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3.
Addict Behav ; 151: 107940, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38134598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Understanding the factors that lead to relapse is a major challenge for the clinical support of smoking cessation. Neurocognitive abilities such as attention, executive functioning and working memory, are possible predictors of relapse and can be easily assessed in everyday clinical practice. In this prospective longitudinal study, we investigated the relationship between pre-smoking cessation neurocognitive performance and relapse at six months in a sample of patients being treated for their tobacco dependence. METHODS: 130 tobacco consumers were included in the study. They completed a comprehensive neuropsychological and clinical assessment before smoking cessation. The targeted abilities were intelligence, inhibition, shifting, working memory updating, verbal fluency and decision-making. RESULTS: The rate of tobacco relapse at 6 months was 58%. Logistic regressions were used to assess which variables best explained relapse. None of the neuropsychological tests was a significant predictor of relapse at either 1, 3 or 6 months, either alone, or controlling for other covariates acting as significant predictors of relapse. CONCLUSIONS: Common neuropsychological tests, even those specifically targeting executive functioning such as inhibition, are not useful predictors of the success of a smoking cessation program in a clinical setting. Other variables, such as motivation to quit smoking or the presence of comorbid depression or anxiety disorders, appear to be more useful predictors of relapse.


Assuntos
Fumantes , Produtos do Tabaco , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Longitudinais , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Doença Crônica , Recidiva
4.
J Clin Med ; 12(13)2023 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37445517

RESUMO

Mental disorders are the leading cause of diminished lifespans worldwide and make up 5 of the top 10 most significant causes of disability [...].

5.
Psychol Med ; 53(5): 1979-1988, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains unknown whether coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with bipolar disorders (BDs) are at an increased risk of mortality. We aimed to establish whether health outcomes and care differed between patients infected with COVID-19 with BD and patients without a diagnosis of severe mental illness. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study of all patients with identified COVID-19 and respiratory symptoms who were hospitalized in France between February and June 2020. The outcomes were in-hospital mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. We used propensity score matching to control for confounding factors. RESULTS: In total, 50 407 patients were included, of whom 480 were patients with BD. Patients with BD were 2 years older, more frequently women and had more comorbidities than controls without a diagnosis of severe mental illness. Patients with BD had an increased in-hospital mortality rate (26.6% v. 21.9%; p = 0.034) and similar ICU admission rate (27.9% v. 28.4%, p = 0.799), as confirmed by propensity analysis [odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (OR, 95% CI) for mortality: 1.30 (1.16-1.45), p < 0.0001]. Significant interactions between BD and age and between BD and social deprivation were found, highlighting that the most important inequalities in mortality were observed in the youngest [OR, 95% CI 2.28 (1.18-4.41), p = 0.0015] and most deprived patients with BD [OR, 95% CI 1.60 (1.33-1.92), p < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with BD were at an increased risk of mortality, which was exacerbated in the youngest and most deprived patients with BD. Patients with BD should thus be targeted as a high-risk population for severe forms of COVID-19, requiring enhanced preventive and disease management strategies.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , COVID-19 , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos de Coortes , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Pacientes Internados , Pontuação de Propensão
6.
J Affect Disord ; 306: 223-231, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35248665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe chronic psychiatric disorder affecting 0.5 to 1% of the population worldwide. To date, most studies have estimated the cost of BD via information sourced from insurance claims with limited information on clinical characteristics and course of BD. The aims of this study are (i) to estimate the direct healthcare cost associated with BD and to identify contributing factors and (ii) to study the evolution of cost during a two-year follow-up period. METHOD: We analyzed a sample of 1116 individuals with BD included in the Advanced Centers of Expertise in Bipolar Disorder cohort. We estimated the direct healthcare cost per year and per patient, and we identified the clinical features of patients with BD associated with higher direct healthcare costs. In a subsample of patients followed up for two years centers of expertise for BD, we studied the evolution of direct healthcare cost. RESULTS: The average cost of bipolar disorder was € 6910 per year and per patient. Clinical features of BD, sociodemographic characteristics, and associated addiction were associated with higher direct healthcare costs. In the subsample of patients followed-up for two years, direct healthcare cost dropped by more than 50%, strongly suggesting the beneficial effect of specialized care organization. LIMITATION: We did not estimate indirect healthcare and intangible costs. CONCLUSION: Our study investigates the cost of BD and its evolution in a deeply phenotyped longitudinal sample. Cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analyses are required to inform resource allocation decisions and to promote innovative healthcare organizations.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos
7.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 10: 100209, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing studies evaluating the association between schizophrenia and complications associated with pregnancy, delivery and neonatal outcomes are based on data prior to 2014 and have reported heterogeneous results. The objective of our study was to determine whether pregnant women with schizophrenia were at increased risk of pregnancy, delivery and neonatal complications compared with women without severe mental disorders. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study of all singleton deliveries in France between Jan. 1, 2015, and Dec. 31, 2019. We divided this population into cases (i.e., women with schizophrenia) and controls (i.e., women without a diagnosis of severe mental disorder). Cases and controls were matched (1:4) inside the same hospital and the same year by age, social deprivation, parity, smoking, alcohol and substance addictions, malnutrition, obesity, and comorbidities. Univariate and multivariate models with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (ORs [95% CIs]) were used to estimate the association between schizophrenia and 24 pregnancy, delivery and neonatal outcomes. FINDINGS: Over 5 years, 3,667,461 singleton deliveries were identified, of which 3,108 occurred in women with schizophrenia. Compared to controls, women with schizophrenia were found to be older; have more frequent smoking, alcohol and substance addictions; suffer from obesity, diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and often be hospitalized in tertiary maternity hospitals. Compared to matched controls, women with schizophrenia had more pregnancy complications (adjusted OR=1.41[95%CI 1.31-1.51]) (i.e., gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, genito-urinary infection, intrauterine growth retardation and threatened preterm labour). They had more delivery complications (aOR=1.18[95%CI 1.09 1.29]) with more still births/medical abortions (aOR=2.17[95%CI 1.62-2.90]) and caesarean sections (aOR=1.15[95%CI 1.05-1.25]). Newborns of women with schizophrenia had more neonatal complications (aOR=1.38[95%CI 1.27-1.50]) with more born preterm (aOR=1.64[95%CI1.42 -1.90]), small for gestational age (aOR=1.34[95%CI 1.19-1.50]) and low birth weight (aOR=1.75[95%CI 1.53-2.00]). INTERPRETATION: Our results highlight the importance of health disparities between pregnant women with and without schizophrenia, as well as in their newborns. Our study calls for health policy interventions during and before pregnancy, including proportionate intensified care to the level of needs, effective case management and preventive and social determinant approaches. FUNDING: No funding.

8.
Ann Med Psychol (Paris) ; 179(4): 353-362, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753948

RESUMO

Patients with schizophrenia represent a vulnerable population who have been understudied in COVID-19 research. We aimed to establish whether health outcomes and care differed between patients with schizophrenia and patients without a diagnosis of severe mental illness. We conducted a population-based cohort study of all patients with identified COVID-19 and respiratory symptoms who were hospitalized in France between February and June 2020. Cases were patients who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Controls were patients who did not have a diagnosis of severe mental illness. The outcomes were in-hospital mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. A total of 50,750 patients were included, of whom 823 were schizophrenia patients (1.6%). The schizophrenia patients had an increased in-hospital mortality (25.6% vs. 21.7%; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.30 [95% CI 1.08-1.56], p = 0.0093) and a decreased ICU admission rate (23.7% vs. 28.4%; aOR 0.75 [95% CI 0.62-0.91], p = 0.0062) compared to controls. Significant interactions between schizophrenia and age for mortality and ICU admission were observed (p = 0.0006 and p < 0.0001). Schizophrenia patients between 65 and 80 years had a significantly higher risk of death than controls of the same age (+7.89%). schizophrenia patients younger than 55 years had more ICU admissions (+13.93%) and schizophrenia patients between 65 and 80 years and older than 80 years had less ICU admissions than controls of the same age (-15.44% and -5.93%, respectively). Our findings report the existence of disparities in health and health care between schizophrenia patients and patients without a diagnosis of severe mental illness. These disparities differed according to the age and clinical profile of schizophrenia patients, suggesting the importance of personalized COVID-19 clinical management and health care strategies before, during and after hospitalization for reducing health disparities in this vulnerable population.

9.
Lancet Public Health ; 4(11): e583-e591, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia represent a vulnerable, underserved, and undertreated population who have been neglected in health disparities work. Understanding of end-of-life care in patients with schizophrenia and cancer is poor. We aimed to establish whether end-of-life care delivered to patients with schizophrenia and cancer differed from that delivered to patients with cancer who do not have diagnosed mental illness. METHODS: We did a population-based cohort study of all patients older than 15 years who had a diagnosis of advanced cancer and who died in hospital in France between Jan 1, 2013, and Dec 31, 2016. We divided this population into cases (ie, patients with schizophrenia) and controls (ie, patients without a diagnosis of mental illness) and compared access to palliative care and indicators of high-intensity end-of-life care between groups. In addition to unmatched analyses, we also did matched analyses (matched in terms of age at death, sex, and site of primary cancer) between patients with schizophrenia and matched controls (1:4). Multivariable generalised linear models were done with adjustment for social deprivation, year of death, time from cancer diagnosis to death, metastases, comorbidity, and hospital type (ie, specialist cancer centre vs non-specialist centre). FINDINGS: The main analysis included 2481 patients with schizophrenia and 222 477 controls. The matched analyses included 2477 patients with schizophrenia and 9896 controls. Patients with schizophrenia were more likely to receive palliative care in the last 31 days of life (adjusted odds ratio 1·61 [95% CI 1·45-1·80]; p<0·0001) and less likely to receive high-intensity end-of-life care-such as chemotherapy and surgery-than were matched controls without a diagnosis of mental illness. Patients with schizophrenia were also more likely to die younger, had a shorter duration between cancer diagnosis and death, and were more likely to have thoracic cancers and comorbidities than were controls. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest the existence of disparities in health and health care between patients with schizophrenia and patients without a diagnosis of mental illness. These findings underscore the need for better understanding of health inequalities so that effective interventions can be developed for this vulnerable population. FUNDING: Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille and Aix-Marseille University.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Assistência Terminal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Paliativos/organização & administração , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Assistência Terminal/organização & administração , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 80(1)2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30695288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) have been identified as a complication of antipsychotic treatment. Previous meta-analyses have investigated EPS prevalence and risk factors in randomized clinical trials with highly selected patients, but studies in real-world schizophrenia are missing. OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and clinical correlates associated with EPS in a nonselected national multicenter sample of stabilized patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2016, patients suffering from schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR criteria) were recruited through the FondaMental Academic Centers of Expertise for Schizophrenia (FACE-SZ) network and data were collected during a comprehensive 1-day-long standardized evaluation. The Simpson-Angus Scale and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale were used to assess drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) and tardive dyskinesia, respectively. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of DIP and tardive dyskinesia was 13.2% and 8.3%, respectively, in this community-dwelling sample of 674 patients. DIP was associated with negative symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS] subscore) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.102, P < .001), first-generation antipsychotic prescription (aOR = 2.038, P = .047), and anticholinergic drug administration (aOR = 2.103, P = .017) independently of sex, age, disorganization (PANSS disorganized factor), and antipsychotic polytherapy. Tardive dyskinesia was associated with PANSS disorganized factor (aOR = 1.103, P = .049) independently of sex, age, negative symptoms, excitation, first-generation antipsychotic prescription, and benzodiazepine and anticholinergic drug administration. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate the high prevalence of EPS in a nonselected community-dwelling clinically stable sample of outpatients with schizophrenia. In the monitoring of antipsychotic treatment, EPS should be systematically evaluated, especially when negative symptoms and disorganization or cognitive alteration are present. Monotherapy with a second-generation antipsychotic should be preferentially initiated for patients with these side effects.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Discinesia Induzida por Medicamentos , Doença de Parkinson Secundária , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Discinesia Tardia , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Discinesia Induzida por Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Discinesia Induzida por Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Discinesia Induzida por Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/normas , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Doença de Parkinson Secundária/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Parkinson Secundária/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson Secundária/epidemiologia , Doença de Parkinson Secundária/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Discinesia Tardia/induzido quimicamente , Discinesia Tardia/diagnóstico , Discinesia Tardia/epidemiologia , Discinesia Tardia/prevenção & controle
11.
Front Psychiatry ; 8: 244, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29225582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depression is characterized by (i) a high lifetime prevalence of 16-17% in the general population; (ii) a high frequency of treatment resistance in around 20-30% of cases; (iii) a recurrent or chronic course; (iv) a negative impact on the general functioning and quality of life; and (v) a high level of comorbidity with various psychiatric and non-psychiatric disorders, high occurrence of completed suicide, significant burden along with the personal, societal, and economic costs. In this context, there is an important need for the development of a network of expert centers for treatment-resistant depression (TRD), as performed under the leadership of the Fondation FondaMental. METHODS: The principal mission of this national network is to establish a genuine prevention, screening, and diagnosis policy for TRD to offer a systematic, comprehensive, longitudinal, and multidimensional evaluation of cases. A shared electronic medical file is used referring to a common exhaustive and standardized set of assessment tools exploring psychiatric, non-psychiatric, metabolic, biological, and cognitive dimensions of TRD. This is paralleled by a medico-economic evaluation to examine the global economic burden of the disease and related health-care resource utilization. In addition, an integrated biobank has been built by the collection of serum and DNA samples for the measurement of several biomarkers that could further be associated with the treatment resistance in the recruited depressed patients. A French observational long-term follow-up cohort study is currently in progress enabling the extensive assessment of resistant depressed patients. In those unresponsive cases, each expert center proposes relevant therapeutic options that are classically aligned to the international guidelines referring to recognized scientific societies. DISCUSSION: This approach is expected to improve the overall clinical assessments and to provide evidence-based information to those clinicians most closely involved in the management of TRD thereby facilitating treatment decisions and choice in everyday clinical practice. This could contribute to significantly improve the poor prognosis, the relapsing course, daily functioning and heavy burden of TRD. Moreover, the newly created French network of expert centers for TRD will be particularly helpful for a better characterization of sociodemographic, clinical, neuropsychological, and biological markers of treatment resistance required for the further development of personalized therapeutic strategies in TRD.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 17(11)2016 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27869767

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to identify clinician characteristics associated with higher prescription rates of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, as well as the sources that influence medical decision-making regarding the treatment of schizophrenia. We surveyed 202 psychiatrists during six regional French conferences (Bordeaux, Lyon, Marseille, Nice, Paris, and Strasbourg). Data on the characteristics of practice, prescription rates of antipsychotic, and information sources about their clinical decisions were collected. Most psychiatrists used second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), and preferentially an oral formulation, in the treatment of schizophrenia. LAI SGAs were prescribed to 30.4% of schizophrenic patients. The duration and type of practice did not influence the class or formulation of antipsychotics used. The clinicians following the higher percentage of schizophrenic patients were associated with a higher use of LAI antipsychotics and a lower use of oral SGAs. Personal experience, government regulatory approval, and guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia were the three main contributing factors guiding clinicians' decision-making regarding the treatment of schizophrenia. The more clinicians follow schizophrenic patients, the more they use LAI antipsychotics. The development of specialized programs with top specialists should lead to better use of LAI antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Preparações de Ação Retardada/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Gerenciamento Clínico , França , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Psiquiatria , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Bipolar Disord ; 18(2): 164-73, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26946486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to confirm the impact of residual symptoms on overall functioning in a large sample of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder in real-life conditions and to explore the relationship between residual symptoms and specific areas of functional impairment. METHODS: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional, non-interventional study of euthymic outpatients with bipolar disorder. The Functioning Assessment Short Test was used to assess overall and specific domains of functioning (autonomy, occupational functioning, cognitive functioning, financial issues, interpersonal relationships, and leisure time). Various residual symptoms were assessed (residual mood symptoms, emotional dysregulation, sleep and sexual disorders, stigma, and perceived cognitive impairment). Logistic regression was used to determine the best model of association between functional domains and residual symptoms. RESULTS: Almost half of the 468 patients included (42%) had poor overall functioning. Residual depressive symptoms appeared to have an impact on overall functioning and in nearly all areas of functioning. In addition, specific residual symptoms had significantly more negative effects on some domains of functioning in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (residual manic symptoms and occupational stigma on autonomy, emotional inhibition on occupational functioning, residual manic symptoms on financial issues, family stigma on interpersonal relationships, and sexual function and occupational stigma on leisure time). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the importance of evaluating overall functioning in clinical practice as well as functional domains. They also indicate that some residuals symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder should be targeted in personalized treatment plans, in order to improve functioning in the domains in which the patient is most impaired.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Transtornos Cognitivos , Depressão , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Cognição , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Alocação de Recursos
14.
Sci Rep ; 6: 20256, 2016 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26883796

RESUMO

The objective was to examine changes in temporal trends in suicide mortality in 26 Western countries by retrospective trend analysis of the WHO mortality database on causes of deaths. From 1990 to 2010, there was a median reduction in suicide mortality of 22.7%, ranging from a 46% reduction in Estonia to a 26.2% increase in Romania. Suicide mortality decreased by ≥ 20% in 15 countries, and the reduction tended to be greater in countries with higher mortality in 1990. In most of the central European countries mortality strongly declined. The median changes in the age groups were -25.3% (range -62.9% to 72.6%) in people aged 15-24 years, -36.9% (-60.5% to 32.4%) in 25-34 years, -3.6% (-57.1% to 92%) in 35-54 years, -12.2% (-37% to 65,7%) in 55-74 years and -16.1% (-54.5% to 166.7%) in ≥ 75 years. Suicide prevention programs in youths and in the elderly seem to be effective (at least in females for the elderly) and efforts should be pursued in this way. However, suicide mortality of the people aged 35-54 years has increased in half of the studied countries between 1990 and 2010. Public policies should further orientate their efforts toward this population.


Assuntos
Mortalidade/tendências , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
World J Biol Psychiatry ; 17(2): 86-128, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26912127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychomotor agitation is associated with different psychiatric conditions and represents an important issue in psychiatry. Current recommendations on agitation in psychiatry are not univocal. Actually, an improper assessment and management may result in unnecessary coercive or sedative treatments. A thorough and balanced review plus an expert consensus can guide assessment and treatment decisions. METHODS: An expert task force iteratively developed consensus using the Delphi method. Initial survey items were based on systematic review of the literature. Subsequent surveys included new, re-worded or re-rated items. RESULTS: Out of 2175 papers assessing psychomotor agitation, 124 were included in the review. Each component was assigned a level of evidence. Integrating the evidence and the experience of the task force members, a consensus was reached on 22 statements on this topic. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations on the assessment of agitation emphasise the importance of identifying any possible medical cause. For its management, experts agreed in considering verbal de-escalation and environmental modification techniques as first choice, considering physical restraint as a last resort strategy. Regarding pharmacological treatment, the "ideal" medication should calm without over-sedate. Generally, oral or inhaled formulations should be preferred over i.m. routes in mildly agitated patients. Intravenous treatments should be avoided.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Gerenciamento Clínico , Agitação Psicomotora/diagnóstico , Agitação Psicomotora/tratamento farmacológico , Agitação Psicomotora/etiologia , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Consenso , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Olanzapina , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psiquiatria , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 17(12): e278, 2015 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26681577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevention strategies to reduce alcohol use/consumption among young people are crucial to reducing alcohol-related deaths and preventing disease. This paper focuses on the effectiveness of a social networking site (SNS) alcohol prevention program targeted toward young people. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the program would diminish the relation made by participants between alcohol and festive moments, and would result in a reduction of their declared consumption of alcohol at festive moments during the program. We also explored the interaction with the prevention program that was the most efficient. METHODS: The prevention program took the form of 3 lotteries over 2 years. The participants periodically received prevention messages, particularly on alcohol and festive moments (eg, videos on Facebook and short message service [SMS] text messages on their mobile phones). For the 3 periods, the participants had to answer questions exploring the level of their belief that alcohol consumption and festive moments are highly associated. A control group that did not participate in the prevention program was asked the same questions over the same number of days for the first 2 periods. During the second period, the participants were asked to answer questions about their alcohol consumption during parties. During the third period, we explored the interaction with the prevention program on the reduction of their belief that alcohol consumption and festive moments are associated. RESULTS: A total of 651 participants (age: mean 22.24, SD 4.10 years; women: n=430) during the first period, 301 participants (age: mean 21.27, SD 3.07 years; women n=199) during the second period, and 305 (age: mean 22.41, SD 4.65 years; women: n=190) during the third period correctly completed the survey. For the control group, 69 students completed the survey during the first period (age: mean 18.93, SD 1.14 years; women: n=59) and 50 during the second (age: mean 20.78, SD 1.94 years; women: n=45). We observed a significant reduction in the association of alcohol with festive moments in the participants over the 2 years (period 1: z=-4.80, P<.001; period 2: z=-2.11, P=.04; period 3: z=-2.30; P=.02), but not in the controls. We also observed a reduction in the number of glasses consumed during festive moments for the participants (z=-2.36, P=.02), but not for the controls during the second period. The third period showed that only the number of days since registration in the program had an impact on the reduction of the association of festive moments and alcohol consumption (t21=3.186, P=.005). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that the SNS prevention program is promising in preventing the association of alcohol with festive moments and, more generally, in impacting social norms.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/prevenção & controle , Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Rede Social , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Affect Disord ; 188: 232-8, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26368948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public health policies aim to prevent suicide in the general population. Assessing their effectiveness is required to further guide public health policies. The present article focuses on the French paradox. The French health care system was classified as the best in the world according the World Health Organization (WHO). However, suicide rates in France remain high compared to other European countries. The aim of the present article was to analyze (i) the evolution of suicide Age-Standardized Death (ASDRs) in France during the last three decades and the associations with socio-economic parameters and (ii) to understand which populations may specifically benefit from further targeted suicide prevention policies. METHODS: The database of the World Health Organization (WHO), freely available, was explored in April 2015. ASDRs were calculated each year by ratio between the number of deaths by suicide and the total population (per 100,000 inhabitants). Number of deaths by gender and age were also analyzed. RESULTS: Overall, ASDR suicide has decreased since 1987 in France (-32.8% between 1987 and 2010). However, France kept the same rank (10/26) when compared to other European countries between 1987 and 2010. The relative burden of suicide in all-causes mortality increased during the same period (+28.2%) while the total number of deaths by suicide increased only slightly (+3.9%). More specifically, the number of deaths by suicide increased substantially in [35-54] years old (+40%) and 75+ years old (+27%) males, and in [35-54] (+41%) years old females. Between 2000 and 2010, suicide rates significantly decreased when yearly mean income increased, and when general and psychiatric care beds decreased. CONCLUSION: Although ASDR suicide has decreased in France since 1987, this decline is quite modest when considering its universal access to care, the prevention of depression and suicide public policies. Suicide prevention public policies should focus on evaluation and improvement of prevention and care in the [35-54] years old population, and in the males aged 75+.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Política de Saúde/tendências , Prevenção ao Suicídio , Suicídio/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27123184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the variation of relative efficacy and tolerability of an antidepressant versus others based on both pre-marketing (registration studies) and post-marketing studies versus pre-marketing studies only in patients with major depressive disorder. METHODS: The relative efficacy and tolerability of antidepressants was assessed by mixed treatment comparisons (MTCs) using data acquired over two time periods: before registration of the reference drug escitalopram (1989-2002) and up to 5 years later (1989-2007). Ranking probability outputs were presented for efficacy, using change from baseline to 8 weeks on Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale total score, and tolerability, using withdrawals due to adverse events. RESULTS: The relative efficacy and tolerability of some selected antidepressants, including escitalopram, varied considerably over the two time periods. The improved relative efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram over time, compared with citalopram, was demonstrated by greater separation of ranking probability curves for efficacy and tolerability. In 2002, escitalopram ranked low with 13.9% and 5.1% probability of being in the top four antidepressants' relative efficacy and tolerability, respectively. In 2007, ranking probabilities for relative efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram increased to 52.5% and 82.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Time of marketing authorization may not be the most appropriate time to evaluate the relative efficacy and tolerability of a new antidepressant based on MTC approach due to the asymmetry of information between new and older compounds. However, the first evaluation of relative effect of a new drug for health technology assessment recommendations is commonly done at this time. Re-evaluation of a drug several years after its launch is likely to provide a more accurate indication of its relative efficacy and tolerability.

19.
Ther Deliv ; 2(5): 611-22, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22833978

RESUMO

Many patients experience discomfort when trying to swallow tablets and capsules, but this issue is rarely discussed between patients and physicians. Discomfort when swallowing pills is common and arises due to the morphology of the oropharynx and esophagus, which are not well suited to swallowing rigid objects of small volume. Compliance with medication is poor in patients with chronic diseases such as depression. An inability or unwillingness to swallow medication can further reduce acceptance of and compliance with medication, which has an impact on effectiveness. Recognition that patient acceptance of prescribed medication is an important component of compliance has led to the development of pill-swallowing training programs and alternative formulations. Orodispersible tablets do not need to be taken with water and can be packaged discreetly in single doses. Orodispersible tablets have been shown to be effective in a number of therapy areas including depression.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/terapia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Deglutição/fisiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Comprimidos
20.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 18 Suppl 3: S140-5, 2008 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18511241

RESUMO

Patients with schizophrenia suffer a number of comorbidities and a range of potential side effects from their medication, which contribute to a negative impact on their quality of life, and are sometimes responsible for lack of compliance and relapse. Side effects, in particular, can be identified by physicians, but only if they examine their patients regularly. Many physicians would suggest that this is good clinical practice for treating patients with schizophrenia, whatever the intended medication. This continuous monitoring might include weight gain, cognitive effects, and blood tests. In fact, patients appreciate being carefully monitored and it contributes to a good patient/physician relationship. This interaction has benefits in terms of impact on compliance and better control of symptoms due to treatment adherence (to appropriate doses), because it enables action before the patient stops taking medication. Good clinical practice suggests that investment in patient monitoring is offset by improved clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Monitorização Fisiológica , Esquizofrenia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Resultado do Tratamento , Guias como Assunto , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Doenças Metabólicas/complicações , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Comportamento Sexual
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