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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 11: 1361631, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576717

RESUMO

Purpose: Despite the increase in socio-health conditions and, in general, the focus on health worldwide, many diseases still adversely affect the quality of life (QoL), including those causing vision loss. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the QoL of people with visual impairments through a questionnaire and identify issues concerning everyday life in the urban and extra-urban areas of Turin. Patients and methods: A personalized questionnaire including 25 questions was distributed to 100 enrolled patients. It was designed by integrating the most widely used questionnaires related to the QoL of people with visual impairment with questions concerning the city of Turin. The inclusion criteria were any degree of visual impairment (from mild defect to complete blindness), according to Law n. 138/2001 classification. The exclusion criteria were mental disability and residence in care homes. Finally, statistical analysis was performed. Pearson's Chi-Square test was used to evaluate the strength of the association between two qualitative variables in different sections of the questionnaire. The results were classified as statistically significant with a p-value of ≤0.05 or borderline (0.05 < p-value<0.10). Results: Based on responses to question 7 (Q7), 67% of selected patients stated that sight markedly influences their QoL. Moreover, 49% of patients responding to question 12 considered themselves almost completely dependent on other people regarding mobility and movement in and around Turin. In total, 57% used public transport (Q13); however, 50% of them found it challenging to access (Q14). Personal aids (e.g., white cane and magnifying glasses) were adopted only by 51% (Q15), and 63% of patients responding to question 18 suggested a refinement of urban aids (e.g., road signs). Of the 53 patients, 30 patients (56.6%) considered Turin a livable city for visually impaired people (Q19); however, 44 patients (84.6%) reported no significant improvements in Turin's urban logistics during the last 5 years and highlighted the urgent need to improve urban aids (Q21). Furthermore, the statistical associations studied showed that the loss of vision plays a significant role in influencing the perception of one's QoL (association of questions 7 and 8, X2 = 112.119, Cramer's V = 0.548, p-value <0.001). In addition, it is more difficult for visually impaired patients living outside the city to move outdoors (Chi-Square = 10.637, Cramer's V = 0.326, p - 245 value = 0.031) and to cross the street (Chi-Square = 14.102, Cramer's V = 0.376, p-250 value = 0.007). Finally, those who feel independent perceive their lives to be more fulfilling (Chi-Square = 268, X2 = 37.433; Cramer's V = 0.306, p value = 0.002). Conclusion: Our study showed how vision loss plays a remarkable role in influencing the perception of one's QoL. Furthermore, it highlighted how the implementation of mobility and the use of personal aids for living in a city, such as Turin, were associated with a better perception of QoL by visually impaired patients. However, it is necessary to improve urban technological development according to the needs of people with visual disability.

2.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546815

RESUMO

There is a higher incidence of diagnosed Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in children with visual impairment and blindness (VIB) than in typically sighted children. However, we currently lack appropriate assessment measures to fully understand the neurodevelopment of children with VIB. Numerous factors, such as common characteristics between children with VIB and ASD and the reliance of visual behaviours in assessments of ASD, complicate the clinical and diagnostic understanding of these children. This scoping review aims to describe the published knowledge on ASD assessment in children with VIB. The literature search was performed through MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Scopus. Reference lists of pertinent articles were scrutinized for snowball searching. Articles retained were based on original empirical studies, were relevant to or conducted with children or adolescents with VIB and described assessments for ASD. Pertinent information was extracted, and a thematic analysis was performed. Only 13 articles retrieved pertained to and described the assessment of ASD in children with VIB. The following themes emerged: appropriateness of commonly used ASD assessment tools for children with VIB, modification of pre-existing ASD assessment tools for a better assessment, creation of new assessment tools for this population, time points of assessment, and professional training and practice guidelines. The reviewed literature highlights that there is still much work to be done to better understand the complex relationship between VIB and ASD, and consensus is needed on how best to go about assessing neurodevelopmental disorders in children with VIB.

3.
Eur J Pediatr ; 183(4): 1891-1900, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319404

RESUMO

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an important cause of avoidable childhood visual impairment, and the increase in number and survival of premature infants may inflate its burden globally. We aimed to comprehensively assess the trends and inequalities in the burden of ROP-related visual impairment and to identify improvement gaps to facilitate appropriate actions in neonatal care systems. We obtained ROP data from the Global Burden of Disease 2019 study. We employed joinpoint regression analysis to assess the trends of the burden of ROP-related visual impairment, measured by age-standardised prevalence rates, health equity analysis methods to evaluate cross-country burden inequalities, and data envelopment and stochastic frontier analyses to identify improvement gaps based on the development status, i.e., sociodemographic index (SDI). Between 1990 and 2019, the age-standardised prevalence rates of ROP-related visual impairment significantly increased worldwide (average annual percentage change: 0.23 [95% confidence interval, 0.21-0.26] among males and 0.26 [0.25-0.27] among females), primarily in developed regions. Although significant SDI-related cross-country inequalities were identified, these reduced over time (slope index of inequality: -57.74 [-66.22 to -49.25] in 1990 to -29.68 [-38.39 to -20.97] in 2019; health concentration index: -0.11 [-0.13 to -0.09] in 1990 to -0.07 [-0.09 to -0.06] in 2019). Notably, some less-developed countries exhibited superior performance despite limited resources, whereas others with a higher SDI delivered lagging performance.  Conclusion: The global burden of ROP-related visual impairment has steadily increased between 1990 and 2019, with disproportionate burden concentration among less-developed countries, requiring appropriate preventive and intervention measures. What is Known: • Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an important cause of avoidable childhood visual impairment. • The prevalence of ROP is anticipated to increase due to the growing number of extremely premature infants. What is New: • The prevalence of ROP-related visual impairment has increased worldwide, primarily in developed regions, with declining but persisting cross-country inequalities. • The increasing burden of ROP-related visual impairment should be considered as part of global and national health agendas, requiring interventions with proven efficacy.


Assuntos
Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Retinopatia da Prematuridade , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Lactente , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/complicações , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Prevalência , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia , Idade Gestacional
4.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; : 1-3, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315792

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the association between visual impairment and employment status due to disability, utilizing data from the 2022 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). METHODS: Adults 18 years of age and older were extracted from the 2022 NHIS dataset. A multivariable logistic regression model was created to evaluate the odds of unemployment ("laid off" and "looking for work"). Persons over the age of 65, as well as persons retired, going to school, self-employed, seasonal, or contract workers were excluded. Independent variables for the model included gender, race, Hispanic ethnicity, urban residency, level of education, citizenship, and self-reported vision. The latter variable was categorized as seeing with "some" difficulty, with "severe" difficulty, "can't see at all," and "a lot of difficulty." Outcomes were reported as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Associations with unemployment included education less than high school (OR 6.05, 95% CI: 3.98-9.18) and high school (OR 3.80, 95% CI 2.78-5.21); severe vision difficulty (OR 3.68 95% CI 1.73-7.86); Asian race (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.64-3.89); and Black race (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.31-2.41). The odds of unemployment were marginally elevated for those living in large metropolitan areas, while being born in the United States had a modest protective effect (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.42-0.66). CONCLUSION: The degree of visual impairment in this post-COVID-19 pandemic survey substantially affects employment, which is consistent with historical studies. Education among those with impaired vision is an important and modifiable variable that can positively influence the chances of employment.

5.
Clin Ophthalmol ; 18: 289-301, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317794

RESUMO

Background: Low/middle-income countries have the highest burden of blindeness and visual impairment, which directly affects the children and indirectly affects their community. Furthermore, the number of blind years suffered by children with low vision or blindness creates a self-perpetuating ripple effect on their development, health and the socio-economic development of their communities. This systematic review aims to interrogate the existing evidence on the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in Nigerian children to provide evidence to drive health policy. Methods: This was a systematic review without meta-analysis (SwiM) using a narrative synthesis of the evidence reported using the PRISMA guidelines. All primary cross-sectional studies (in English) reporting the prevalence and causes of visual impairment among Nigerian children under 20 years old between 2003 and 2022 were included in this review. PUBMED, AJOL, BASE and ProQuest databases were searched for eligible studies between 6 June and 15 July 2023. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the AXIS tool. Results were extracted and summarised using descriptive statistics. Visual impairment and blindness using the presenting visual acuity in the better eye were reported using the WHO classification. Results: Seventeen studies, involving 16,924 children from 13 states across five geo-political zones in Nigeria, were included in the final analysis of this review. The prevalence of visual impairment was 3.9%, 2.7% and 0.3% for mild, moderate and severe visual impairments, respectively, due to ametropia, cataracts, glaucoma, etc. The prevalence of blindness was 0.2% due to cataracts, corneal scars and optic atrophy. Conclusion: Blindness and visual impairment is still a significant clinical and public health burden among Nigerian children. Hence, there is still a need for clinicians, especially opthalmologists, public health specialists, policy-makers, and other relevant stakeholders to intensify efforts towards the prevention and control of this burden.

6.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 31(1): 62-69, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36872562

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and main causes of blindness and visual impairment in population aged 50 years and older in Armenia using Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) methodology. METHODS: The study team randomly selected 50 clusters (each consisting of 50 people) from all 11 regions of Armenia. Data on participants' demographics, presenting visual acuity, pinhole visual acuity, principal cause of presenting visual acuity, spectacle coverage, uncorrected refractive error (URE), and presbyopia were collected using the RAAB survey form. Four teams of trained eye care professionals completed data collection in 2019. RESULTS: Overall, 2,258 people of 50 years and older participated in the study. The age- and gender- adjusted prevalence of bilateral blindness, severe and moderate visual impairment were 1.5% (95% CI: 1.0-2.1), 1.6% (95% CI: 1.0-2.2) and 6.6% (95% CI: 5.5-7.7), respectively.The main causes of blindness were cataract (43.9%) and glaucoma (17.1%). About 54.6% and 35.3% of participants had URE and uncorrected presbyopia, respectively. The prevalence of bilateral blindness and functional low vision increased with age and was the highest in participants 80 years and older. CONCLUSION: The rate of bilateral blindness was comparable with findings from countries that share similar background and confirmed that untreated cataract was the main cause of blindness. Given that cataract blindness is avoidable, strategies should be developed aiming to further increase the volume and quality of cataract care in Armenia.


Assuntos
Catarata , Presbiopia , Erros de Refração , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Armênia/epidemiologia , Cegueira/epidemiologia , Cegueira/etiologia , Cegueira/prevenção & controle , Catarata/complicações , Catarata/epidemiologia , Presbiopia/complicações , Prevalência , Erros de Refração/complicações , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transtornos da Visão/complicações , Masculino , Feminino
7.
Ophthalmology ; 131(3): 349-359, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37758028

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the rate of visual impairment (VI) from uncorrected refractive error (URE) and associations with demographic and socioeconomic factors among low-income patients presenting to the Michigan Screening and Intervention for Glaucoma and Eye Health through Telemedicine (MI-SIGHT) program. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Adults ≥ 18 years without acute ocular symptoms. METHODS: MI-SIGHT program participants received a telemedicine-based eye disease screening and ordered glasses through an online optical store. Participants were categorized based on refractive error (RE) status: VI from URE (presenting visual acuity [PVA], ≤ 20/50; best-corrected visual acuity [BCVA], ≥ 20/40), URE without VI (PVA, ≥ 20/40; ≥ 2-line improvement to BCVA), and no or adequately corrected RE (PVA, ≥ 20/40; < 2-line improvement to BCVA). Patient demographics, self-reported visual function, and satisfaction with glasses obtained through the program were compared among groups using analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square, and Fisher exact testing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: PVA, BCVA, and presence of VI (defined as PVA ≤ 20/50). RESULTS: Of 1171 participants enrolled in the MI-SIGHT program during the first year, average age was 55.1 years (SD = 14.5), 37.7% were male, 54.1% identified as Black, and 1166 (99.6%) had both PVA and BCVA measured. VI was observed in 120 participants (10.3%); 96 had VI from URE (8.2%), 168 participants (14.4%) had URE without VI, and 878 (75.3%) had no or adequately corrected RE. A smaller percentage of participants with VI resulting from URE reported having a college degree, and a larger percentage reported income < $10 000 compared with participants with no or adequately corrected RE (3.2% vs. 14.2% [P = 0.02]; 45.5% vs. 21.6% [P < 0.0001], respectively). Visual function was lowest among participants with VI from URE, followed by those with URE without VI, and then those with no or adequately corrected RE (9-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire composite score, 67.3 ± 19.6 vs. 77.0 ± 14.4 vs. 82.2 ± 13.3, respectively; P < 0.0001). In total, 71.2% (n = 830) ordered glasses for an average cost of $36.80 ± $32.60; 97.7% were satisfied with their glasses. CONCLUSIONS: URE was the main cause of VI at 2 clinics serving low-income communities and was associated with reduced vision-related quality of life. An online optical store with lower prices made eyeglasses accessible to low-income patients. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found in the Footnotes and Disclosures at the end of this article.


Assuntos
Erros de Refração , Baixa Visão , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Baixa Visão/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Michigan/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Erros de Refração/terapia , Prevalência
8.
Semin Ophthalmol ; 39(3): 209-216, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37876215

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to describe changes in the geographic distribution of self-reported visual impairment (VI) over the last decade (2010-2019) in the U.S. METHODS: Our study was an analysis of publicly available data collected between 2010 and 2019 from the Census Bureau American Community Survey. RESULTS: The mean overall prevalence of self-reported VI from 2010 to 2019 was 2.31% in the United States, and there was a significant increase in VI over the past decade from 2.25% in 2010-2014 to 2.37% in 2015-2019 (p < .001). VI was significantly higher in rural counties (3.58%), compared to urban (3.10%) or metropolitan counties (2.18%) (p < .001). In terms of geographic region, the South of the United States had the highest rate of VI (2.63%) (p < .001). For age groups > 17-years-old in the 2010-2019 data, women had higher rates of VI compared to men. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of self-reported visual impairment has risen and disproportionately affects certain communities. This includes individuals living in the South, in rural counties, and women.


Assuntos
População Rural , Transtornos da Visão , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Prevalência , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia
9.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1292491, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38026362

RESUMO

Medical professionals often find it challenging to assess children having both complex disabilities and visual impairment, which may lead to excluding such children from educational programs and limiting their full participation in family and community activities. Identification and assessment of these children are essential to close this exclusion gap. A five-year project in Shanxi province, China, provided comprehensive training to eye health providers and educators as they learned to assess, identify, refer and serve children with visual impairments, both with and without complex disabilities. A team of teachers, vision and general healthcare providers worked to assess the vision of these children at schools, residential settings, and in homes throughout Shanxi. The project led to deep collaboration between Shanxi's health and education sectors, and established replicable precedents for policy and system changes toward the inclusion of children with complex disabilities and visual impairment.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Humanos , Criança , Escolaridade , Instituições Acadêmicas , China , Transtornos da Visão
10.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1277341, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37808983

RESUMO

Background: Visual impairment (V.I.) has been associated with a negative impact on mental health outcomes, including a process of grief among those who lose their sight. Older adults with V.I. who had experienced discrimination have been found to be at increased risk of depression, loneliness, poorer life satisfaction and poorer quality of life. Adults from minority ethnic communities (MEC) may be at increased risk of V.I. and yet, research on the experiences of MEC adults with V.I. remains limited. This article forms part of a series which explores issues and status among MEC adults living with V.I. in the UK. Methods: A secondary analysis of V.I. Lives survey data was performed to explore mental well-being assessed by the short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale (SWEMWBS), the emotional impact of V.I., and prejudice and discrimination among a matched control sample of 77 MEC and 77 adults from white communities (WC). Participants were matched by age, gender, UK region and urban/rural setting. Subgroup analyses were also conducted for the two largest MEC subgroups, Asian (n = 46) and black participants (n = 22). Results: There were few statistically significant differences between the groups. MEC participants were significantly more likely than WC participants to rate emotional support to come to terms with their V.I. as important and to feel optimistic about their V.I. but they were significantly less likely to agree that they were receiving the level of emotional support they needed to get on with their life. Within the MEC group, participants from Asian communities had significantly poorer mental well-being, and they were also significantly more likely to agree that the general public were often prejudiced against people with V.I. and less likely to feel optimistic about their V.I. than black participants. Conclusion: Although there were few statistically significant differences, participants from Asian communities were more likely to report poor mental and emotional well-being, and experiences of discrimination, than black and white participants. In contrast, participants from black communities fared the same as, or in some cases better than, white participants. Future research will need to confirm these findings and explore reasons for these.


Assuntos
Grupos Minoritários , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Idoso , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Preconceito , Transtornos da Visão , Reino Unido
11.
Cureus ; 15(9): e45108, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37842493

RESUMO

Nepal is one of the world's least-developed countries. Nepalese children are often vulnerable to a lack of resources which leads to suboptimal levels of health in turn. This review article aims to identify health issues and inequities faced by school-aged children greater than five years old in Nepal. A comprehensive search of the literature was conducted in PubMed and Global Health databases to gather relevant studies. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to select appropriate articles, and 35 full-length articles were reviewed in-depth. The literature supports the association between inadequate resource distribution among Nepalese children and poorer health outcomes compared to youth in developed countries. The key health issues of Nepalese youth identified in the literature consist of diarrheal illness, stunted growth, dental caries, visual impairment, poor mental health, and low health literacy. This review article aims to identify key health issues affecting Nepalese youth as well as propose interventions that can lead to an enhanced quality of life in this population.

12.
Int Ophthalmol ; 43(12): 4719-4728, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37713146

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cataracts, refractive disorders, age-related macular disease (AMD), and glaucoma, as well as their trends from 1990 to 2019 in Iran, in comparison with high-middle socio-demographic index (HMSDI) countries and the world, using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 study. METHODS: The GBD study provided data on the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment (VI), as well as four of their causes including cataracts, refractive disorders, age-related macular disease (AMD), and glaucoma. Using Joinpoint analysis, the annual percent change (APC) was calculated to assess the trend of change in prevalence in each category of diseases from 1990 to 2019, stratified by sex and age, for Iran, HMSDI countries, and the world. RESULTS: In 2019, refractive errors and cataracts were the most common causes of blindness and VI for both genders in Iran, HMSDI countries and the world. Iran had a higher age-standardized prevalence in all four categories of ophthalmologic disorders compared to HMSDI countries and the world for both genders in 2019. Additionally, the age-specific prevalence of all four disorders in 2019 was higher in Iran compared to HMSDI countries. However, in terms of trends of prevalence from 1990 to 2019, the rate of reduction for the four ophthalmologic disorders in Iran was higher than in HMSDI and the world for both males and females. Furthermore, Iran had a greater percentage of reduction in prevalence for all age groups in all four disorders compared to HMSDI countries. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of cataracts, refractive errors, AMD, and glaucoma in Iran was higher compared to HMSDI countries in 2019 for both sexes and all age groups, but the trends of prevalence for all four disorders from 1990 to 2019 in Iran had a higher slope of reduction compared to HMSDI countries for all ages and sexes.


Assuntos
Catarata , Glaucoma , Degeneração Macular , Erros de Refração , Baixa Visão , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Cegueira/epidemiologia , Cegueira/etiologia , Baixa Visão/epidemiologia , Baixa Visão/etiologia , Erros de Refração/complicações , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Glaucoma/complicações , Glaucoma/epidemiologia , Catarata/complicações , Catarata/epidemiologia , Degeneração Macular/complicações
13.
J Correct Health Care ; 29(5): 329-337, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37733299

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and factors associated with visual impairment among adults with a history of criminal justice involvement (CJI). This retrospective, cross-sectional study reviewed adult respondents from the 2015-2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. We analyzed sociodemographic and health characteristics to determine factors associated with visual impairment among adults with and without a history of CJI. In this national, population-based study, we found similar rates of visual impairment among adults with and without CJI (5.7% vs. 4.2%, p < .001). However, adults with CJI were more likely to report visual impairment at a younger age. Among adults with CJI, visual impairment was associated with female sex, older age, Black/African American race, less education, lower income, and chronic health conditions (including diabetes, heart disease, respiratory illness, mental health symptoms, and hearing impairment). CJI in the past year (probation [adjusted odds ratio, AOR, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.53-0.93]; one arrest [AOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.14-1.89]; two or more arrests [AOR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.29-2.33]) was uniquely associated with visual impairment among adults with a CJI history (p < .05 for all relationships). Research, screening, and treatment for visual impairment should include those with justice involvement to improve health equity.

14.
Patient Educ Couns ; 116: 107932, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37566948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Patient education and health literacy aim to enhance understanding of health and self-care for optimal health outcomes. However, the attention towards populations with visual impairments requiring specialized accommodations for improved health literacy and healthcare access appears to be insufficient METHODS: In an effort to bridge this gap, we conducted a scoping review focusing on health literacy studies undertaken specifically for individuals with visual impairments. RESULTS: We encapsulate the main findings and constraints of preceding studies and deliberate on the influence of health literacy research for individuals with visual impairments on healthcare inequalities and health disparities. CONCLUSIONS: A health-literate approach, combined with an accessible healthcare environment, can serve as a catalyst to motivate individuals with visual impairments to actively engage in their self-care practices. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: It is of utmost urgency to develop and validate a health literacy assessment tool for visually impaired individuals, and to utilize it for providing healthcare interventions as well as health education.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Educação em Saúde , Transtornos da Visão/terapia
15.
Ghana Med J ; 57(1): 58-65, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37576369

RESUMO

Objective: This survey determined the utilisation of eye care services and associated factors among adults in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Design: A population-based cross-sectional descriptive study. Method: Data for this study was collected from 1615 randomly selected individuals in the Ashanti region of Ghana, using a structured, pretested interviewer-guided questionnaire. Information regarding the accessibility and determinants of, and barriers to, eye care services was based on self-reports, using the WHO Eye Care Services Assessment Questionnaire. Inferential analyses were performed using the chi-square test for statistical significance, set at p=0.05. Setting: Ashanti Region, Ghana. Participants: One thousand six hundred and fifteen randomly selected adults. Results: Public eye care facilities were used by 58.2% of the participants for their last eye exam. Of the participants, 47.0% had travelled less than five kilometres for their last eye exam. Waiting time and service cost were participants' most frequently cited challenges in seeking care. No need felt (40.1%), self-medication (37.7%) and cost (22.2%) were the most frequently mentioned barriers to seeking ophthalmic services. Conclusion: The major challenges encountered in seeking eye care services were waiting time and cost of service. Major barriers to ophthalmic services utilisation were no need felt, self-medication and cost. Factors such as cost, lack of felt need and self-medication, which serve as barriers to utilising eye care services, should be addressed by stake-holders through eye health education and promotion. Funding: None declared.


Assuntos
Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Adulto , Humanos , Gana , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Escolaridade
16.
Disabil Health J ; 16(4): 101500, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37481354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with sensory impairment (visual and/or hearing) experience health inequalities and increased the risk of medication-related iatrogenic disease compared with the general population. Assistive technologies and tailored strategies could support medication management for individuals with sensory impairment to reduce harm and increase the likelihood of therapeutic benefit. OBJECTIVE: This scoping review identified assistive technologies and strategies to support medication management of/for people with hearing and/or visual impairment. METHODS: Standard scoping review methodology was used to identify studies that evaluated technologies or strategies designed to support people with sensory impairment with independent medicine management. Electronic databases were searched (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, ACM, Cochrane) from inception to 18/07/22. Independent duplicate screening, selection, and data extraction were undertaken. RESULTS: Of 1231 publications identified, 18 were included, reporting 17 studies, 16 of which evaluated technologies to assist people with visual impairment and one study to assist people with hearing impairment. The range of technologies and devices included: applications for android phones (n = 6); eyedrop-assistance devices (n = 5); audio-prescription labelling/reading systems (n = 2); touch-to-speech devices (n = 2); continuous glucose monitoring system (n = 1); magnifying technology (n = 1). Ten studies tested early-stage prototypes. Most participants could operate the technologies effectively and deemed them to be useful. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the increasing number of medicine-related assistive technologies, there has been limited empirical evaluation of their effectiveness for supporting individuals with sensory impairment. Prototypes appear to be useful for people with visual or hearing impairment, however wider 'real-life' testing is needed to confirm the benefits of these technologies.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Tecnologia Assistiva , Baixa Visão , Humanos , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso , Glicemia , Audição
17.
Front Neurosci ; 17: 1158438, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37332868

RESUMO

We developed the TechArm system as a novel technological tool intended for visual rehabilitation settings. The system is designed to provide a quantitative assessment of the stage of development of perceptual and functional skills that are normally vision-dependent, and to be integrated in customized training protocols. Indeed, the system can provide uni- and multisensory stimulation, allowing visually impaired people to train their capability of correctly interpreting non-visual cues from the environment. Importantly, the TechArm is suitable to be used by very young children, when the rehabilitative potential is maximal. In the present work, we validated the TechArm system on a pediatric population of low-vision, blind, and sighted children. In particular, four TechArm units were used to deliver uni- (audio or tactile) or multi-sensory stimulation (audio-tactile) on the participant's arm, and subject was asked to evaluate the number of active units. Results showed no significant difference among groups (normal or impaired vision). Overall, we observed the best performance in tactile condition, while auditory accuracy was around chance level. Also, we found that the audio-tactile condition is better than the audio condition alone, suggesting that multisensory stimulation is beneficial when perceptual accuracy and precision are low. Interestingly, we observed that for low-vision children the accuracy in audio condition improved proportionally to the severity of the visual impairment. Our findings confirmed the TechArm system's effectiveness in assessing perceptual competencies in sighted and visually impaired children, and its potential to be used to develop personalized rehabilitation programs for people with visual and sensory impairments.

18.
J Clin Med ; 12(10)2023 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37240481

RESUMO

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) causes severe vision impairments, including blindness. An option to improve vision in AMD patients is through intraocular lenses and optics. Among others, implantable miniaturized telescopes, which direct light to healthy lateral regions of the retina, can be highly effective in improving vision in AMD patients. Yet, the quality of the restored vision might be sensitive to the optical transmission and aberrations of the telescope. To shed light on these points, we studied the in vitro optical performance of an implantable miniaturized telescope, namely, the SING IMT™ (Samsara Vision Ltd., Far Hills, NJ, USA) designed to improve vision in patients affected by late-stage AMD. Specifically, we measured the optical transmission in the spectral range 350-750 nm of the implantable telescope with a fiber-optic spectrometer. Wavefront aberrations were studied by measuring the wavefront of a laser beam after passing through the telescope and expanding the measured wavefront into a Zernike polynomial basis. Wavefront concavity indicated that the SING IMT™ behaves as a diverging lens with a focal length of -111 mm. The device exhibited even optical transmission in the whole visible spectrum and effective curvature suitable for retinal images magnification with negligible geometrical aberrations. Optical spectrometry and in vitro wavefront analysis provide evidence supporting the feasibility of miniaturized telescopes as high-quality optical elements and a favorable option for AMD visual impairment treatments.

19.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1119540, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36926177

RESUMO

Background: There is growing awareness of the health inequalities experienced by minority ethnic communities, who make up an increasing proportion of the United Kingdom (UK) population and have been found to be at increased risk of visual impairment (V.I.). V.I. impacts on a wide range of life domains including employment, social functioning and activities of daily living. Considering existing health inequalities, the increased risk of V.I. and its wide-ranging impact, it is important to understand the experiences of adults from minority ethnic communities living with V.I. in the UK. Methods: A rapid evidence review of academic and gray literature published since 2005 and in English was performed. A search of AMED, CINAHL Plus and MEDLINE via EBSCOhost identified 969 articles. Articles were included in the review if they reported findings relating to the UK-context, to adults from minority ethnic communities living with V.I., and to experiences of V.I. and the eyecare pathway. Results: A total of 11 academic articles and 4 charity reports presented findings relating to perceptions of V.I. and eye disease (n = 3), access to services and service use (n = 5), impact of interventions (n = 7), the wider impact of V.I. (n = 2), and registration status (n = 1). Much of the literature focused on primary eyecare resulting in a comprehensive list of barriers and recommendations to increase eye tests. Less research addressed experiences and use of services further along the eyecare pathway although use of services may be low. Overall, the research on the experiences of adults with V.I. from minority ethnic communities in the UK remains anecdotal, outdated or unavailable. There are substantial gaps in the evidence relating to the wider impact of V.I., the impact of perceptions of V.I., and the use of services beyond primary eyecare. Conclusions: This review summarizes our current knowledge of the experiences of adults from minority ethnic communities living with V.I. in the UK and highlights substantial gaps in the evidence. The findings provide practical implications for practitioners and researchers committed to addressing health inequalities in the field of eyecare in the UK.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Etnicidade , Adulto , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Reino Unido
20.
JMIR Rehabil Assist Technol ; 10: e44239, 2023 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36961483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with motor, visual, and intellectual disabilities may have serious problems in independently accessing various forms of functional daily occupation and communication. OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed at developing and assessing new, low-cost technology-aided programs to help people with motor or visual-motor and intellectual disabilities independently engage in functional forms of occupation and communication with distant partners. METHODS: Two programs were set up using a smartphone interfaced with a 2-switch device and a tablet interfaced with 2 pressure sensors, respectively. Single-subject research designs were used to assess (1) the first program with 2 participants who were blind, had moderate hand control, and were interested in communicating with distant partners through voice messages; and (2) the second program with 2 participants who possessed functional vision, had no or poor hand control, and were interested in communicating with their partners through video calls. Both programs also supported 2 forms of occupational engagement, that is, choosing and accessing preferred leisure events consisting of songs and music videos, and listening to brief stories about relevant daily topics and answering questions related to those stories. RESULTS: During the baseline phase (when only a conventional smartphone or tablet was available), 2 participants managed sporadic access to leisure or leisure and communication events. The other 2 participants did not show any independent leisure or communication engagement. During the intervention (when the technology-aided programs were used), all participants managed to independently engage in multiple leisure and communication events throughout the sessions and to listen to stories and answer story-related questions. CONCLUSIONS: The findings, which need to be interpreted with caution given the nature of the study and the small number of participants, seem to suggest that the new programs may be viable tools for helping people with motor or visual-motor and intellectual disabilities independently access leisure, communication, and other forms of functional engagement.

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