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Int J Health Geogr ; 23(1): 9, 2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614973


BACKGROUND: Taxi drivers in a Chinese megacity are frequently exposed to traffic-related particulate matter (PM2.5) due to their job nature, busy road traffic, and urban density. A robust method to quantify dynamic population exposure to PM2.5 among taxi drivers is important for occupational risk prevention, however, it is limited by data availability. METHODS: This study proposed a rapid assessment of dynamic exposure to PM2.5 among drivers based on satellite-derived information, air quality data from monitoring stations, and GPS-based taxi trajectory data. An empirical study was conducted in Wuhan, China, to examine spatial and temporal variability of dynamic exposure and compare whether drivers' exposure exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) and China air quality guideline thresholds. Kernel density estimation was conducted to further explore the relationship between dynamic exposure and taxi drivers' activities. RESULTS: The taxi drivers' weekday and weekend 24-h PM2.5 exposure was 83.60 µg/m3 and 55.62 µg/m3 respectively, 3.4 and 2.2 times than the WHO's recommended level of 25 µg/m3. Specifically, drivers with high PM2.5 exposure had a higher average trip distance and smaller activity areas. Although major transportation interchanges/terminals were the common activity hotspots for both taxi drivers with high and low exposure, activity hotspots of drivers with high exposure were mainly located in busy riverside commercial areas within historic and central districts bounded by the "Inner Ring Road", while hotspots of drivers with low exposure were new commercial areas in the extended urbanized area bounded by the "Third Ring Road". CONCLUSION: These findings emphasized the need for air quality management and community planning to mitigate the potential health risks of taxi drivers.

Povo Asiático , Material Particulado , Humanos , China/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Empírica , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Análise Espacial
J Transp Geogr ; 101: 103349, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35440861


The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic is an unprecedented global health crisis and the effects may be related to environmental and socio-economic factors. In São Paulo, Brazil, the first death occurred in March 2020 and since then the numbers have grown to 175 new deaths per day in April 2021, positioning the city as the epicenter of the number of cases and deaths in Brazil. São Paulo is one of the largest cities in the world with more than 12 million inhabitants, a fleet of about 8 million vehicles and frequent pollutant concentrations above recommended values. Social inequalities are evident in the municipality, similarly to other cities in the world. This paper focuses on transportation activities related to air pollution and associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases especially on people who developed comorbidities during their whole life. This study relates travel trip data to air quality analysis and expanded to COVID-19 disease. This work studied the relationship of deaths in São Paulo due to COVID-19 with demographic density, with family income, with the use of public transport and with atmospheric pollution for the period between March 17th, 2020 and April 29th, 2021. The main results showed that generally passenger kilometers traveled, commuting times and air quality related diseases increase with residential distance from the city center, and thus, with decreasing residential density. PM2.5 concentrations are positively correlated with COVID-19 deaths, regions with high urban densities have higher numbers of deaths and long-distance frequent trips can contribute to spread of the disease.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(17): e2117776119, 2022 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446711


Research has made clear that neighborhoods impact the health and well-being of their residents. A related strand of research shows that neighborhood disadvantage is geographically clustered. Because the neighborhoods of low-income and minority populations tend to be more disadvantaged, neighborhood conditions help explain racial and socioeconomic inequalities. These strands of research restrict processes of neighborhood influence to operate only within and between geographically contiguous neighbors. However, we are underestimating the role of neighborhood conditions in explaining inequality if disadvantage extends beyond the residential and extralocal environments into a network of neighborhoods spanning the urban landscape based on where residents move within a city. I use anonymized mobile phone data to measure exposure to air pollution among residents of poor and minority neighborhoods in 88 of the most populous US cities. I find that residents from minority and poor neighborhoods travel to neighborhoods that have greater air pollution levels than the neighborhoods that residents from White and nonpoor neighborhoods visit. Hispanic neighborhoods exhibit the greatest overall pollution burden, Black/White and Asian/White disparities are greatest at the network than residential scale, and the socioeconomic advantage of lower risk exposure is highest for residents from White neighborhoods. These inequalities are notable given recent declines in segregation and air pollution levels in American cities.

Poluição do Ar , Exposição Ambiental , População Urbana , Cidades , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional , Características de Residência
Eur Transp Res Rev ; 14(1): 34, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625356


Introduction: Shared on-demand mobility services emerge at a fast pace, changing the landscape of public transport. However, shared mobility services are largely designed without considering the access needs of people with disabilities, putting these passengers at risk of exclusion. Recognising that accessibility is best addressed at the design stage and through direct participation of persons with disabilities, the objective of this study was to explore disabled users' views on the following emerging shared mobility services: (a) ride pooling, (b) microtransit, (c) motorbike taxis, (d) robotaxis, (f) e-scooter sharing, and (g) bike sharing. Methodolgy: Using an online mobility survey, we sampled disabled users' (1) views on accessibility, (2) use intention, and (3) suggestions for improving accessibility. The results reflect the responses of 553 individuals with different types of disabilities from 21 European countries. Results: Projected accessibility and use intention were greatest for microtransit, robotaxis, and ride pooling across different disabilities. In contrast, motorbike taxis, e-scooter sharing, and bike sharing were viewed as least accessible and least attractive to use, especially by persons with physical, visual, and multiple disabilities. Despite differences in projected accessibility, none of the shared mobility services would fulfil the access needs of disabled persons in their current form. Suggestions for increasing the accessibility of these services included (a) an ondemand door-to-door service, (b) an accessible booking app, (c) real-time travel information, and (d) the necessity of accommodating wheelchairs. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the need for improving both vehicles and service designs to cater for the access needs of persons with disabilities and provide policymakers with recommendations for the design of accessible mobility solutions.

Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42: e238317, 2022. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422380


A estrutura e o planejamento dos espaços urbanos influenciam a relação pessoa-cidade, na qual a mobilidade urbana representa um importante fator, que impacta diretamente a qualidade de vida dos habitantes, pois implica acesso aos bens e serviços da cidade. Este estudo transversal buscou avaliar os preditores de percepção de qualidade de vida em três grupos de usuários, de acordo com seu modal de transporte prioritário (G1 - veículo particular/aplicativo de carros, G2 - transporte público coletivo e G3 - bicicleta/caminhada). Os participantes foram 417 moradores da cidade de Porto Alegre (RS), com idade entre 18 e 60 anos, pedestres ou que se utilizem de equipamentos de transporte urbano em sua rotina semanal. Os instrumentos contemplaram os blocos: dados sociodemográficos; percepção de qualidade de vida; meios de transporte e avaliação objetiva e afetiva da cidade. A análise de dados foi realizada utilizando-se regressão linear múltipla. Como resultados, foram obtidos três modelos, um para cada grupo. Todos apresentaram, como preditores de percepção de qualidade de vida, motivos para o uso do transporte prioritário e avaliação objetiva da cidade. Os preditores diferentes entre os grupos foram a idade mais elevada (G1); o fato de ter nascido na cidade e uma avaliação afetiva positiva da cidade (G2); e a experiência de relacionamento social devido ao meio de transporte (G3). O estudo contribuiu para um melhor entendimento dos fatores relacionados à mobilidade urbana que influenciam a percepção de qualidade de vida em centros urbanos.(AU)

The structure and planning of urban spaces influence the person-city relationship, in which urban mobility represents an important factor, which directly impacts the quality of life of the inhabitants, since it implies access to the city's goods and services. This cross-sectional study sought to assess the predictors of quality of life perception in three groups of users, according to their priority transportation modal (G1 - private vehicle/ride sharing apps, G2 - public transportation, and G3 - bicycle/walking). The participants were 417 residents of the city of Porto Alegre (state of Rio Grande do Sul - RS), aged between 18 and 60 years, pedestrians or who use urban transport equipment in their weekly routine. The instruments included: sociodemographic data; perception of quality of life; means of transportation; and objective and affective assessment of the city. Data analysis was performed using multiple linear regression. As a result, three models were obtained, one for each group. All of them presented reasons for using the priority transportation and objective assessment of the city as predictors of quality of life perception. The different predictors between the groups were the highest age (G1); the fact of being born in the city and a positive affective evaluation of the city (G2); and the experience of social relationships due to the means of transportation (G3). The study contributed to a better understanding of the factors related to urban mobility that influence the quality of life perception in urban centers.(AU)

La estructura y la planificación de los espacios urbanos influyen en la relación persona-ciudad, en la que la movilidad urbana representa un factor importante, que tiene un impacto directo en la calidad de vida calidad de vida de los habitantes, ya que implica el acceso a los bienes y servicios de la ciudad. Este estudio transversal buscó evaluar los predictores de la percepción de calidad de vida en tres grupos de usuarios, de acuerdo con su modalidad de transporte prioritario (G1 - vehículo privado, aplicación de automóvil, G2 - transporte público colectivo y G3 - bicicleta/caminar). Los participantes fueron 417 residentes de la ciudad de Porto Alegre (RS), con edades entre 18 y 60 años, peatones o que utilizan equipos de transporte urbano en su rutina semanal. Los instrumentos incluyeron los bloques: datos sociodemográficos; percepción de calidad de vida; medios de transporte y evaluación objetiva y afectiva de la ciudad. El análisis de los datos se realizó mediante regresión lineal múltiple. Como resultado, se obtuvieron tres modelos, uno para cada grupo. Todos ellos presentaron, como predictores de percepción de calidad de vida, razones para usar el transporte prioritario y evaluación objetiva de la ciudad. Los predictores distintos entre los grupos fueron la edad más alta (G1); el haber nacido en la ciudad y una evaluación afectiva positiva de la ciudad (G2); y la experiencia de relaciones sociales debido al transporte (G3). El estudio contribuyó a una mejor comprensión de los factores relacionados con la movilidad urbana que influencian la percepción de calidad de vida en los centros urbanos.(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Qualidade de Vida , Área Urbana , Psicologia Ambiental , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Mobilidade Urbana , Acessibilidade Arquitetônica , Psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico , Meios de Transporte , Características da População , Fatores Sociodemográficos , Crescimento , Atividades de Lazer , Estilo de Vida , Locomoção
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 13(1): 49-54, Abril/2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1252714


Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar, por meio da interposição de questionário, pontos favoráveis e pontos potencialmente impeditivos à compra da Smart Mobb® como tecnologia assistiva auxiliar à mobilidade de pessoas com deficiência visual. Métodos: A aplicação do questionário foi realizada na Fundação Dorina Nowill para Cegos, instituição especializada no atendimento e reabilitação de pessoas com deficiência visual. A entrevista consistiu em perguntas sobre o perfil socioeconômico, social, tecnológico, sob o contexto das tecnologias assistivas, e de saúde, relativas ao indivíduo e às dificuldades que ele enfrenta no dia a dia por causa do seu quadro de deficiência visual. Resultados: Foram entrevistados oito candidatos. Os resultados indicaram que a Smart Mobb® possui características que apresentam identidade com as preferências relatadas pelas pessoas que participaram do estudo, apresentando inconsistência apenas quanto ao valor médio mensal estimado para venda e ao que esses indivíduos estão dispostos a pagar. Conclusão: Verificou-se que existe o desejo, por parte dos potenciais demandantes, quanto a soluções em tecnologias assistivas que carreguem maior teor tecnológico e que surjam como proposta de solução para o problema da mobilidade urbana. Com relação ao preço, a maioria dos entrevistados está disposta a pagar um percentual médio mensal abaixo do mínimo estipulado para a aquisição da bengala eletrônica Smart Mobb® , o que configura um potencial fator impeditivo à adesão

Objective: The objective of this work was to identify, through the questionnaire, favorable points and potentially impeding points for the purchase of Smart Mobb® as an auxiliary mobility technology for people with visual impairments. Methods: The questionnaire was applied at the Dorina Nowill Foundation for the Blind, an institution specialized in the care and rehabilitation of visually impaired people. The interview consisted of questions about the socioeconomic profile; Social; technological, in the context of assistive technologies; and health, including the individual and the difficulties he faces on a daily basis using his visual impairment. Results: Eight candidates were interviewed. The results indicate that Smart Mobb® has features that display the identity with respect to the people who study, showing inconsistency only in terms of the estimated average monthly value for sale and that these items are available for payment. Conclusion: It was found that it exists or desires, on the part of users who demand as much solutions in assisted technologies that carry greater technological content, and that appear as a solution proposal for the problem of urban mobility. With regard to price, most respondents are willing to pay an average monthly percentage below the minimum stipulated for the purchase of the Smart Mobb® electronic cane, or to set up a potential impediment to adherence

Tecnologia Assistiva , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual
Sustain Cities Soc ; : 102358, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32837870


In today's world, urban systems play an important role in sustainable economic development. In particular, urbanisation trends and the increasing demands of urban mobility place additional pressure on existing transportation infrastructure, and this creates new challenges for urban planners in terms of developing integrated and sustainable urban mobility policies. Here, we take a novel and holistic approach to analysing transformative pathways towards sustainable urban mobility, considering the complex dynamics in metropolitan regions. To achieve this, we develop a toolset to assess the impact of potential measures to be taken by decision makers. Our innovative approach is based on the introduction of a new system framework to link the interrelated sector parameters of mobility systems by considering the effects of innovative mixed methods (both qualitative and quantitative) on scenario development and evaluation on the basis of global trends at the macro scale and their specific influences on the mobility sector at the local scale. To this end, we used a participatory modelling approach to develop scenarios and evaluate them as integrated simulation runs via a comprehensive and holistic system dynamics (SD) model. Thus, we estimated dynamic interdependencies between all of the factors relating to the mobility sector and then assigned business decision-making criteria to the urban systems. Furthermore, we introduced a sustainable net present value framework to estimate the sustainability outcomes of government investment in urban mobility infrastructure. A case study relating to the Rhine-Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region in Germany was applied in order to simulate four scenarios co-created with stakeholders involved in our study, namely, Smart City, Sustainable/Healthy City, Deurbanisation and Business-as-Usual (BaU), which served as a solid basis from which to quantify path dependencies in terms of policy implementation. At the same time, recommendations were derived for sustainable mobility transformation within metropolitan regions.

J R Soc Interface ; 16(160): 20190536, 2019 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744420


Our knowledge of how cities bring together different social classes is still limited. Much effort has been devoted to investigating residential segregation, mostly over well-defined social groups (e.g. race). Little is known of how mobility and human communications affect urban social integration. The dynamics of spatial and social-network segregation and individual variations along these two dimensions are largely untapped. In this article, we put forward a computational framework based on coupling large-scale information on human mobility, social-network connections and people's socio-economic status (SES), to provide a breakthrough in our understanding of the dynamics of spatio-temporal and social-network segregation in cities. Building on top of a social similarity measure, the framework can be used to depict segregation dynamics down to the individual level, and also provide aggregate measurements at the scale of places and cities, and their evolution over time. By applying the methodology in Singapore using large-scale mobile phone and socio-economic datasets, we find a relatively higher level of segregation among relatively wealthier classes, a finding that holds for both social and physical space. We also highlight the interplay between the effect of distance decay and homophily as forces that determine communication intensity, defining a notion of characteristic 'homophily distance' that can be used to measure social segregation across cities. The time-resolved analysis reveals the changing landscape of urban segregation and the time-varying roles of places. Segregations in physical and social space are weakly correlated at the individual level but highly correlated when grouped across at least hundreds of individuals. The methodology and analysis presented in this paper enable a deeper understanding of the dynamics of human segregation in social and physical space, which can assist social scientists, planners and city authorities in the design of more integrated cities.

Modelos Teóricos , Classe Social , Meio Social , Segregação Social , População Urbana , Cidades , Humanos , Singapura
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29710784


There is growing recognition that implementation of low-carbon policies in urban passenger transport has near-term health co-benefits through increased physical activity and improved air quality. Nevertheless, co-benefits and related cost reductions are often not taken into account in decision processes, likely because they are not easy to capture. In an interdisciplinary multi-model approach we address this gap, investigating the co-benefits resulting from increased physical activity and improved air quality due to climate mitigation policies for three urban areas. Additionally we take a (macro-)economic perspective, since that is the ultimate interest of policy-makers. Methodologically, we link a transport modelling tool, a transport emission model, an emission dispersion model, a health model and a macroeconomic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to analyze three climate change mitigation scenarios. We show that higher levels of physical exercise and reduced exposure to pollutants due to mitigation measures substantially decrease morbidity and mortality. Expenditures are mainly born by the public sector but are mostly offset by the emerging co-benefits. Our macroeconomic results indicate a strong positive welfare effect, yet with slightly negative GDP and employment effects. We conclude that considering economic co-benefits of climate change mitigation policies in urban mobility can be put forward as a forceful argument for policy makers to take action.

Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Mudança Climática , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Política Ambiental , Exercício Físico , Saúde da População Urbana , Emissões de Veículos/prevenção & controle , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar/economia , Áustria , Análise Custo-Benefício , Exposição Ambiental/economia , Política Ambiental/economia , Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Meios de Transporte/economia , Meios de Transporte/métodos
Sci Eng Ethics ; 23(4): 1085-1096, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27909953


The mayor of Bogotá, Enrique Peñalosa strives to deliver transit services that promote social equity through bicycle lanes, improved sidewalks, and a world-famous Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system, "TransMilenio." Through examining the principles that guide his planning, we can flesh out a starting point for socially just transit systems. While such measures can alleviate several harms that transit systems cause, they rest on an incomplete foundation due to their top-down nature. To amend this situation, the author argues for a restorative justice approach to transportation democracy, using examples from Peñalosa's mayoral tenure. In turn, lessons from Bogotá's transportation history reveal how to develop transit systems that strongly favor justice.

Cidades , Democracia , Justiça Social/ética , Meios de Transporte/ética , Humanos
R Soc Open Sci ; 3(10): 150654, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27853531


We analyse the urban mobility in the cities of Medellín and Manizales (Colombia). Each city is represented by six mobility networks, each one encoding the origin-destination trips performed by a subset of the population corresponding to a particular socio-economic status. The nodes of each network are the different urban locations whereas links account for the existence of a trip between two different areas of the city. We study the main structural properties of these mobility networks by focusing on their spatio-temporal patterns. Our goal is to relate these patterns with the partition into six socio-economic compartments of these two societies. Our results show that spatial and temporal patterns vary across these socio-economic groups. In particular, the two datasets show that as wealth increases the early-morning activity is delayed, the midday peak becomes smoother and the spatial distribution of trips becomes more localized.

Pensar prát. (Impr.) ; 19(3): 568-578, jul.-set.2016.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-913100


Essa pesquisa buscou relacionar lazer, uso da bicicleta e mobilidade urbana. Para tanto, questionam-se quais as possibilidades e as barreiras para o uso da bicicleta na cidade de Curitiba-PR. Seguindo uma abordagem qualitativa, foram realizadas observações sistemáticas, entrevistas semiestruturadas e uma análise interpretativa. Sendo assim, surgiram as seguintes categorias de análise: espaço físico das bicicletas; espaço dos ciclistas em Curitiba; espaço do cicloativismo e espaço das políticas públicas. Conclui-se que as barreiras encontradas foram: educação no trânsito, fiscalização das normas e leis, manutenção e planejamento da malha cicloviária e a cultura para o uso da bicicleta na cidade ainda em processo de consolidação.

This research sought to relate leisure, use of bicycles and urban mobility. In order to do that, we questioned what the possibilities and barriers to the use of bicycles in the city of Curitiba-PR are. Following a qualitative approach, systematic observations, semi-structured interviews and interpretative analysis were conducted. Thus, the following categories of analysis emerged: physical space of bicycles; space of the cyclists in Curitiba; bicycle activism space and public policy space. It is concluded that the barriers found were: traffic education, monitoring of rules and laws, maintenance and planning of cycling infrastructure and use of bicycles culture in the city are still in the consolidation process.

Esa investigación buscó relacionar diversión, uso de la bicicleta y la movilidad urbana. Para ello, se examinan las posibilidades y los obstáculos para el uso de la bicicleta en la ciudad de Curitiba-PR. Siguiendo un enfoque cualitativo, se realizaron observaciones sistemáticas, entrevistas semi-estructuradas y un análisis interpretativo. Así surgieron las siguientes categorías de análisis: espacio físico para las bicicletas; espacio para los ciclistas en Curitiba; espacio para el cicloativismo espacio y espacio para las política públicas. Se concluye que los obstáculos identificados fueron: educación en el tránsito, fiscalización de las normas y leyes, manutención y planificación de la red cicloviaria y la cultura para el uso de la bicicleta en la ciudad todavía en el proceso de consolidación.

Humanos , Política Pública , Qualidade de Vida , Exercício Físico , Meios de Transporte
Estud. av ; 27(79): 27-39, set. - Dec. 2013. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-705106


O texto apresenta um resgate histórico das políticas de mobilidade urbana no Brasil, demonstrando como o tema foi tratado conforme o contexto político nas últimas décadas. O foco recai no período de redemocratização até os dias atuais, apresentando os avanços e desafios do setor, ilustrados nas demandas da sociedade e nas respostas governamentais. São estabelecidos os vínculos das pressões populares com a criação de marcos institucionais, estruturas administrativas e instrumentos financeiros em prol da melhoria da oferta dos serviços de transporte público coletivo, bem como os sucessos, fracassos e incompletudes das soluções criadas para suprir os anseios sociais. Com base nessa análise são sugeridas algumas direções, entendidas como contribuições ao recente retorno do tema à agenda decisória dos governos

This text presents a historical review of recent urban mobility policies in Brazil. The focus is on the democratization period to the present day, showing the progress and challenges of the sector. An effort is made to establish a link between popular pressures and new regulatory, administrative and financial structures in order to improve the provision of public transportation services. The text also analyses the successes, failures and incompleteness of solutions designed to meet social expectations. Based on this analysis some contributions to better approach to the subject are suggested.

Cidades , Planejamento de Cidades , Veículos Automotores , Formulação de Políticas , Planejamento Estratégico , Meios de Transporte , Urbanização
Estud. av ; 27(79): 41-53, set. - Dec. 2013.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-705107


A essência dos problemas que acometem a mobilidade cotidiana nas cidades brasileiras remete à combinação de condicionantes históricas, como a manutenção de pactos de poder que aglutinam setores conservadores da sociedade. Nesses pactos convergem proprietários fundiários urbanos, promotores imobiliários que a eles se coligam e o próprio empresariado de transporte público. Esses, como lhes convêm, mantêm dissociados a eficiência econômica da eficácia dos serviços de transportes, mantendo seu equilíbrio contábil a despeito da qualidade do serviço. Nesse contexto, urgem novas infraestruturas, intermodalidades com novos modais de transporte urbano, políticas mais expressivas de subsídios, rigoroso planejamento do uso do solo, bem como uma atuação mais incisiva do Estado enquanto regulador, planejador e fiscalizador.

The essence of the problems that affect the urban mobility in brazilian cities refers to the combination of historical conditions, such as maintaining pacts of power that coalesce reactionary sectors of society. These pacts converge urban land owners, developers that they met together and even entrepreneurs of public transport. These, as suit them, keep dissociated efficiency and effectiveness of transportation services, keeping your balance accounting despite the quality of service. In this context, it's essencial new infrastructures, intermodality with new modes of urban transport, subsidy policies more expressive, rigorous planning of land use, as well as a more incisive role of the State as regulator, planner and controller.

Cidades , Regulamentação Governamental , Formulação de Políticas , Administração Pública , Tarifas de Serviços de Saneamento , Meios de Transporte