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Arch Public Health ; 81(1): 83, 2023 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37149630


OBJECTIVES: To examine racial and ethnic disparities in postoperative opioid prescribing. DATA SOURCES: Electronic health records (EHR) data across 24 hospitals from a healthcare delivery system in Northern California from January 1, 2015 to February 2, 2020 (study period). STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional, secondary data analyses were conducted to examine differences by race and ethnicity in opioid prescribing, measured as morphine milligram equivalents (MME), among patients who underwent select, but commonly performed, surgical procedures. Linear regression models included adjustment for factors that would likely influence prescribing decisions and race and ethnicity-specific propensity weights. Opioid prescribing, overall and by race and ethnicity, was also compared to postoperative opioid guidelines. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were extracted from the EHR on adult patients undergoing a procedure during the study period, discharged to home with an opioid prescription. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Among 61,564 patients, on adjusted regression analysis, non-Hispanic Black (NHB) patients received prescriptions with higher mean MME than non-Hispanic white (NHW) patients (+ 6.4% [95% confidence interval: 4.4%, 8.3%]), whereas Hispanic and non-Hispanic Asian patients received lower mean MME (-4.2% [-5.1%, -3.2%] and - 3.6% [-4.8%, -2.3%], respectively). Nevertheless, 72.8% of all patients received prescriptions above guidelines, ranging from 71.0 to 80.3% by race and ethnicity. Disparities in prescribing were eliminated among Hispanic and NHB patients versus NHW patients when prescriptions were written within guideline recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Racial and ethnic disparities in opioid prescribing exist in the postoperative setting, yet all groups received prescriptions above guideline recommendations. Policies encouraging guideline-based prescribing may reduce disparities and overall excess prescribing.

J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 28(10): 2233-2240, 2021 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279657


OBJECTIVE: Medications frequently require prior authorization from payers before filling is authorized. Obtaining prior authorization can create delays in filling prescriptions and ultimately reduce patient adherence to medication. Electronic prior authorization (ePA), embedded in the electronic health record (EHR), could remove some barriers but has not been rigorously evaluated. We sought to evaluate the impact of implementing an ePA system on prescription filling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ePA was implemented in 2 phases in September and November 2018 in a large US healthcare system. This staggered implementation enabled the later-implementing sites to be controls. Using EHR data from all prescriptions written and linked information on whether prescriptions were filled at pharmacies, we 1:1 matched ePA prescriptions with non-ePA prescriptions for the same insurance plan, medication, and site, before and after ePA implementation, to evaluate primary adherence, or the proportion of prescriptions filled within 30 days, using generalized estimating equations. We also conducted concurrent analyses across sites during the peri-implementation period (Sept-Oct 2018). RESULTS: Of 74 546 eligible ePA prescriptions, 38 851 were matched with preimplementation controls. In total, 24 930 (64.2%) ePA prescriptions were filled compared with 26 731 (68.8%) control prescriptions (Adjusted Relative Risk [aRR]: 0.92, 95%CI: 0.91-0.93). Concurrent analyses revealed similar findings (64.7% for ePA vs 62.3% control prescriptions, aRR: 1.03, 95%CI: 0.98-1.09). DISCUSSION: Challenges with implementation, such as misfiring and insurance fragmentation, could have undermined its effectiveness, providing implications for other health informatics interventions deployed in outpatient care. CONCLUSION: Despite increasing interest in implementing ePA to improve prescription filling, adoption did not change medication adherence.

Prescrição Eletrônica , Autorização Prévia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Eletrônica , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação
JAMA Health Forum ; 2(10): e212924, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977161


Importance: Legislation mandating consultation with a prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) was implemented in California on October 2, 2018. This mandate requires PDMP consultation before prescribing a controlled substance and integrates electronic health record (EHR)-based alerts; prescribers are exempt from the mandate if they prescribe no more than a 5-day postoperative opioid supply. Although previous studies have examined the consequences of mandated PDMP consultation, few have specifically analyzed changes in postoperative opioid prescribing after mandate implementation. Objective: To examine whether the implementation of mandatory PDMP consultation with concurrent EHR-based alerts was associated with changes in postoperative opioid quantities prescribed at discharge. Design Setting and Participants: This cross-sectional study performed an interrupted time series analysis of opioid prescribing patterns within a large health care system (Sutter Health) in northern California between January 1, 2015, and February 1, 2020. A total of 93 760 adult patients who received an opioid prescription at discharge after undergoing general, obstetric and gynecologic (obstetric/gynecologic), or orthopedic surgery were included. Exposures: Mandatory PDMP consultation before opioid prescribing, with concurrent integration of an EHR alert. Prescribers are exempt from this mandate if prescribing no more than a 5-day opioid supply postoperatively. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the total quantity of opioid medications (morphine milligram equivalents [MMEs] and number of opioid tablets) prescribed at discharge before and after implementation of the PDMP mandate, with separate analyses by surgical specialty (general, obstetric/gynecologic, and orthopedic) and most common surgical procedure within each specialty (laparoscopic cholecystectomy, cesarean delivery, and knee arthroscopy). The secondary outcome was the proportion of prescriptions with a duration of longer than 5 days. Results: Of 93 760 patients (mean [SD] age, 46.7 [17.6] years; 67.9% female) who received an opioid prescription at discharge, 65 911 received prescriptions before PDMP mandate implementation, and 27 849 received prescriptions after implementation. Most patients received general or obstetric/gynecologic surgery (48.6% and 30.1%, respectively), did not have diabetes (90.3%), and had never smoked (66.0%). Before the PDMP mandate was implemented, a decreasing pattern in opioid prescribing quantities was already occurring. During the quarter of implementation, total MMEs prescribed at discharge further decreased for all 3 surgical specialties (eg, medians for general surgery: ß = -10.00 [95% CI, -19.52 to -0.48]; obstetric/gynecologic surgery: ß = -18.65 [95% CI, -22.00 to -15.30]; and orthopedic surgery: ß = -30.59 [95% CI, -40.19 to -21.00]) after adjusting for the preimplementation prescribing pattern. The total number of tablets prescribed also decreased across specialties (eg, medians for general surgery: ß = -3.02 [95% CI, -3.47 to -2.57]; obstetric/gynecologic surgery: ß = -4.86 [95% CI, -5.38 to -4.34]; and orthopedic surgery: ß = -4.06 [95% CI, -5.07 to -3.04]) compared with the quarters before implementation. These reductions were not consistent across the most common surgical procedures. For cesarean delivery, the median number of tablets prescribed decreased during the quarter of implementation (ß = -10.00; 95% CI, -10.10 to -9.90), but median MMEs did not (ß = 0; 95% CI, -9.97 to 9.97), whereas decreases were observed in both median MMEs and number of tablets prescribed (MMEs: ß = -33.33 [95% CI, -38.48 to -28.19]; tablets: ß = -10.00 [95% CI, -11.17 to -8.82]) for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. For knee arthroscopy, no decreases were found in either median MMEs or number of tablets prescribed (MMEs: ß = 10.00 [95% CI, -22.33 to 42.33; tablets: ß = 0.83; 95% CI, -3.39 to 5.05). The proportion of prescriptions written for longer than 5 days also decreased significantly during the quarter of implementation across all 3 surgical specialties. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, the implementation of mandatory PDMP consultation with a concurrent EHR-based alert was associated with an immediate decrease in opioid prescribing across the 3 surgical specialties. These findings might be explained by prescribers' attempts to meet the mandate exemption and bypass PDMP consultation rather than the PDMP consultation itself. Although policies coupled with EHR alerts may be associated with changes in postoperative opioid prescribing behavior, they need to be well designed to optimize evidence-based opioid prescribing.

Programas de Monitoramento de Prescrição de Medicamentos , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Prática Médica