 626, 48.75%) had very high and complex needs, with functional impairment, suicidality, and at-risk mental states (psychosis or mania). Additional differentiating characteristics included psychological distress, circadian disturbances, social support, mental health history, eating disorder behaviours, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of help-seeking young people present with symptoms and functional impairment that may exceed the levels of care available from basic primary care or brief intervention services. These subgroups highlight the importance of multidimensional assessments to determine appropriate service pathways and care options.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Transtornos Psicóticos , Adolescente , Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Mania , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade
6.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 57(11): 1417-1427, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37183347

RESUMO

Australia's Fifth National Mental Health Plan required governments to report, not only on the progress of changes to mental health service delivery, but to also plan for services that should be provided. Future population demand for treatment and care is challenging to predict and one solution involves modelling the uncertain demands on the system. Modelling can help decision-makers understand likely future changes in mental health service demand and more intelligently choose appropriate responses. It can also support greater scrutiny, accountability and transparency of these processes. Australia has an emerging national capacity for systems modelling in mental health which can enhance the next phase of mental health reform. This paper introduces concepts useful for understanding mental health modelling and identifies where modelling approaches can support health service planners to make evidence-informed decisions regarding planning and investment for the Australian population.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Austrália , Programas Governamentais
7.
Psychiatr Serv ; 74(6): 581-588, 2023 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36444529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The authors aimed to evaluate changes in use of government-subsidized primary mental health services, through the Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS), by young people during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia and whether changes were associated with age, sex, socioeconomic status, and residence in particular geographical areas. METHODS: Interrupted time-series analyses were conducted by using quarterly mental health MBS service data (all young people ages 12-25 years, 2015-2020) for individual Statistical Area Level 3 areas across Australia. The data captured >22.4 million service records. Meta-analysis and meta-regression models estimated the pandemic interruption effect at the national level and delineated factors influencing these estimates. RESULTS: Compared with expected prepandemic trends, a 6.2% (95% CI=5.3%-7.2%) increase was noted for all young people in use of MBS mental health services in 2020. Substantial differences were found between age and sex subgroups, with a higher increase among females and young people ages 18-25. A decreasing trend was observed for males ages 18-25 (3.5% reduction, 95% CI=2.5%-4.5%). The interruption effect was strongly associated with socioeconomic status. Service uptake increased in areas of high socioeconomic status, with smaller or limited uptake in areas of low socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: During 2020, young people's use of primary mental health services increased overall. However, increases were inequitably distributed and relatively low, compared with increases in population-level mental health burden. Policy makers should address barriers to primary care access for young people, particularly for young males and those from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Austrália/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Pandemias
8.
Aust Health Rev ; 46(6): 660-666, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36288722

RESUMO

Objective This study set out to present data on out-of-pocket payments for Medicare mental health services provided by general practitioners (GP), psychiatrists, clinical psychologists and other psychologists, to explore how much is spent on out-of-pocket payments for mental health; if any trends could be seen; and what variations exist across regions. Methods We performed secondary analysis of publicly available data on Medicare-subsidised GP, allied health and specialist health care across Australia. We merged and interrogated data covering the period 2013-19 and 2019-21 to create a data set covering eight full years of Medicare mental health services, arranged by profession and by region. Results Out-of-pocket payments for mental health care in Australia have been rising consistently over the period 2013-21, at a considerably faster rate than overall expenditure on mental health care. There is wide variation in out-of-pocket payments depending on where you live. Conclusions The impact of out-of-pocket payments on community access to mental health care is growing. This has implications, especially in poorer communities, for access to care. This should be an important consideration taken as the Australian Government considers next steps in national mental health reform, including the Better Access Program, currently under evaluation.


Assuntos
Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Idoso , Humanos , Austrália , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Governo
9.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 835201, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35573322

RESUMO

Background: Mental illness costs the world economy over US2.5 Bn each year, including premature mortality, morbidity, and productivity losses. Multisector approaches are required to address the systemic drivers of mental health and ensure adequate service provision. There is an important role for economics to support priority setting, identify best value investments and inform optimal implementation. Mental health can be defined as a complex dynamic system where decision makers are challenged to prospectively manage the system over time. This protocol describes the approach to equip eight system dynamics (SD) models across Australia to support priority setting and guide portfolio investment decisions, tailored to local implementation context. Methods: As part of a multidisciplinary team, three interlinked protocols are developed; (i) the participatory process to codesign the models with local stakeholders and identify interventions for implementation, (ii) the technical protocol to develop the SD models to simulate the dynamics of the local population, drivers of mental health, the service system and clinical outcomes, and (iii) the economic protocol to detail how the SD models will be equipped to undertake a suite of economic analysis, incorporating health and societal perspectives. Models will estimate the cost of mental illness, inclusive of service costs (health and other sectors, where necessary), quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost, productivity costs and carer costs. To assess the value of investing (disinvesting) in interventions, economic analysis will include return-on-investment, cost-utility, cost benefit, and budget impact to inform affordability. Economic metrics are expected to be dynamic, conditional upon changing population demographics, service system capacities and the mix of interventions when synergetic or antagonistic interactions. To support priority setting, a portfolio approach will identify best value combinations of interventions, relative to a defined budget(s). User friendly dashboards will guide decision makers to use the SD models to inform resource allocation and generate business cases for funding. Discussion: Equipping SD models to undertake economic analysis is intended to support local priority setting and help optimise implementation regarding the best value mix of investments, timing and scale. The objectives are to improve allocative efficiency, increase mental health and economic productivity.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monitoring and reporting mental health is complex. Australia's first National Mental Health Strategy in 1992 included a new national commitment to accountability and data collection in mental health. This article provides a narrative review of thirty years of experience. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review considers key documents, policies, plans and strategies in relation to the evolution of mental health data and reporting. Documents produced by the Federal and the eight state and territory governments are considered, as well as publications produced by key information agencies, statutory authorities and others. A review of this literature demonstrates both its abundance and limitations. RESULTS: Australia's approach to mental health reporting is characterised by duplication and a lack of clarity. The data available fail to do justice to the mental health services provided in Australia. Mental health data collection and reporting processes are centrally driven, top-down and activity-focused, largely eschewing actual health outcomes, the social determinants of mental health. There is little, if any, link to clearly identifiable service user or carer priorities. Consequently, it is difficult to link this process longitudinally to clinical or systemic quality improvement. Initial links between the focus of national reform efforts and mental health data collection were evident, but these links have weakened over time. Changes to governance and reporting, including under COVID, have made the task of delivering accountability for mental health more difficult. CONCLUSION: Australia's current approach is not fit for purpose. It is at a pivotal point in mental health reform, with new capacity to use modelled data to simulate prospective mental health reform options. By drawing on these new techniques and learning the lessons of the past, Australia (and other nations) can design and implement more effective systems of planning, reporting and accountability for mental health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 759343, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721120

RESUMO

Background: Current global challenges are generating extensive social disruption and uncertainty that have the potential to undermine the mental health, wellbeing, and futures of young people. The scale and complexity of challenges call for engagement with systems science-based decision analytic tools that can capture the dynamics and interrelationships between physical, social, economic, and health systems, and support effective national and regional responses. At the outset of the pandemic mental health-related systems models were developed for the Australian context, however, the extent to which findings are generalisable across diverse regions remains unknown. This study aims to explore the context dependency of systems modelling insights. Methods: This study will employ a comparative case study design, applying participatory system dynamics modelling across eight diverse regions of Australia to answer three primary research questions: (i) Will current regional differences in key youth mental health outcomes be exacerbated in forward projections due to the social and economic impacts of COVID-19?; (ii) What combination of social policies and health system strengthening initiatives will deliver the greatest impacts within each region?; (iii) To what extent are optimal strategic responses consistent across the diverse regions? We provide a detailed technical blueprint as a potential springboard for more timely construction and deployment of systems models in international contexts to facilitate a broader examination of the question of generalisability and inform investments in the mental health and wellbeing of young people in the post COVID-19 recovery. Discussion: Computer simulation is known as the third pillar of science (after theory and experiment). Simulation allows researchers and decision makers to move beyond what can be manipulated within the scale, time, and ethical limits of the experimental approach. Such learning when achieved collectively, has the potential to enhance regional self-determination, help move beyond incremental adjustments to the status quo, and catalyze transformational change. This research seeks to advance efforts to establish regional decision support infrastructure and empower communities to effectively respond. In addition, this research seeks to move towards an understanding of the extent to which systems modelling insights may be relevant to the global mental health response by encouraging researchers to use, challenge, and advance the existing work for scientific and societal progress.

12.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(9): e26317, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Along with the proliferation of health information technologies (HITs), there is a growing need to understand the potential privacy risks associated with using such tools. Although privacy policies are designed to inform consumers, such policies have consistently been found to be confusing and lack transparency. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to present consumer preferences for accessing privacy information; develop and apply a privacy policy risk assessment tool to assess whether existing HITs meet the recommended privacy policy standards; and propose guidelines to assist health professionals and service providers with understanding the privacy risks associated with HITs, so that they can confidently promote their safe use as a part of care. METHODS: In phase 1, participatory design workshops were conducted with young people who were attending a participating headspace center, their supportive others, and health professionals and service providers from the centers. The findings were knowledge translated to determine participant preferences for the presentation and availability of privacy information and the functionality required to support its delivery. Phase 2 included the development of the 23-item privacy policy risk assessment tool, which incorporated material from international privacy literature and standards. This tool was then used to assess the privacy policies of 34 apps and e-tools. In phase 3, privacy guidelines, which were derived from learnings from a collaborative consultation process with key stakeholders, were developed to assist health professionals and service providers with understanding the privacy risks associated with incorporating HITs as a part of clinical care. RESULTS: When considering the use of HITs, the participatory design workshop participants indicated that they wanted privacy information to be easily accessible, transparent, and user-friendly to enable them to clearly understand what personal and health information will be collected and how these data will be shared and stored. The privacy policy review revealed consistently poor readability and transparency, which limited the utility of these documents as a source of information. Therefore, to enable informed consent, the privacy guidelines provided ensure that health professionals and consumers are fully aware of the potential for privacy risks in using HITs to support health and well-being. CONCLUSIONS: A lack of transparency in privacy policies has the potential to undermine consumers' ability to trust that the necessary measures are in place to secure and protect the privacy of their personal and health information, thus precluding their willingness to engage with HITs. The application of the privacy guidelines will improve the confidence of health professionals and service providers in the privacy of consumer data, thus enabling them to recommend HITs to provide or support care.


Assuntos
Informática Médica , Privacidade , Adolescente , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Políticas , Medição de Risco
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(6): e25331, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, major shortcomings in the way mental health care systems were organized were impairing the delivery of effective care. The mental health impacts of the pandemic, the recession, and the resulting social dislocation will depend on the extent to which care systems will become overwhelmed and on the strategic investments made across the system to effectively respond. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the impact of strengthening the mental health system through technology-enabled care coordination on mental health and suicide outcomes. METHODS: A system dynamics model for the regional population catchment of North Coast New South Wales, Australia, was developed that incorporated defined pathways from social determinants of mental health to psychological distress, mental health care, and suicidal behavior. The model reproduced historic time series data across a range of outcomes and was used to evaluate the relative impact of a set of scenarios on attempted suicide (ie, self-harm hospitalizations), suicide deaths, mental health-related emergency department (ED) presentations, and psychological distress over the period from 2021 to 2030. These scenarios include (1) business as usual, (2) increase in service capacity growth rate by 20%, (3) standard telehealth, and (4) technology-enabled care coordination. Each scenario was tested using both pre- and post-COVID-19 social and economic conditions. RESULTS: Technology-enabled care coordination was forecast to deliver a reduction in self-harm hospitalizations and suicide deaths by 6.71% (95% interval 5.63%-7.87%), mental health-related ED presentations by 10.33% (95% interval 8.58%-12.19%), and the prevalence of high psychological distress by 1.76 percentage points (95% interval 1.35-2.32 percentage points). Scenario testing demonstrated that increasing service capacity growth rate by 20% or standard telehealth had substantially lower impacts. This pattern of results was replicated under post-COVID-19 conditions with technology-enabled care coordination being the only tested scenario, which was forecast to reduce the negative impact of the pandemic on mental health and suicide. CONCLUSIONS: The use of technology-enabled care coordination is likely to improve mental health and suicide outcomes. The substantially lower effectiveness of targeting individual components of the mental health system (ie, increasing service capacity growth rate by 20% or standard telehealth) reiterates that strengthening the whole system has the greatest impact on patient outcomes. Investments into more of the same types of programs and services alone will not be enough to improve outcomes; instead, new models of care and the digital infrastructure to support them and their integration are needed.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , COVID-19 , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Saúde Mental , New South Wales , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Tentativa de Suicídio , Telemedicina
14.
Front Health Serv ; 1: 745456, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36926493

RESUMO

Enhanced care coordination is essential to improving access to and navigation between youth mental health services. By facilitating better communication and coordination within and between youth mental health services, the goal is to guide young people quickly to the level of care they need and reduce instances of those receiving inappropriate care (too much or too little), or no care at all. Yet, it is often unclear how this goal can be achieved in a scalable way in local regions. We recommend using technology-enabled care coordination to facilitate streamlined transitions for young people across primary, secondary, more specialised or hospital-based care. First, we describe how technology-enabled care coordination could be achieved through two fundamental shifts in current service provisions; a model of care which puts the person at the centre of their care; and a technology infrastructure that facilitates this model. Second, we detail how dynamic simulation modelling can be used to rapidly test the operational features of implementation and the likely impacts of technology-enabled care coordination in a local service environment. Combined with traditional implementation research, dynamic simulation modelling can facilitate the transformation of real-world services. This work demonstrates the benefits of creating a smart health service infrastructure with embedded dynamic simulation modelling to improve operational efficiency and clinical outcomes through participatory and data driven health service planning.

15.
J Affect Disord ; 280(Pt A): 180-188, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217700

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Young people with mental disorders present with diverse social, vocational, physical, and developmental needs. However, multifaceted interventions are rare. We examine the effectiveness of a clinical trial targeting social participation and physical well-being in young people accessing clinical services. METHODS: The 'Youth Early-intervention Study' ('YES') was an unblinded, two-phase, pilot randomized controlled trial offered as an adjunct to standard clinical care, consisting of group activities. Mixed effects models were used to examine functional outcomes over time measured by the 'Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale', 'Functioning Assessment Short Test', and 'Brief Disability Questionnaire' (items 7 and 8). RESULTS: 133 participants aged 14-25 were recruited. 87 participants completed both arms and 83 participants completed a 12-month post-trial assessment. Functioning improved across all outcomes. While diagnoses differed in functioning at baseline (lower functioning in psychotic and bipolar disorders compared to depression), they did not differ in the rate of improvement across any measure. Randomization groups did not differ in baseline functioning or the rate of improvement, suggesting a non-specific impact of the intervention. Engagement with education increased from 11% at baseline to 51% at 12-months post-trial and full-time employment increased from 8% at baseline to 20% at 12-months post-trial. LIMITATIONS: Small sample, no control group, and unmeasured potential moderators (e.g. neurocognitive impairment). CONCLUSIONS: 'YES' was effective and preliminary positive outcomes were observed across all functional outcomes. Future studies should compare the 'YES' intervention to a treatment-as-usual control condition and conduct a multi-centre trial across early intervention service sites.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Participação Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Intervenção Educacional Precoce , Emprego , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
JMIR Ment Health ; 7(2): e15914, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health information technologies (HITs) hold enormous promise for improving access to and providing better quality of mental health care. However, despite the spread of such technologies in high-income countries, these technologies have not yet been commonly adopted in low- and middle-income countries. People living in these parts of the world are at risk of experiencing physical, technological, and social health inequalities. A possible solution is to utilize the currently available HITs developed in other counties. OBJECTIVE: Using participatory design methodologies with Colombian end users (young people, their supportive others, and health professionals), this study aimed to conduct co-design workshops to culturally adapt a Web-based Mental Health eClinic (MHeC) for young people, perform one-on-one user-testing sessions to evaluate an alpha prototype of a Spanish version of the MHeC and adapt it to the Colombian context, and inform the development of a skeletal framework and alpha prototype for a Colombian version of the MHeC (MHeC-C). METHODS: This study involved the utilization of a research and development (R&D) cycle including 4 iterative phases: co-design workshops; knowledge translation; tailoring to language, culture, and place (or context); and one-on-one user-testing sessions. RESULTS: A total of 2 co-design workshops were held with 18 users-young people (n=7) and health professionals (n=11). Moreover, 10 users participated in one-on-one user-testing sessions-young people (n=5), supportive others (n=2), and health professionals (n=3). A total of 204 source documents were collected and 605 annotations were coded. A thematic analysis resulted in 6 themes (ie, opinions about the MHeC-C, Colombian context, functionality, content, user interface, and technology platforms). Participants liked the idea of having an MHeC designed and adapted for Colombian young people, and its 5 key elements were acceptable in this context (home page and triage system, self-report assessment, dashboard of results, booking and video-visit system, and personalized well-being plan). However, to be relevant in Colombia, participants stressed the need to develop additional functionality (eg, phone network backup; chat; geolocation; and integration with electronic medical records, apps, or electronic tools) as well as an adaptation of the self-report assessment. Importantly, the latter not only included language but also culture and context. CONCLUSIONS: The application of an R&D cycle that also included processes for adaptation to Colombia (language, culture, and context) resulted in the development of an evidence-based, language-appropriate, culturally sensitive, and context-adapted HIT that is relevant, applicable, engaging, and usable in both the short and long term. The resultant R&D cycle allowed for the adaptation of an already available HIT (ie, MHeC) to the MHeC-C-a low-cost and scalable technology solution for low- and middle-income countries like Colombia, which has the potential to provide young people with accessible, available, affordable, and integrated mental health care at the right time.

18.
Early Interv Psychiatry ; 14(1): 3-13, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960595

RESUMO

AIM: Over the past two decades, the youth mental health field has expanded and advanced considerably. Yet, mental disorders continue to disproportionately affect adolescents and young adults. Their prevalence and associated morbidity and mortality in young people have not substantially reduced, with high levels of unmet need and poor access to evidence-based treatments even in high-income countries. Despite the potential return on investment, youth mental disorders receive insufficient funding. Motivated by these continual disparities, we propose a strategic agenda for youth mental health research. METHOD: Youth mental health experts and funders convened to develop youth mental health research priorities, via thematic roundtable discussions, that address critical evidence-based gaps. RESULTS: Twenty-one global youth mental health research priorities were developed, including population health, neuroscience, clinical staging, novel interventions, technology, socio-cultural factors, service delivery, translation and implementation. CONCLUSIONS: These priorities will focus attention on, and provide a basis for, a systematic and collaborative strategy to globally improve youth mental health outcomes.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/tendências , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental/tendências , Pesquisa/tendências , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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