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1.
SSM Popul Health ; 25: 101588, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38225953

RESUMO

Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially among older adults. We aimed to evaluate sleep heath during COVID-19 pandemic and assess the differences among geographical regions and pandemic periods. We searched three databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science) to find articles up to March 12, 2023. We included observational studies that reported the prevalence of sleep disturbances among adults aged 60 years or older in any setting. Two researchers independently reviewed the literature and retrieved the data. We used Der Simonian-Laird random effects meta-analyses to pool the data, followed by subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and meta-regression. A total of 64 studies with 181,224 older adults during the pandemic were included. The prevalence of poor sleep quality, short sleep duration, long sleep duration, and insomnia symptoms were 47.12% (95% CI: 25.97%, 68.27%), 40.81% (95% CI: 18.49%, 63.12%), 31.61% (95% CI: 24.83%, 38.38%), and 21.15% (95% CI: 15.30%, 27.00%), respectively. The prevalence of sleep problems reported by self-constructed items was 26.97% (95% CI: 20.73%, 33.22%). When compared to America (64.13%), Europe (20.23%) and the Western Pacific (21.31%) showed a lower prevalence of sleep problems (all P < 0.0001). The prevalence of worsened sleep problems was 27.88% (95% CI: 11.94%, 43.82%). Compared to 2020 (15.14%), it increased to 47.42% in 2021 (P < 0.05). Eight studies on sleep disturbances among 672 older COVID-19 patients were included. The prevalence of sleep problems and insomnia symptoms among older COVID-19 patients were 41.58% (95% CI: 21.97%, 61.20%) and 41.56% (95% CI: 28.11%, 58.02%), respectively. A significant burden related to poor sleep has been observed among older adults worldwide over the past three years, with variations across different regions and time periods. It is important to make more efforts in prevention and intervention to identify the risk factors, treatment, and rehabilitation of sleep disturbances for healthy aging.

2.
Int J Environ Health Res ; 34(2): 767-778, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649482

RESUMO

To assess the impact of absolute humidity on influenza transmission in Beijing from 2014 to 2019, we estimated the influenza transmissibility via the instantaneous reproduction number (Rt), and evaluated its nonlinear exposure-response association and delayed effects with absolute humidity by using the distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM). Attributable fraction (AF) of Rt due to absolute humidity was calculated. The result showed a significant M-shaped relationship between Rt and absolute humidity. Compared with the effect of high absolute humidity, the low absolute humidity effect was more immediate with the most significant effect observed at lag 6 days. AFs were relatively high for the group aged 15-24 years, and was the lowest for the group aged 0-4 years with low absolute humidity. Therefore, we concluded that the component attributed to the low absolute humidity effect is greater. Young and middle-aged people are more sensitive to low absolute humidity than children and elderly.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Criança , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Pequim/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Umidade , China/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Temperatura
3.
Psychiatry Res ; 331: 115668, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38101074

RESUMO

Depression is a common mental disorder and more women are affected by depression than men. In this study, we aimed to analyze the trends in the incidence of depression among women from 1990 to 2019 and their associations with sociodemographic and universal health coverage indices based on data from the Global Burden of Disease study 2019. It was observed that while the incidence rate of depression among women decreased by an average of 0.35% per year at the global level, the incidence rate increased at the regional level for the high sociodemographic index region by an average of 0.39% per year from 1990 to 2019. And the global downward trend in incidence rate from 1990 to 2019 was contributed by the downward trend from 2000 to 2009. In Spearman correlation analyzes at the level of country/territory, a negative correlation between the estimated annual percentage change in the incidence rate and the universal health coverage index was found (ρ=-0.15).


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Transtornos Mentais , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Incidência , Depressão/epidemiologia , Saúde Global
4.
Epidemiol Infect ; 152: e2, 2023 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38097398

RESUMO

We aimed to assess the burden and trend of the HIV/AIDS epidemic among older adults over the past three decades at different geographical levels, based on the data collected from the Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) study 2019. This assessment identified the average annual percentage changes (AAPCs) using Joinpoint regression analysis. Globally, the incidence of HIV/AIDS has decreased (AAPC = -3.107); however, the overall prevalence has consistently increased (AAPC = 5.557). Additionally, both mortality (AAPC = 2.166) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs; AAPC = 2.429) have increased. The highest increasing trends in female HIV/AIDS incidence and prevalence were observed in the Central Asia region. However, for males, these trends were observed in the Oceania region and the high-income Asia Pacific region, respectively. In recent decades, females aged 70-74 years had the highest incidence and prevalence, while males aged 70-74 years had highest mortality and DALYs in low social development index (SDI) regions. Unsafe sex resulted in 15 381.16 deaths, accounting for 90.73% of all HIV/AIDS deaths, and 331 140.56 DALYs, accounting for 91.12% of all HIV/AIDS DALYs. The HIV/AIDS disease burden differs by region, age, and sex among older adults. Sexual health education and targeted screening for older adults are recommended.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Carga Global da Doença , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Saúde Global
5.
Lancet Public Health ; 8(12): e1025-e1034, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38000882

RESUMO

Over the past 2 decades, China has made remarkable progress in health-care service coverage, especially in the areas of reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health, infectious diseases, and service capacity and access. In these areas, coverage is comparable to those in high-income countries. Inequalities of service coverage in these areas have been reduced. However, there remain large gaps in the service coverage of chronic diseases. There has been little progress in controlling risk factors of chronic diseases in the past 10 years. Service coverage for most chronic conditions is lower than in high-income countries. Moreover, China has disproportionately high incidences of catastrophic health expenditure compared with countries with similar economic development. This paper comprehensively evaluates China's progress towards universal health coverage by identifying the achievements and gaps in service coverage and financial risk protection that are crucial to achieve universal health coverage goals by 2030.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Criança , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde , China , Doença Crônica
6.
Lancet Public Health ; 8(12): e1035-e1042, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38000883

RESUMO

This report analyses the underlying causes of China's achievements and gaps in universal health coverage over the past 2 decades and proposes policy recommendations for advancing universal health coverage by 2030. Although strong political commitment and targeted financial investment have produced positive outcomes in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health and infectious diseases, a fragmented and hospital-centric delivery system, rising health-care costs, shallow benefit coverage of health insurance schemes, and little integration of health in all policies have restricted China's ability to effectively prevent and control chronic disease and provide adequate financial risk protection, especially for lower-income households. Here, we used a health system conceptual framework and we propose a set of feasible policy recommendations that draw from international experiences and first-hand knowledge of China's unique institutional landscape. Our six recommendations are: instituting a primary care-focused integrated delivery system that restructures provider incentives and accountability mechanisms to prioritise prevention; leveraging digital tools to support health behaviour change; modernising information campaigns; improving financial protection through insurance reforms; promoting a health in all policy; and developing a domestic monitoring framework with refined tracer indicators that reflects China's disease burden.


Assuntos
Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Criança , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , China , Renda , Motivação
7.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 2120, 2023 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37891500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is a major cause of acute neurological symptoms in children with significant long-term neurological sequelae. However, data of diseases burden on stroke among children was lack. We aimed to be dedicated to analyze and compare global trends as well as regional and sociodemographic differences in stroke prevalence, incidence, mortality and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) among children aged 0 ~ 14 years. METHOD: We obtained data on annual number of incident strokes, prevalent strokes, deaths, and DALYs, age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs), prevalence rates (ASPRs), mortality rates (ASMRs) and DALY rates (ASDRs) of stroke among individuals aged 14 years and younger during 1990-2019 from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease Study. To quantify the temporal trends, we calculated changes (%) in number, and used joinpoint regression analysis to identify the average annual percentage changes (AAPCs) of age standardized rates. RESULT: Globally, the incident strokes and prevalent strokes increased by 18.51% and 31.97%, respectively, but DALYs due to stroke and deaths due to stroke decreased by 60.18% and 65.03%, respectively, from 1990 to 2019. During the same period, ASIR increased by 0.21% (95%CI: 0.17, 0.24) from 18.02 to 100,000 population in 1990 to 19.11 per 100,000 in 2019; ASPR increased by 0.66% (95%CI: 0.36, 0.96) from 68.88 to 100,000 population in 1990 to 81.35 per 100,000 in 2019; while ASMR (AAPC= -3.94; 95%CI: -4.07, -3.81) and ASDR (AAPC= -3.50; 95%CI: -3.64, -3.36) both decreased. In 2019, the highest age standardized incidence, prevalence, mortality, and DALY rates all occurred in low sociodemographic index (SDI) regions. The greatest increase of age standardized incidence rate (AAPC = 0.21; 95%CI: 0.18, 0.25) and prevalence rate (AAPC = 1.15; 95%CI: 0.34, 1.96) both were in high SDI regions. Eastern Sub-Saharan Africa had the highest ASIR and ASPR in 2019, and Oceania had the highest ASMR and ASDR in 2019 across 21 GBD regions. High-income North America had the largest increase in ASIR (AAPC = 0.63; 95%CI: 0.59, 0.66) and ASPR (AAPC = 1.58; 95%CI: 0.54, 2.63). Against the overall decreasing trend of ASMR, an increasing trend of ASMR was found in Zimbabwe (AAPC = 0.91; 95%CI: 0.44, 1.37) and Botswana (AAPC = 0.74; 95%CI: 0.02, 1.47). CONCLUSION: The overall increasing stroke incidence and prevalence indicated that prevention and management of stroke among younger population should be critical in the future. Despite stroke mortality with falling trend worldwide, specific countries or territories present worrying increase in stroke mortality. Without urgent implementation of effective primary prevention strategies, the stroke burden of children will probably continue to grow across the world, particularly in high-SDI countries.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Criança , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Saúde Global , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Incidência
8.
Int J Equity Health ; 22(1): 210, 2023 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37814276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migrants is a large population in China. To improve the health and wellbeing of migrants is a critical policy and social issue in China, and to enhance the utilization of primary health care by migrants is one of the most important approaches in promoting equity in health. However, there exists little research about the association between social integration and the utilization of primary health care. To address the research gap, this research aims at exploring the relation between social integration and the utilization of primary health care among migrants in China. METHODS: Using the national data from China Migrants Dynamic Survey (CMDS) in 2017, 169,989 migrants were included in this study. Social integration was measured by social communication, acculturation and self-identity, with 8 indicators. The utilization of primary health care was measured by the receiving of health education on infectious diseases (ID) and noncommunicable diseases (NCD) as well as the first visit institution when migrants were sick. After the descriptive statistical analysis, binary logistic regression was employed to evaluate the association between social integration and the utilization of primary health care. RESULTS: 65.99% of the migrants received health education on infectious diseases (ID), 40.11% of the migrants received health education on noncommunicable diseases (NCD) and 8.48% of the migrants chose to go to Community Health Center (CHC) seeking for health services. There was a positive effect of social organization participation, the influence of hometown customs, differences of hygiene habits between migrants and local people, integration willingness and evaluation of identity on the receiving of health education on ID and NCD, as well as a positive effect of civil activities engagement and differences of hygiene habits between migrants and local people on the utilization of CHC after getting sick. CONCLUSIONS: Social integration was associated with the utilization of primary health care among migrants in China. Generally speaking, greater social integration was associated with higher possibility of receiving health education on ID and NCD. However, the effect of social integration on the utilization of CHC was more complex among different indicators. There should be more policy interventions to improve the social integration of migrant which help them to get familiar with the health resource available, as well as improve the capacity of CHC.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Migrantes , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Integração Social , Atenção Primária à Saúde , China
9.
JMIR Form Res ; 7: e44031, 2023 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37610816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research assessing trends in online search activity related to mpox in China is scarce. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to provide evidence for an overview of online information searching during an infectious disease outbreak by analyzing trends in online search activity related to mpox at geographical and economic levels in China and explore influencing factors. METHODS: We used the Baidu index to present online search activity related to mpox from May 19 to September 19, 2022. Segmented interrupted time-series analysis was used to estimate trends in online search activity. Factors influencing these trends were analyzed using a general linear regression (GLM) model. We calculated the concentration index to measure economic-related inequality in online search activity and related trends. RESULTS: Online search activity was highest on the day the first imported case of mpox appeared in Chongqing compared to 3 other cutoff time points. After the day of the first imported mpox case in Taiwan, the declaration of a public health emergency of international concern, the first imported mpox case in Hong Kong, and the first imported mpox case in Chongqing, national online search activity increased by 0.642%, 1.035%, 1.199%, and 2.023%, respectively. The eastern regions had higher increases than the central and western regions. Across 31 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions, the top 3 areas with higher increases were Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin at 3 time points, with the exception of the day of the first imported mpox case in Chongqing (Chongqing replaced Tianjin on that day). When AIDS incidence increased by 1 per 100,000 people, there was an increase after the day of the first imported mpox case in Chongqing of 36.22% (95% CI 3.29%-69.15%; P=.04) after controlling for other covariates. Online search activity (concentration index=0.18; P<.001) was more concentrated among populations with a higher economic status. Unlike the central area, the eastern (concentration index=0.234; P<.001) and western areas (concentration index=0.047; P=.04) had significant economic-related disparities (P for difference <.001) in online search activity. The overall concentration index of changes in online search activity became lower over time. CONCLUSIONS: Regions with a higher economic level showed more interest in mpox, especially Beijing and Shanghai. After the day of the first imported mpox case in Chongqing, changes in online search activity were affected by AIDS incidence rate. Economic-related disparities in changes in online search activity became lower over time. It would be desirable to construct a reliable information source in regions with a higher economic level and higher AIDS incidence rate and promote public knowledge in regions with a lower economic level in China, especially after important public events.

10.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 9: e42469, 2023 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37581926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most common mental illnesses, and it may have a lasting effect on one's whole life. As a form of financial hardship, catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) may be associated with depression. However, current evidence about the relationship between CHE and the risk of depression is insufficient. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the relationship between CHE and the risk of depression among Chinese adults. METHODS: In this study, we used 3 waves of the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) from 2012, 2016, and 2018. The CFPS are a nationally representative study covering 25 of 31 provinces in Chinese mainland and representing nearly 94.5% of the total population. We selected eligible household heads as participants, divided them into 2 groups by CHE events at baseline (exposed group: with CHE; unexposed group: without CHE), and followed them up. Households with CHE were defined as having out-of-pocket medical expenditures exceeding 40% of the total household nonfood expenditure, and people with depression were identified by the 8-item Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). We first described the baseline characteristics and used logistical regression to estimate their effects on CHE events. Then, we used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% CIs of depression among participants with CHE compared with those without CHE. Finally, we analyzed the subgroup difference in the association between CHE and depression. RESULTS: Of a total of 13,315 households, 9629 were eligible for analysis. Among them, 6824 (70.9%) were men. The mean age was 50.15 (SD 12.84) years. Only 987 (10.3%) participants had no medical insurance. The prevalence of CHE at baseline was 12.9% (1393/9629). Participants with a higher family economic level (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.15, 95% CI 1.02-1.31) and with the highest socioeconomic development level (aOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.34) had a higher prevalence of CHE than reference groups. During a median of 71 (IQR 69-72) person-months of follow-up, the depression incidence of participants with CHE (1.41 per 1000 person-months) was higher than those without CHE (0.73 per 1000 person-months). Multivariable models revealed that the adjusted hazard ratio for the incidence of depression in participants with CHE was 1.33 (95% CI 1.08-1.64), and this association appeared to be greater in participants without outpatient services (for interaction, P=.048). CONCLUSIONS: CHE was significantly associated with increased risk of depression among Chinese adults. Concentrated work should be done to monitor CHE, and more efforts to ensure financial protection need to be made to prevent depression, especially for people with high health care needs.


Assuntos
Depressão , Gastos em Saúde , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/epidemiologia , População do Leste Asiático , Doença Catastrófica/epidemiologia
11.
Math Biosci Eng ; 20(7): 13133-13148, 2023 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37501481

RESUMO

Bone age assessment is of great significance to genetic diagnosis and endocrine diseases. Traditional bone age diagnosis mainly relies on experienced radiologists to examine the regions of interest in hand radiography, but it is time-consuming and may even lead to a vast error between the diagnosis result and the reference. The existing computer-aided methods predict bone age based on general regions of interest but do not explore specific regions of interest in hand radiography. This paper aims to solve such problems by performing bone age prediction on the articular surface and epiphysis from hand radiography using deep convolutional neural networks. The articular surface and epiphysis datasets are established from the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) pediatric bone age challenge, where the specific feature regions of the articular surface and epiphysis are manually segmented from hand radiography. Five convolutional neural networks, i.e., ResNet50, SENet, DenseNet-121, EfficientNet-b4, and CSPNet, are employed to improve the accuracy and efficiency of bone age diagnosis in clinical applications. Experiments show that the best-performing model can yield a mean absolute error (MAE) of 7.34 months on the proposed articular surface and epiphysis datasets, which is more accurate and fast than the radiologists. The project is available at https://github.com/YameiDeng/BAANet/, and the annotated dataset is also published at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7947923.


Assuntos
Epífises , Redes Neurais de Computação , Criança , Humanos , Radiografia , Epífises/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1257, 2023 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37380970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccination is proved to be one of the most effective and efficient way to prevent illness and reduce health inequality. Studies about association between vaccination inequalities in the childhood and awareness of basic public health services program among internal migrants in China are lacking. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between migrants' vaccination status between 0 and 6 years old and their awareness of the National Basic Public Health Services (BPHSs) project in China. METHODS: We included 10,013 respondents aged 15 years old or above of eight provinces from 2017 Migrant Population Dynamic Monitoring Survey in China, a nationwide cross-sectional study. Univariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to assess vaccination inequalities and the awareness of public health information. RESULTS: Only 64.8% migrants were vaccinated in their childhood, which is far below the goal of national requirement of 100% vaccination. This also indicated the vaccination inequalities among migrants. Female, the middle-aged, married or having a relationship, the highly educated and the healthy population had higher awareness of this project than others. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regressions showed greatly significant association between vaccination status and some vaccines. Specifically, after adding convariates, the results showed that there were significant associations between the vaccination rates of eight recommended vaccines in the childhood and their awareness of BPHSs project (all p values < 0.001), including HepB vaccine (OR: 1.28; 95%CI: 1.19, 1.37), HepA vaccine (OR: 1.27; 95%CI: 1.15, 1.41), FIn vaccine (OR: 1.28; 95%CI: 1.16, 1.45), JE vaccine (OR: 1.14; 95%CI: 1.04, 1.27), TIG vaccine (OR: 1.27; 95%CI: 1.05, 1.47), DTaP vaccine (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.11-1.53), MPSV vaccine (OR: 1.26; 95%CI: 1.07-1.49), HF vaccine (OR: 1.32; 95%CI: 1.11, 1.53), except for RaB vaccine (OR: 1.07; 95%CI: 0.89, 1.53). CONCLUSIONS: The vaccination inequalities exist among migrants. There is a strong relationship between the vaccination status in the childhood and the awareness rate of BPHSs project among migrants. From our findings we could know that the promotion of vaccination rates of the disadvantaged population such as the internal migrants or other minority population can help them increase the awareness of free public health services, which was proved to be beneficial for health equity and effectiveness and could promote public health in the future.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular , Migrantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Transversais , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Vacinação
13.
BMJ ; 381: e073043, 2023 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37164365

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore inequalities in human resources for health (HRH) in relation to all cause and cause specific mortality globally in 1990-2019. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: 172 countries and territories. DATA SOURCES: Databases of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, United Nations Statistics, and Our World in Data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was age standardized all cause mortality per 100 000 population in relation to HRH density per 10 000 population, and secondary outcome was age standardized cause specific mortality. The Lorenz curve and the concentration index (CCI) were used to assess trends and inequalities in HRH. RESULTS: Globally, the total HRH density per 10 000 population increased, from 56.0 in 1990 to 142.5 in 2019, whereas age standardized all cause mortality per 100 000 population decreased, from 995.5 in 1990 to 743.8 in 2019. The Lorenz curve lay below the equality line and CCI was 0.43 (P<0.05), indicating that the health workforce was more concentrated among countries and territories ranked high on the human development index. The CCI for HRH was stable, at about 0.42-0.43 between 1990 and 2001 and continued to decline (narrowed inequality), from 0.43 in 2001 to 0.38 in 2019 (P<0.001). In the multivariable generalized estimating equation model, a negative association was found between total HRH level and all cause mortality, with the highest levels of HRH as reference (low: incidence risk ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.32; middle: 1.14, 1.01 to 1.29; high: 1.18, 1.08 to 1.28). A negative association between total HRH density and mortality rate was more pronounced for some types of cause specific mortality, including neglected tropical diseases and malaria, enteric infections, maternal and neonatal disorders, and diabetes and kidney diseases. The risk of death was more likely to be higher in people from countries and territories with a lower density of doctors, dentistry staff, pharmaceutical staff, aides and emergency medical workers, optometrists, psychologists, personal care workers, physiotherapists, and radiographers. CONCLUSIONS: Inequalities in HRH have been decreasing over the past 30 years globally but persist. All cause mortality and most types of cause specific mortality were relatively higher in countries and territories with a limited health workforce, especially for several specific HRH types among priority diseases. The findings highlight the importance of strengthening political commitment to develop equity oriented health workforce policies, expanding health financing, and implementing targeted measures to reduce deaths related to inadequate HRH to achieve universal health coverage by 2030.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Malária , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Causas de Morte , Recursos Humanos , Mão de Obra em Saúde
14.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 13(2): 344-360, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37178451

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Primary liver cancer is not only one of the most common causes of cancer deaths but also the second most common cause of premature death worldwide. Understanding the trends in incidence and mortality of primary liver cancer and its etiologies is crucial for development of effective prevention and mitigation strategies. This study aimed to quantify the trends in incidence and mortality of primary liver cancer and its etiologies at the global, regional and national levels using data from Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. METHOD: Annual incident cases, deaths, age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs), and age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) of primary liver cancer and its etiologies, including hepatitis B, hepatitis C, alcohol use, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and other causes, between 1990 and 2019 were collected from GBD study 2019. Percentage changes in incident cases and deaths and estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) in ASIRs and ASMRs of primary liver cancer and its etiologies were calculated to quantify their temporal trends. Correlations of EAPC in ASIRs and ASMRs with socio-demographic index (SDI) and universal health coverage index (UHCI) in 2019 were separately evaluated by Pearson correlation analyses. RESULTS: Globally, the incident cases and deaths of primary liver cancer increased by 43.11% from 373 393 in 1990 to 534 365 in 2019 and 32.68% from 365 213 in 1990 to 484 584 in 2019, respectively. ASIR and ASMR of primary liver cancer decreased by an average of 2.23% (95% CI 1.83%, 2.63%) and 1.93% (95% CI 1.55%, 2.31%) per year between 1990 and 2019 worldwide, respectively. ASIRs and ASMRs of primary liver cancer varied between regions, with an increasing trend in ASIR (EAPC = 0.91; 95% CI 0.47, 1.35) and a stable trend in ASMR (EAPC = 0.42, 95% CI - 0.01, 0.85) of primary liver cancer in high SDI region between 1990 and 2019. Nearly half (91/204) of the countries suffered an increasing trend in ASIR of primary liver cancer and more than one-third (71/204) of the countries suffered an increasing trend in ASIRs of primary liver cancer from all etiologies between 1990 and 2019 worldwide. Positive correlations of EAPC in ASIR and ASMR of primary liver cancer with SDI and UHCI were observed in nations with SDI ≥ 0.7 or UHCI ≥ 70. CONCLUSION: Primary liver cancer remains a major public health concern globally, with an increasing trend in the numbers of incident cases and deaths in the past three decades. We observed an increasing trend in ASIR of primary liver cancer in nearly half of the countries and an increasing trend in ASIRs of primary liver cancer by etiology in more than one-third of the countries worldwide. In line with the Sustainable Development Goals, the identification and elimination of risk factors for primary liver cancer will be required to achieve a sustained reduction in liver cancer burden.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Carga Global da Doença , Incidência , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Saúde Global , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
15.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 32: e36, 2023 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37194279

RESUMO

AIMS: To estimate the association of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) with the risk of depression in middle-aged and old people in China. METHODS: We used data of 2011, 2013, 2015 and 2018 from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, which covered 150 counties of 28 provinces in China. CHE was calculated as out-of-pocket health expenditure exceeding 40% of a household's capacity to pay. Depression was measured by a 10-item Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. We evaluated CHE prevalence and applied Cox proportional hazard models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confident intervals (CIs) for the risk of depression among participants with CHE after controlling potential confounders, compared with those without CHE. RESULTS: Among 5765 households included in this study, CHE prevalence at baseline was 19.24%. The depression incidence of participants with CHE (8.00 per 1000 person-month) was higher than that of those without CHE (6.81 per 1000 person-month). After controlling confounders, participants with CHE had a 13% higher risk (aHR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.02-1.26) of depression than those without CHE. In subgroup analysis, the association of CHE with depression was significant in males and in people with chronic diseases, of younger age, living in rural areas and of lowest family economic level (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly one of five middle-aged and old people in China incurred CHE, and CHE was associated with the risk of depression. Concerted efforts should be made to monitor CHE and related depression episode. Moreover, timely interventions about CHE and depression need to be implemented and strengthened among middle-aged and old people.


Assuntos
Depressão , Gastos em Saúde , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Doença Catastrófica/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia
16.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(5)2023 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37243061

RESUMO

Due to significant economic burden and disability from ischaemic stroke and the relationship between ischaemic stroke and SARS-CoV-2 infection, we aimed to explore the cost-effectiveness of the two-dose inactivated COVID-19 vaccination program in reducing the economic burden of ischaemic stroke after SARS-CoV-2 infection. We constructed a decision-analytic Markov model to compare the two-dose inactivated COVID-19 vaccination strategy to the no vaccination strategy using cohort simulation. We calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and used number of the ischaemic stroke cases after SARS-CoV-2 infection and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) to assess effects. Both one-way deterministic sensitivity analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were performed to assess the robustness of the results. We found that the two-dose inactivated vaccination strategy reduced ischaemic stroke cases after SARS-CoV-2 infection by 80.89% (127/157) with a USD 1.09 million as vaccination program cost, saved USD 3675.69 million as direct health care costs and gained 26.56 million QALYs compared with no vaccination strategy among 100,000 COVID-19 patients (ICER < 0 per QALY gained). ICERs remained robust in sensitivity analysis. The proportion of older patients and the proportion of two-dose inactivated vaccination among older people were the critical factors that affected ICER. This study suggests the importance of COVID-19 vaccination is not only in preventing the spread of infectious diseases, but also in considering its long-term value in reducing the economic burden of non-communicable diseases such as ischaemic stroke after SARS-CoV-2 infection.

17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 403, 2023 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37101276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasingly prevalent among older adults around the world, leading a higher risk of household catastrophic health expenditure (CHE). As current powerful evidence was insufficient, we aimed to estimate the association between multimorbidity of NCDs and the risk of CHE in China. METHODS: We designed a cohort study using data investigated in 2011-2018 from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, which is a nationally-representative study covering 150 counties of 28 provinces in China. We used mean ± standard deviation (SD) and frequencies and percentages to describe baseline characteristics. Person χ2 test was employed to compare the differences of baseline characteristics between households with and without multimorbidity. Lorenz curve and concentration index were used to measure the socioeconomic inequalities of CHE incidence. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between multimorbidity and CHE. RESULTS: Among 17,708 participants, 17,182 individuals were included for the descriptive analysis of the prevalence of multimorbidity in 2011, and 13,299 individuals (8029 households) met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis with a median of 83 (interquartile range: 25-84) person-months of follow-up. 45.1% (7752/17,182) individuals and 56.9% (4571/8029) households had multimorbidity at baseline. Participants with higher family economic level (aOR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.86-0.97) had lower multimorbidity prevalence than those with lowest family economic level. 82.1% of participants with multimorbidity did not make use of outpatient care. The CHE incidence was more concentrated among participants with higher socioeconomic status (SES) with a concentration index of 0.059. The risk of CHE was 19% (aHR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.16-1.22) higher for each additional NCD. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately half of middle-aged and older adults in China had multimorbidity, causing a 19% higher risk of CHE for each additional NCD. Early interventions for preventing multimorbidity among people with low SES could be intensified to protect older adults from financial hardship. In addition, concerted efforts are needed to increase patients' rational healthcare utilization and strengthen current medical security for people with high SES to reduce economic disparities in CHE.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Idoso , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Multimorbidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos de Coortes , Doença Catastrófica/epidemiologia , Classe Social , China/epidemiologia
18.
Int J Surg ; 109(3): 333-342, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37093073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inguinal, femoral, and abdominal hernia repairs are the most common surgical procedure worldwide. However, studies on hernia disease burden are notably limited, in both developed and low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We investigated temporal trends in the incidence and prevalence of inguinal, femoral, and abdominal hernias at global, regional, and national levels in 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019 using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019 (GBD 2019). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Annual incident cases, prevalent cases, age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs), and age-standardized prevalence rates (ASPRs) of inguinal, femoral, and abdominal hernias between 1990 and 2019 were extracted from the GBD 2019 study and stratified by sex, age, and location. Percentage changes in incident cases and prevalent cases, and the estimated annual percentage changes of ASIRs and ASPRs were calculated to quantify the trends in the incidence and prevalence of inguinal, femoral, and abdominal hernias. Data analysis for the present study was conducted from 15 June 2022 to 15 July 2022. RESULTS: Globally, there were 32.53 million [95% uncertainty interval (UI): 27.71-37.79] prevalent cases and 13.02 million (10.68-15.49) incident cases of inguinal, femoral, and abdominal hernias in 2019, which increased by 36.00% and 63.67%, respectively, compared with 1990. Eighty-six percent of the incident cases were males, the male-to-female ratio was 6 : 1, and most patients were aged 50-69 years. India (2.45 million), China (1.95 million), and Brazil (0.71 million) accounted for more than one-third (39%) of the incident cases worldwide. From 1990 to 2019, the ASIR and ASPR showed a decreasing trend worldwide, except in Central Sub-Saharan Africa, which had an increasing trend in ASIR and ASPR. CONCLUSION: The global incident cases and prevalent cases of inguinal, femoral, and abdominal hernias increased substantially from 1990 to 2019, with a heavier burden observed in males, older adults, and in LMICs such as India and China. In addition, the ASIR and ASPR increased substantially in Central Sub-Saharan Africa. More efforts are warranted for hernia management to reduce the burden of inguinal, femoral, and abdominal hernias, such as by providing safe hernia surgical treatment for males, older adults, and LMICs.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Hérnia Inguinal , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Prevalência , Hérnia Inguinal/cirurgia , Incidência , Saúde Global , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
19.
Nutrients ; 15(8)2023 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37111091

RESUMO

Little cohort evidence is available on the effect of healthy behaviours and socioeconomic status (SES) on respiratory disease mortality. We included 372,845 participants from a UK biobank (2006-2021). SES was derived by latent class analysis. A healthy behaviours index was constructed. Participants were categorized into nine groups on the basis of combinations of them. The Cox proportional hazards model was used. There were 1447 deaths from respiratory diseases during 12.47 median follow-up years. The hazard ratios (HRs, 95% CIs) for the low SES (vs. high SES) and the four or five healthy behaviours (vs. no or one healthy behaviour) were 4.48 (3.45, 5.82) and 0.44 (0.36, 0.55), respectively. Participants with both low SES and no or one healthy behaviour had a higher risk of respiratory disease mortality (aHR = 8.32; 95% CI: 4.23, 16.35) compared with those in both high SES and four or five healthy behaviours groups. The joint associations were stronger in men than in women, and in younger than older adults. Low SES and less healthy behaviours were both associated with an increased risk of respiratory disease mortality, which augmented when both presented together, especially for young man.


Assuntos
Doenças Respiratórias , Classe Social , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Estudos Prospectivos , Nível de Saúde , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Fatores de Risco
20.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(4)2023 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37112651

RESUMO

Vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been in use for over two years, but studies that reflect real-world vaccination coverage and demographic determinants are lacking. Using a multistage stratified random cluster sampling method, we planned to directly explore vaccination coverage and the demographic determinants of different doses of COVID-19 vaccines in Beijing, especially in older populations. All 348 community health service centers in 16 districts were involved. We performed multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify demographic determinants of different coverage rates via adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% CIs. Of the 42,565 eligible participants, the total vaccination coverage rates for ≥1 dose, ≥2 doses, ≥3 doses, and 4 doses were 93.3%, 91.6%, 84.9%, and 13.0%, respectively, but decreased to 88.1%, 85.1%, 76.2%, and 3.8% in the older population. Among all participants, younger (aOR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.60-1.95), male (aOR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06-1.23), and better-educated residents (high school and technical secondary school aOR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.43-1.74; bachelor's degree aOR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.37-1.70) were more likely to be fully vaccinated. People who lived in rural areas (aOR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.31-1.60) and held the new rural cooperative health insurance (aOR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.20-1.57) established a higher rate of full vaccination coverage. No history of chronic disease was positively associated with a higher coverage rate (aOR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.66-1.97). Occupation also affected vaccination coverage. Demographic factors influencing the rate of vaccination with at least one or three doses were consistent with the results above. Results remained robust in a sensitivity analysis. Given the highly transmissible variants and declining antibody titers, accelerating the promotion of booster vaccination coverage, especially in high-risk groups such as the elderly, is a top priority. For all vaccine-preventable diseases, rapidly clarifying vaccine-hesitant populations, clearing barriers, and establishing a better immune barrier can effectively safeguard people's lives and property and coordinate economic development with epidemic prevention and control.

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